Ad Hoc Networks Testbed Using a Practice Smart Antenna with IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Modules

Ad Hoc Networks Testbed Using a Practice Smart Antenna with IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Modules

Masahiro Watanabe (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan), Sadao Obana (ATR Adaptive Communications Research Laboratories, Japan) and Takashi Watanabe (Shizuoka University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-988-5.ch023
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Abstract

Recent studies on directional media access protocols (MACs) using smart antennas for wireless ad hoc networks have shown that directional MACs outperform against traditional omini-directional MACs. Those studies evaluate the performance mainly on simulations, where antenna beam is assumed to be ideal, i.e., with neither side-lobes nor back-lobes. Propagation conditions are also assumed to be mathematical model without realistic fading. In this paper, we develop at first a testbed for directional MAC protocols which enables to investigate performance of MAC protocols in the real environment. It incorporates ESPAR as a practical smart antenna, IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee, GPS and gyro modules to allow easy installment of different MAC protocols. To our knowledge, it is the first compact testbed with a practical smart antenna for directional MACs. We implement a directional MAC protocol called SWAMP to evaluate it in the real environment. The empirical discussion based on the experimental results shows that the degradation of the protocol with ideal antennas, and that the protocol still achieves the SDMA effect of spatial reuse and the effect of communication range extension.
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Background

Directional MAC Protocols

Various MAC protocols using smart antennas or directional antennas, typically referred to as directional MAC protocols, have been proposed for ad hoc networks.

Ko et al. (2000) propose DMAC (Directional MAC) in which all frames are transmitted directionally except for the CTS (Clear To Send). Choudhury et al. (2002) propose MMAC (Multi-hop RTS MAC), which involves the multi-hop RTS (Request To Send) to take advantage of the higher gain obtained by directional antennas. These protocols, however, need various additional mechanisms to provide the location information and to forward the RTS.

In (Fahmy, 2002; Nasipuri, 2002) and (Takai, 2002), RTS is transmitted omni-directionally in order to find the receiver in case location information is not available. Each node estimates the direction of neighboring nodes for pointing the beam with AOA (Angle of Arrival) when it hears any signal. Because these protocols employ at least one omni-directional transmission, it limits the coverage area provided by directional transmissions and do not exploit one of the main benefits of directional antennas, i.e., the increase of the transmission range, either.

Ramanathan (2001) proposes circular directional transmission of periodic hello packets to obtain node information that is located farther away than the omni-directional transmission range. Korakis et al. (2003) proposes circular RTS, which scans all the area around the transmitter to find the addressed receiver and to tackle the deafness and the hidden-terminal problem arisen from directional transmissions. Bandyopadhyay et al. (2001) develops additional frames in order to determine the neighbor topology by recording the angle and signal strength under consideration of propagation conditions. Although these schemes attempt communication range extension, circular transmission increases the delay and incurs large control overhead.

In mobile ad hoc evaluation, Ramanathan (2005) shows a directional MAC testbed and simulation results, but not including actual experimental results. Although Nishida (2005) evaluated AODV (Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector routing) protocol based on IEEE802.11b DCF with omni-directional antennas in the experiment, not used directional antennas.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Jack H. Winters
Acknowledgment
Chen Sun, Jun Cheng, Takashi Ohira
Chapter 1
Constantin Siriteanu, Steven D. Blostein
This chapter unifies the principles and analyses of conventional signal processing algorithms for receive-side smart antennas, and compares their... Sample PDF
Eigencombining: A Unified Approach to Antenna Array Signal Processing
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Chapter 2
Zhu Liang Yu, Meng Hwa Er, Wee Ser, Chen Huawei
In this chapter, we first review the background, basic principle and structure of adaptive beamformers. Since there are many robust adaptive... Sample PDF
Robust Adaptive Beamforming
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Chapter 3
Sheng Chen
Adaptive beamforming is capable of separating user signals transmitted on the same carrier frequency, and thus provides a practical means of... Sample PDF
Adaptive Beamforming Assisted ReceiverAdaptive Beamforming
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Chapter 4
Thomas Hunziker
Many common adaptive beamforming methods are based on a sample matrix inversion (SMI). The schemes can be applied in two ways. The sample covariance... Sample PDF
On the Employment of SMI Beamforming for Cochannel Interference Mitigation in Digital Radio
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Chapter 5
Hideki Ochiai, Patrick Mitran, H. Vincent Poor, Vahid Tarokh
In wireless sensor networks, the sensor nodes are often randomly situated, and each node is likely to be equipped with a single antenna. If these... Sample PDF
Random Array Theory and Collaborative Beamforming
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Chapter 6
W. H. Chin, C. Yuen
Space-time block coding is a way of introducing multiplexing and diversity gain in wireless systems equipped with multiple antennas. There are... Sample PDF
Advanced Space-Time Block Codes and Low Complexity Near Optimal Detection for Future Wireless Networks
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Chapter 7
Xiang-Gen Xia, Genyuan Wang, Pingyi Fan
Modulated codes (MC) are error correction codes (ECC) defined on the complex field and therefore can be naturally combined with an intersymbol... Sample PDF
Space-Time Modulated Codes for MIMO Channels with Memory
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Chapter 8
Javier Vía, Ignacio Santamaría, Jesús Ibáñez
This chapter analyzes the problem of blind channel estimation under Space-Time Block Coded transmissions. In particular, a new blind channel... Sample PDF
Blind Channel Estimation in Space-Time Block Coded Systems
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Chapter 9
Chen Sun, Takashi Ohira, Makoto Taromaru, Nemai Chandra Karmakar, Akifumi Hirata
In this chapter, we describe a compact array antenna. Beamforming is achieved by tuning the load reactances at parasitic elements surrounding the... Sample PDF
Fast Beamforming of Compact Array Antenna
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Chapter 10
Eddy Taillefer, Jun Cheng, Takashi Ohira
This chapter presents direction of arrival (DoA) estimation with a compact array antenna using methods based on reactance switching. The compact... Sample PDF
Direction of Arrival Estimation with Compact Array Antennas: A Reactance Switching Approach
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Chapter 11
Santana Burintramart, Nuri Yilmazer, Tapan K. Sarkar, Magdalena Salazar-Palma
This chapter presents a concern regarding the nature of wireless communications using multiple antennas. Multi-antenna systems are mainly developed... Sample PDF
Physics of Multi-Antenna Communication Systems
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Chapter 12
MIMO Beamforming  (pages 240-263)
Qinghua Li, Xintian Eddie Lin, Jianzhong ("Charlie") Zhang
Transmit beamforming improves the performance of multiple-input multiple-output antenna system (MIMO) by exploiting channel state information (CSI)... Sample PDF
MIMO Beamforming
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Chapter 13
Biljana Badic, Jinho Choi
This chapter introduces joint beamforming (or precoding) and space-time coding for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels. First, we explain... Sample PDF
Joint Beamforming and Space-Time Coding for MIMO Channels
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Chapter 14
Zhendong Zhou, Branka Vucetic
This chapter introduces the adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) as a practical means of approaching the high spectral efficiency theoretically... Sample PDF
Adaptive MIMO Systems with High Spectral Efficiency
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Chapter 15
Joakim Jaldén, Björn Ottersten
This chapter takes a closer look at a class of MIMO detention methods, collectively referred to as relaxation detectors. These detectors provide... Sample PDF
Detection Based on Relaxation in MIMO Systems
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Chapter 16
Wolfgang Utschick, Pedro Tejera, Christian Guthy, Gerhard Bauch
This chapter discusses four different optimization problems of practical importance for transmission in point to multipoint networks with a multiple... Sample PDF
Transmission in MIMO OFDM Point to Multipoint Networks
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Chapter 17
Salman Durrani, Marek E. Bialkowski
This chapter discusses the use of smart antennas in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. First, we give a brief overview of smart antenna... Sample PDF
Smart Antennas for Code Division Multiple Access Systems
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Chapter 18
Aimin Sang, Guosen Yue, Xiaodong Wang, Mohammad Madihian
In this chapter, we consider a cellular downlink packet data system employing the space-time block coded (STBC) multiple- input-multiple-output... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Performance of Scheduling and Power Control Schemes in Space-Time Block Coded Downlink Packet Systems
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Chapter 19
Yimin Zhang, Xin Li, Moeness G. Amin
This chapter introduces the concept of multi-beam antenna (MBA) in mobile ad hoc networks and the recent advances in the research relevant to this... Sample PDF
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Exploiting Multi-Beam Antennas
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Chapter 20
Toru Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Aono
The technology of generating and sharing the key as the representative application of smart antennas is introduced. This scheme is based on the... Sample PDF
Key Generation System Using Smart Antenna
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Chapter 21
Nemai Chandra Karmakar
Various smart antennas developed for automatic radio frequency identification (RFID) readers are presented. The main smart antennas types of RFID... Sample PDF
Smart Antennas for Automatic Radio Frequency Identification Readers
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Chapter 22
Konstanty Bialkowski, Adam Postula, Amin Abbosh, Marek Bialkowski
This chapter introduces the concept of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication system and the necessity to use a testbed to... Sample PDF
Field Programmable Gate Array Based Testbed for Investigating Multiple Input Multiple Output Signal Transmission in Indoor Environments
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Chapter 23
Masahiro Watanabe, Sadao Obana, Takashi Watanabe
Recent studies on directional media access protocols (MACs) using smart antennas for wireless ad hoc networks have shown that directional MACs... Sample PDF
Ad Hoc Networks Testbed Using a Practice Smart Antenna with IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Modules
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Chapter 24
Monthippa Uthansakul, Marek E. Bialkowski
This chapter introduces the alternative approach for wideband smart antenna in which the use of tapped-delay lines and frequency filters are... Sample PDF
Wideband Smart Antenna Avoiding Tapped-Delay Lines and Filters
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Chapter 25
Jun Cheng, Eddy Taillefer, Takashi Ohira
Three working modes, omni-, sector and adaptive modes, for a compact array antenna are introduced. The compact array antenna is an electronically... Sample PDF
Omni-, Sector, and Adaptive Modes of Compact Array Antenna
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