Many emergency safety problems are connected to detection of risk zones. It is not enough only to display on a map sources of risk and protected objects. The correct prediction of dangerous directions and areas is necessary. However, the traditional mathematical methods do not always suit this purpose. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are the most appropriate tool to solve these problems. The main aims of the chapter are to solve three typical problems from practice of work civil defense and emergency rescue service and to generalize the used approach as a new kind of modeling—the mathematical-cartographic modeling.