Information Sharing Across Languages

Information Sharing Across Languages

Reinhard Schäler (University of Limerick, Ireland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-833-0.ch015
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Access to information and knowledge in one’s native language is a fundamental human right. It is a right deeply rooted in the legal systems of many Western nations where it is considered to be as important as access to healthcare or to other potentially life-saving services. While individuals often claim these rights for themselves, they do not always afford such rights to others, for there is often a cost involved in the realization of this right. This chapter highlights how denying this service, particularly as it relates to the translation and the localization of online materials, results in human costs including life threatening information poverty. This situation, in turn, requires urgent and coordinated relief efforts by industry, government, and civil societies on a global scale.
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Bridging the know-do gap is the foremost challenge and opportunity for public health in the 21st century. -Ariel Pablos Mendez, Rockefeller Foundation

Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek. -Barack Obama


A Growing Divide

The effect of this denial of service in certain languages is the so-called language barrier. In reality, there has never been a language barrier. Rather, there is an access barrier (i.e., access to translation and localization services). This access barrier is lowered for people living in affluent, commercially attractive target markets because companies wish to access such markets in order to sell products and services in them. For this reason, organizations are willing to undertake the cost of localization (which generally includes the associated costs of translation), for such localization provides access to these affluent markets. While Norway, for example, has only 4 million inhabitants, most multinational organizations undertake the cost of localizing for Norwegian audiences. Such costs are considered acceptable, for the related cultural audience has a relatively high income and can purchase a range of products.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Pavel Zemliansky
Kirk St.Amant
Kirk St.Amant, Sigrid Kelsey
Chapter 1
Sejung Marina Choi, Shu-Chuan Chu, Yoojung Kim
In today’s online environment, social networking sites (SNSs) flourish across the globe as an effective venue for social engagement. The objective... Sample PDF
Culture-Laden Social Engagement: A Comparative Study of Social Relationships in Social Networking Sites among American, Chinese and Korean Users
Chapter 2
Archana Krishnan
Indians use the Internet for a host of applications, and some of these uses are culture-specific, like formalized matrimonial searches. This chapter... Sample PDF
e-Matchmaker, e-Matchmaker, Make Me a Match: Indian Matrimonial Services in the Internet Age
Chapter 3
Melinda Jacobs
Within the Internet, a range of international and multicultural communities abound, especially within the context of interactive online games known... Sample PDF
Playing “Nice”: What Online Gaming Can Teach Us about Multiculturalism
Chapter 4
Bolanle A. Olaniran, Natasha Rodriguez, Indi M. Williams
The Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT) proposes that given time and opportunity to interact, relationships between individuals can form in... Sample PDF
Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT): A Cultural Perspective for International Online Communication Environments
Chapter 5
Jyh-An Lee
This chapter focuses on the Internet filtering mechanism the Chinese government adopted in order to prevent individual users from accessing foreign... Sample PDF
Filtering Online Content in China
Chapter 6
Marc Hermeking
The global diffusion of technology is increasingly accompanied by both computer-mediated and online communication. Several empirical examples for... Sample PDF
Culture, Online Technology and Computer-Mediated Technical Documentation: Contributions from the field of Intercultural Communication
Chapter 7
Tanfer Emin Tunc, Esin Sultan Oguz
This qualitative study examines the current status of Web 2.0 technologies in Turkey and focuses specifically on the use of such technologies by... Sample PDF
Communicating in the Age of Web 2.0: Social Networking Use among Academics in Turkey
Chapter 8
Ping Yang
This chapter reports the results of a study that employed phenomenological and dialectical perspectives to explore cultural differences in... Sample PDF
Knowing Through Asynchronous Time and Space: A Phenomenological Study of Cultural Differences in Online Interaction
Chapter 9
Sara Kamal, Shu-Chuan Chu
Social media use is quickly integrating into the daily lives of consumers in the Middle East, where a large number of users represent a variety of... Sample PDF
Cultural Differences in Social Media Usage and Beliefs and Attitudes towards Advertising on Social Media: Findings from Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Chapter 10
Rotimi Taiwo
This chapter examines how online fraudsters explore the experiential, interpersonal, and textual language metafunctions in the crafting of their... Sample PDF
Discursive Manipulation Strategies in Virtual Scams in Global Contexts
Chapter 11
Wengao Gong
In the last 15 years, China has witnessed the world’s fastest growth in terms of Internet infrastructure construction and number of Internet users.... Sample PDF
Government Monitoring of Online Media and its Influence on Netizens’ Language Use in China
Chapter 12
Andrew Mara, Miriam Mara
To address some of the technical writing pressures concomitant with globalization, this chapter investigates documentation solutions implemented by... Sample PDF
Irish Identification as Exigence: A Self-Service Case Study for Producing User Documentation in Online Contexts
Chapter 13
Kathryn Stam, Indira R. Guzman, Dennis Thoryk
Some websites, and the specific Web pages within them, are designed specifically to facilitate online communication across countries and cultures.... Sample PDF
Studying Online Communication Features on International and Cross-Cultural Web Pages Using Websphere Analysis Methodology
Chapter 14
Myongho Yi
Effective global information access is more critical now than ever before. The digital world where users have diverse languages and diverse cultural... Sample PDF
Minimizing Cultural Differences Using Ontology-Based Information Retrieval System
Chapter 15
Reinhard Schäler
Access to information and knowledge in one’s native language is a fundamental human right. It is a right deeply rooted in the legal systems of many... Sample PDF
Information Sharing Across Languages
Chapter 16
Jaffer Sheyholislami
This chapter presents the results of an empirical study (done using online ethnography and discourse analysis) of how the Kurds use the Internet. In... Sample PDF
Linguistic Minorities on the Internet
Chapter 17
Nicole St. Germaine-McDaniel
As health-information websites become more popular, healthcare corporations have worked quickly to create Spanish-language sites to reach the... Sample PDF
The Emerging Hispanic Use of Online Health Information in the United States: Cultural Convergence or Dissociation?
Chapter 18
Elaine J. Yuan
This chapter presents a discourse analysis of two bulletin board systems (BBS). The analysis was done to identify online linguistic practices within... Sample PDF
Language as Social Practice on the Chinese Internet
Chapter 19
Judith N. Martin, Pauline Hope Cheong
This chapter provides readers with foundational knowledge of how cultural factors mediate online learning and instruction in global education-based... Sample PDF
Cultural Considerations of Online Pedagogy
Chapter 20
Birthe Mousten, John Humbley, Bruce Maylath, Sonia Vandepitte
This chapter examines the interactive communications of geographically distant virtual classrooms, connected via virtual aids ranging from e-mails... Sample PDF
Communicating Pragmatics About Content and Culture in Virtually Mediated Educational Environments
Chapter 21
Madelyn Flammia
Global citizens are those individuals who understand the complex and interdependent nature of the world and who take action to address global issues... Sample PDF
Using the Cultural Challenges of Virtual Team Projects to Prepare Students for Global Citizenship
Chapter 22
Angela T. Ragusa, Emma Steinke
The general trend towards freely circulating capital, goods and services, coupled with changes in the openness of labour markets, has translated... Sample PDF
Studying Locally, Interacting Globally: Demographic Change and International Students in Australian Higher Education
Chapter 23
William Klein, Bernard E. La Berge
This chapter describes a case of Internet-mediated collaboration between writing classes in the U.S. and in Oman. In the chapter, the authors... Sample PDF
Computer Mediated Cross-Cultural Communication: Creating Cultural Exchange through Articulated Studies
Chapter 24
Chun-Min Wang, Jinn-Wei Tsao, Gretchen Bourdeau Thomas
The purpose of this chapter is to share a cross-cultural project between Taiwan and the United States for educational practitioners. Taking... Sample PDF
New Era, New Media, and New Strategies for Cross-Cultural Collaborative Learning
Chapter 25
Aimee L. Whiteside, Amy Garrett Dikkers
This chapter presents Whiteside’s (2007) Social Presence Model, course examples, and specific strategies and explains how such factors help... Sample PDF
Maximizing Multicultural Online Learning Experiences with the Social Presence Model, Course Examples, and Specific Strategies
Chapter 26
Anna M. Harrington
An increasing number of ESL/EFL students are expected to enroll in hybrid (i.e., mixed on-site and online) mainstream courses populated by a... Sample PDF
Language Abilities and Culture Clashes in Cyberspace: Potential Problems for ESL/EFL Students in Hybrid Mainstream Classes
Chapter 27
Pete Rive, Aukje Thomassen
Second Life is a popular virtual world that can provide us with valuable lessons about international collaboration and design innovation. This... Sample PDF
International Collaboration and Design Innovation in Virtual Worlds: Lessons from Second Life
Chapter 28
Barbara Heifferon
This chapter focuses on the theoretical preparation of students who design digital media for other cultural groups. Some designers of cross-cultural... Sample PDF
Immigration Reform: Re[forming] Theories and Cyber-Designs
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