Information Security at Large Public Displays

Information Security at Large Public Displays

Carsten Röcker (University of California, San Diego, USA), Carsten Magerkurth (SAP Research, CEC St. Gallen, Switzerland) and Steve Hinske (Institute for Pervasive Computing, ETH Zürich, Switzerland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-132-2.ch028
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Abstract

In this chapter we present a novel concept for personalized privacy support on large public displays. In the first step, two formative evaluations are conducted in order to analyze the requirements of potential users regarding the protection of private information on large public displays. The insights gained in these evaluations are used to design a system that automatically adapts the information visible on public displays according to the current social situation and the individual privacy preferences of the user working on the display. In a third evaluation, the developed system is evaluated regarding its appropriateness for daily usage and its usefulness to protect privacy. The results of the evaluation show that users are in general willing to trust system-based protection mechanisms, provided that they are well implemented. In this context, the proposed combination of pre-defined privacy profiles and context-adapted information visualization proved to be a good trade-off between usability and adequate privacy protection.
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2. Formative Evaluation Of User Requirements

In order to provide trusted mechanisms for privacy protection, it is most crucial to involve potential users in the design process right away from the beginning. Therefore, the requirements of potential users regarding privacy and security issues in multi-user situations were analyzed in two questionnaire-based evaluations.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Smart Artifacts: The notion of ‘Smart Artifacts’ describes technology-enhanced everyday objects, which are equipped with sensors, memory and communication capabilities (see, e.g., Ferguson, 2003 or Gellersen et al., 2000). Hence, they are able to capture information about their surrounding, communicate with each other and react according to previously defined rules (Schoch and Strassner, 2003). Through the capability to interact with humans directly, they can help users to accomplish their tasks in new, intuitive ways (Bohn et al., 2004; 2005). The terms ‘Smart Objects’ and ‘Intelligent Objects’ are synonymously used and describe the same underlying concepts.

Informational Privacy: The term privacy dates back to 1450 (see Feith, 2003) and is constantly adjusted to the needs of a changing society. In its original meaning, the term privacy referred to a state of ‘being apart or belonging to oneself’, in contrast to belonging to the state. When the term privacy is used today, especially in relation with information and communication technology, it usually refers to the concept of informational privacy. One of the most popular definitions is probably the one by Westin (1967), who defined privacy as ‘the claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extend information about them is communicated to others’. In this context, the term informational privacy refers to all data about a person, in general everything other people know about a person, and especially includes individual-related data (von Locquenghien, 2006).

Smart Environments: Based on the initial idea of Ubiquitous Computing (Weiser, 1991), the concept of ‘Smart Environments’ envisions a future, where a multitude of computers are seamlessly embedded into everyday objects of the physical world. In this sense, Cook and Das (2004) define a smart environment as “a small world, where all kinds of smart devices are continuously working to make inhabitants’ lives more comfortable”.

Radio Frequency Identification: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a generic term, describing systems which use radio or electromagnetic propagation for contactless identification of tagged objects. RFID systems usually consist of three components: a transponder containing information, an antenna, used to transmit the signals between the reader and the transponder, and a reader that receives data from a transponder and passes the data to a host system for processing.

Ubiquitous Computing: The vision of ‘Ubiquitous Computing’ was first formulated by Weiser (1991), who argues, that computers should be integrated into the physical environment, and hence be effectively invisible to the user, rather than distinct objects on the desktop. Weiser envisioned the omnipresence of tiny, wirelessly interconnected computers, which are embedded into just about any kind of everyday object (Mattern, 2002). Regarding the interaction with ubiquitous computing applications, the user is not necessarily part of each transaction, instead he controls the system from the outside (Tennenhouse, 2000).

Pervasive Computing: The concept of ‘Pervasive Computing’ is very similar to the one of Ubiquitous Computing. But while the term Ubiquitous Computing is mainly used in the academic domain, the notion of Pervasive Computing is mainly used in industry (see, e.g., Burkhardt et al., 2001 or Hansmann et al., 2003). The term was originally coined by IBM and refers to a shift in corporate computing systems (Friedewald et al., 2006). The only difference of both visions is their temporal scope. While Ubiquitous Computing envisions the omnipresent usage of computer-enhanced everyday objects, the focus of Pervasive Computing is on available respectively emerging technologies, like, e.g. mobile commerce applications or web-based business processes (Mattern, 2005).

Proactive Computing: The vision of ‘Proactive Computing’ (Tennenhouse, 2000) goes even beyond those of Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing. It anticipates future environments, in which networked computers proactively anticipate our needs and, sometimes, take actions on our behalf.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
John Walp
Preface
Manish Gupta, Raj Sharman
Chapter 1
C. Warren Axelrod
This chapter examines the impact of catastrophes on information security and suggests who might have responsibility for maintaining an appropriate... Sample PDF
Responsibilities and Liabilities with Respect to Catastrophes
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Chapter 2
David Porter
This chapter discusses the latest developments in the shifting threat landscape and their impact on the world of information security. It describes... Sample PDF
The Complex New World of Information Security
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Chapter 3
Ahmed Awad E. Ahmed
In recent years, many studies have highlighted the unprecedented growth in security threats from multiple and varied sources faced by corporate, as... Sample PDF
Employee Surveillance Based on Free Text Detection of Keystroke Dynamics
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Chapter 4
Arunabha Mukhopadhyay, Samir Chatterjee, Debashis Saha, Ambuj Mahanti, Samir K. Sadhukhan
An online business organization spends millions of dollars on firewalls, anti-virus, intrusion detection systems, digital signature, and encryption... Sample PDF
E-Risk Insurance Product Design: A Copula Based Bayesian Belief Network Model
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Chapter 5
Guoling Lao
E-commerce mode aggravates information asymmetry so that honesty-credit problems become more serious. This chapter discusses the honesty-credit... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Security and Honesty-Credit
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Chapter 6
Zhixiong Zhang, Xinwen Zhang, Ravi Sandhu
This chapter addresses the problem that traditional role-base access control (RBAC) models do not scale up well for modeling security policies... Sample PDF
Towards a Scalable Role and Organization Based Access Control Model with Decentralized Security Administration
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Chapter 7
Chandan Mazumdar
There has been an unprecedented thrust in employing Computers and Communication technologies in all walks of life. The systems enabled by... Sample PDF
Enterprise Information System Security: A Life-Cycle Approach
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Chapter 8
Peter O. Orondo
Most companies would agree that securing their information assets is worth some investment. It is thus plausible to assume that low levels of IT... Sample PDF
An Alternative Model of Information Security Investment
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Chapter 9
George O.M. Yee
The growth of the Internet is increasing the deployment of e-services in such areas as e-commerce, e-learning, and e-health. In parallel, the... Sample PDF
Avoiding Pitfalls in Policy-Based Privacy Management
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Chapter 10
Supriya Singh
Enabling customers to influence the way they are represented in the bank’s databases, is one of the major personalization, responsiveness, and... Sample PDF
Privacy and Banking in Australia
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Chapter 11
Madhusudhanan Chandrasekaran, Shambhu Upadhyaya
Phishing scams pose a serious threat to end-users and commercial institutions alike. E-mail continues to be the favorite vehicle to perpetrate such... Sample PDF
A Multistage Framework to Defend Against Phishing Attacks
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Chapter 12
Ghita Kouadri Mostefaoui, Patrick Brézillon
In recent years, the security research community has been very active in proposing different techniques and algorithms to face the proliferating... Sample PDF
A New Approach to Reducing Social Engineering Impact
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Chapter 13
Yang Wang
Privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), which constitute a wide array of technical means for protecting users’ privacy, have gained considerable... Sample PDF
Privacy-Enhancing Technologies
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Chapter 14
Douglas P. Twitchell
This chapter introduces and defines social engineering, a recognized threat to the security of information systems. It also introduces a taxonomy... Sample PDF
Social Engineering and its Countermeasures
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Chapter 15
Tom S. Chan
Social networking has become one of the most popular applications on the Internet since the burst of the dot-com bubble. Apart from being a haven... Sample PDF
Social Networking Site: Opportunities and Security Challenges
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Chapter 16
James W. Ragucci, Stefan A. Robila
Fraudulent e-mails, known as phishing attacks, have brought chaos across the digital world causing billions of dollars of damage. These attacks are... Sample PDF
Designing Antiphishing Education
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Chapter 17
Serkan Ada
This chapter discusses the recent theories used in information security research studies. The chapter initially introduces the importance of the... Sample PDF
Theories Used in Information Security Research: Survey and Agenda
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Chapter 18
Samuel Liles
Information assurance education is an interdisciplinary endeavor that only when taken as a holistic and inclusive educational activity can be... Sample PDF
Information Assurance and Security Curriculum Meeting the SIGITE Guidelines
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Chapter 19
Gary Hinson
This chapter highlights the broad range of factors that are relevant to the design of information security awareness programs, primarily by... Sample PDF
Information Security Awareness
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Chapter 20
Nick Pullman, Kevin Streff
Security training and awareness is often overlooked or not given sufficient focus in many organizations despite being a critical component of a... Sample PDF
Creating a Security Education, Training, and Awareness Program
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Chapter 21
E. Kritzinger, S.H von Solms
This chapter introduces information security within the educational environments that utilize electronic resources. The education environment... Sample PDF
Information Security Within an E-Learning Environment
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Chapter 22
Donald Murphy, Manish Gupta, H.R. Rao
We present five emerging areas in information security that are poised to bring the radical benefits to the information security practice and... Sample PDF
Research Notes on Emerging Areas of Conflict in Security
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Chapter 23
C. Orhan Orgun
This chapter develops a linguistically robust encryption system, LunabeL, which converts a message into syntactically and semantically innocuous... Sample PDF
The Human Attack in Linguistic Steganography
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Chapter 24
Sérgio Tenreiro de Magalhães, Kenneth Revett, Henrique M.D. Santos, Leonel Duarte dos Santos, André Oliveira, César Ariza
The traditional approach to security has been the use of passwords. They provide the system with a barrier to access what was quite safe in the... Sample PDF
Using Technology to Overcome the Password's Contradiction
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Chapter 25
Antonio Cerone
Reducing the likelihood of human error in the use of interactive systems is increasingly important. Human errors could not only hinder the correct... Sample PDF
Formal Analysis of Security in Interactive Systems
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Chapter 26
Tejaswini Herath
It is estimated that over 1 billion people now have access to the Internet. This unprecedented access and use of Internet by individuals around the... Sample PDF
Internet Crime: How Vulnerable Are You? Do Gender, Social Influence and Education play a Role in Vulnerability?
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Chapter 27
Jarrod Trevathan
Shill bidding is where spurious bids are introduced into an auction to drive up the final price for the seller, thereby defrauding legitimate... Sample PDF
Detecting Shill Bidding in Online English Auctions
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Chapter 28
Carsten Röcker, Carsten Magerkurth, Steve Hinske
In this chapter we present a novel concept for personalized privacy support on large public displays. In the first step, two formative evaluations... Sample PDF
Information Security at Large Public Displays
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Chapter 29
Yuko Murayama, Carl Hauser, Natsuko Hikage, Basabi Chakraborty
The sense of security, identified with the Japanese term, Anshin, is identified as an important contributor to emotional trust. This viewpoint... Sample PDF
The Sense of Security and Trust
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About the Contributors