In the network localization problem the goal is to determine the location of all nodes by using only partial information on the pairwise distances (and by computing the exact location of some nodes, called anchors). The network is said to be uniquely localizable if there is a unique set of locations consistent with the given data. Recent results from graph theory and combinatorial rigidity made it possible to characterize uniquely localizable networks in two dimensions. Based on these developments, extensions, related optimization problems, algorithms, and constructions also became tractable. This chapter gives a detailed survey of these new results from the graph theorist’s viewpoint.