An Immune Inspired Algorithm for Learning Strategies in a Pursuit-Evasion Game

An Immune Inspired Algorithm for Learning Strategies in a Pursuit-Evasion Game

Malgorzata Lucinska (Kielce University of Technology, Poland) and Slawomir T. Wierzchon (Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland & University of Gdansk, Poland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-310-4.ch004
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Abstract

Multi-agent systems (MAS), consist of a number of autonomous agents, which interact with one-another. To make such interactions successful, they will require the ability to cooperate, coordinate, and negotiate with each other. From a theoretical point of view such systems require a hybrid approach involving game theory, artificial intelligence, and distributed programming. On the other hand, biology offers a number of inspirations showing how these interactions are effectively realized in real world situations. Swarm organizations, like ant colonies or bird flocks, provide a spectrum of metaphors offering interesting models of collective problem solving. Immune system, involving complex relationships among antigens and antibodies, is another example of a multi-agent and swarm system. In this chapter an application of so-called clonal selection algorithm, inspired by the real mechanism of immune response, is proposed to solve the problem of learning strategies in the pursuit-evasion problem.
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Background

In order to concentrate on the immune and game theoretic techniques, the rest of the chapter will focus on one class of the multi-agent encounters, i.e. pursuit-evasion problems. They are among the most widespread, challenging, and important multi-agent scenarios and represent some of the most significant potential applications for robots and other artificial autonomous agents. In a typical contest of this sort, one or more pursuers chase one or more evaders around until all preys are captured. Models in which pursuit-evasion problems are examined differ in: environment, number of players, agents’ limitations, definition of capture, optimality criterion, space structure etc. (Isler, Kannan, & Khanna, 2004). Various aspects of pursuit-evasion as well as extensive bibliography on this subject can be found in (Sheppard, 1996).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Stochastic Game: A game, where at any point in time the game is in some state. The game transitions to a new state depend on a stochastic function of the previous state and the interactions among the agents

Directed Mutation: A process that is aimed at creating cells with particular features rather then a random set of cells. First the best cell (in terms of interaction strength with the present antigen) is found and afterwards cells with similar features are created.

Repeated Game: A game consisting of a series of interactions among two or more players. After each interaction players may receive some payoff. Unlike a game played once, a repeated game allows for a strategy to be contingent on past moves

Multi-Agent System: A system consisting of many agents, who can perform tasks individually or co-operate in order to achieve a system goal. A very important factor in such systems are agents’ interaction.Agents’ limitations - anything that prevent agents from acting optimally, e.g. limited perception, limited speed

On-Line Learning: A process, in which a system learns and acts simultaneously

Pursuit-Evasion Game: A game in which, predators, or pursuers, chase preys (evaders) around until the preys are captured. Solution constitutes chasing agents’ optimal strategy, which guarantees execution of their task

Agent: An entity, that perceives its environment and acts upon it in order to realize a given set of goals or tasks

Adaptability: The ability to cope with internal or external changes or to adjust itself to dynamic environments or unexpected events.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Lipo Wang
Preface
Hongwei Mo
Chapter 1
Fabio Freschi, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Maurizio Repetto
This chapter aims to review the state of the art in algorithms of multiobjective optimization with artificial immune systems (MOAIS). As it will be... Sample PDF
Multiobjective Optimization and Artificial Immune Systems: A Review
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Chapter 2
Jun Chen, Mahdi Mahfouf
The primary objective of this chapter is to introduce Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) as a relatively new bio-inspired optimization technique and to... Sample PDF
Artificial Immune Systems as a Bio-Inspired Optimization Technique and Its Engineering Applications
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Chapter 3
Licheng Jiao, Maoguo Gong, Wenping Ma
Many immue-inspired algorithms are based on the abstractions of one or several immunology theories, such as clonal selection, negative selection... Sample PDF
An Artificial Immune Dynamical System for Optimization
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Chapter 4
Malgorzata Lucinska, Slawomir T. Wierzchon
Multi-agent systems (MAS), consist of a number of autonomous agents, which interact with one-another. To make such interactions successful, they... Sample PDF
An Immune Inspired Algorithm for Learning Strategies in a Pursuit-Evasion Game
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Chapter 5
Luis Fernando Niño Vasquez, Fredy Fernando Muñoz Mopan, Camilo Eduardo Prieto Salazar, José Guillermo Guarnizo Marín
Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) have been widely used in different fields such as robotics, computer science, and multi-agent systems with high... Sample PDF
Applications of Artificial Immune Systems in Agents
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Chapter 6
Xingquan Zuo
Inspired from the robust control principle, a robust scheduling method is proposed to solve uncertain scheduling problems. The uncertain scheduling... Sample PDF
An Immune Algorithm Based Robust Scheduling Methods
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Chapter 7
Fabio Freschi, Maurizio Repetto
The increasing cost of energy and the introduction of micro-generation facilities and the changes in energy production systems require new... Sample PDF
Artificial Immune System in the Management of Complex Small Scale Cogeneration Systems
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Chapter 8
Krzysztof Ciesielski, Mieczyslaw A. Klopotek, Slawomir T. Wierzchon
In this chapter the authors discuss an application of an immune-based algorithm for extraction and visualization of clusters structure in large... Sample PDF
Applying the Immunological Network Concept to Clustering Document Collections
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Chapter 9
Xiangrong Zhang, Fang Liu
The problem of feature selection is fundamental in various tasks like classification, data mining, image processing, conceptual learning, and so on.... Sample PDF
Feature Selection Based on Clonal Selection Algorithm: Evaluation and Application
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Chapter 10
Yong-Sheng Ding, Xiang-Feng Zhang, Li-Hong Ren
Future Internet should be capable of extensibility, survivability, mobility, and adaptability to the changes of different users and network... Sample PDF
Immune Based Bio-Network Architecture and its Simulation Platform for Future Internet
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Chapter 11
Tao Gong
Static Web immune system is an important applicatiion of artificial immune system, and it is also a good platform to develop new immune computing... Sample PDF
A Static Web Immune System and Its Robustness Analysis
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Chapter 12
Alexander O. Tarakanov
Based on mathematical models of immunocomputing, this chapter describes an approach to spatio-temporal forecast (STF) by intelligent signal... Sample PDF
Immunocomputing for Spatio-Temporal Forecast
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Chapter 13
Fu Dongmei
In engineering application, the characteristics of the control system are entirely determined by the system controller once the controlled object... Sample PDF
Research of Immune Controllers
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Chapter 14
Xiaojun Bi
In fact, image segmentation can be regarded as a constrained optimization problem, and a series of optimization strategies can be used to complete... Sample PDF
Immune Programming Applications in Image Segmentation
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Chapter 15
Xin Wang, Wenjian Luo, Zhifang Li, Xufa Wang
A hardware immune system for the error detection of MC8051 IP core is designed in this chapter. The binary string to be detected by the hardware... Sample PDF
A Hardware Immune System for MC8051 IP Core
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Chapter 16
Mark Burgin, Eugene Eberbach
There are different models of evolutionary computations: genetic algorithms, genetic programming, etc. This chapter presents mathematical... Sample PDF
On Foundations of Evolutionary Computation: An Evolutionary Automata Approach
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Chapter 17
Terrence P. Fries
Path planning is an essential component in the control software for an autonomous mobile robot. Evolutionary strategies are employed to determine... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Path Planning for Robot Navigation Under Varying Terrain Conditions
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Chapter 18
Konstantinos Konstantinidis, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis, Ioannis Andreadis
The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with a Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system which incorporates AI through ant colony... Sample PDF
Ant Colony Optimization for Use in Content Based Image Retrieval
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Chapter 19
Miroslav Bursa, Lenka Lhotska
The chapter concentrates on the use of swarm intelligence in data mining. It focuses on the problem of medical data clustering. Clustering is a... Sample PDF
Ant Colonies and Data Mining
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Chapter 20
Bo-Suk Yang
This chapter describes a hybrid artificial life optimization algorithm (ALRT) based on emergent colonization to compute the solutions of global... Sample PDF
Artificial Life Optimization Algorithm and Applications
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Chapter 21
Martin Macaš, Lenka Lhotská
A novel binary optimization technique is introduced called Social Impact Theory based Optimizer (SITO), which is based on social psychology model of... Sample PDF
Optimizing Society: The Social Impact Theory Based Optimizer
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Chapter 22
James F. Peters, Shabnam Shahfar
The problem considered in this chapter is how to use the observed behavior of organisms as a basis for machine learning. The proposed approach for... Sample PDF
Ethology-Based Approximate Adaptive Learning: A Near Set Approach
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Chapter 23
Dingju Zhu
Parallel computing is more and more important for science and engineering, but it is not used so widely as serial computing. People are used to... Sample PDF
Nature Inspired Parallel Computing
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Chapter 24
Tang Mo, Wang Kejun, Zhang Jianmin, Zheng Liying
An understanding of the human brain’s local function has improved in recent years. But the cognition of human brain’s working process as a whole is... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Chaotic Neural Networks
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About the Contributors