Information Technology in Times of Crisis: Considering Knowledge Management for Disaster Management

Information Technology in Times of Crisis: Considering Knowledge Management for Disaster Management

Kalpana Shankar (Indiana University, USA), David J. Wild (Indiana University, USA), Jaesoon An (Indiana University, USA), Sam Shoulders (Indiana University, USA) and Sheetal Narayanan (Indiana University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-816-1.ch011
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Crisis and disaster management requires the sharing of complex information among numerous entities and individuals. Traditional knowledge management techniques are being used in government agencies responsible for disaster management, but many new technologies and practices, particularly the Internet and Web 2.0, are creating opportunities for individuals, responders, and trainers to share what they know and to acquire needed information, and prepare for the next crisis. However, the use of networked technologies, like the Internet, is still in its infancy, and the use of them diffuse, with very little cohesion among researchers and practitioners in disaster management. We argue that although the Internet is already in extensive use in disaster management, knowledge management will only be effected if top-down and bottoms-up approaches to information gathering, organization, and dissemination are implemented. The aim of this chapter is to provide an introduction to some of the many technologies, practices, and open problems for knowledge sharing in disaster situations, outline some persistent challenges, and suggest venues for exploration and practice.

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Giuseppe Zollo
Ettore Bolisani
Chapter 1
Shuhua Liu
Knowledge is one of the most important competitive resources a business can have. However, the failure of knowledge management initiatives in the... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing: Interactive Processes Between Organizational Knowledge-Sharing Initiative and Individuals' Sharing Practice
Chapter 2
Evangelia Siachou, Anthony Ioannidis
This chapter focuses on the extraction of accurate knowledge embedded in various Internet repositories, liable to frequent updates of content, and... Sample PDF
The Centrality of Team Leaders in Knowledge-Sharing Activities: Their Dual Role as Knowledge Processors
Chapter 3
Kerstin Siakas, Elli Georgiadou
In today’s competitive business environment, increasingly large numbers of organisations use virtual distributed teams in their operations. This... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing in Virtual and Networked Organisations in Different Organisational and National Cultures
Chapter 4
Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo
This chapter is concerned with the evolution of terminological ontologies used for representing personal knowledge. It first argues that each member... Sample PDF
Towards an Implicit and Collaborative Evolution of Terminological Ontologies
Chapter 5
Kimiz Dalkir
Computer-mediated communication has become the foremost means of sharing knowledge in today’s knowledge-based economy. However, not all... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Knowledge Sharing
Chapter 6
Ettore Bolisani
KM is making its way among the more established branches of business management. Thus, the contribution that can come from an “economic reading” of... Sample PDF
Understanding Knowledge Transfer on the Net: Useful Lessons from the Knowledge Economy
Chapter 7
Jengchung V. Chen, J. Michael Tarn, Muhammad A. Razi
This chapter explores the motivation of virtual community members in regards to knowledge sharing and understands the underlying factors of such... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Sharing Motivation in Virtual Communities
Chapter 8
Margarita Echeverri, Eileen G. Abels
Access to scientific information is considered a competitive advantage to foster knowledge, research, and development; improve quality of education;... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Obstacles to Narrow the Digital Divide: Sharing Scientific Knowledge on the Internet
Chapter 9
Molly Wasko, Samer Faraj
This study examines knowledge exchange in a worldwide, extra-organizational, Usenet-based electronic network of practice. Participation in such... Sample PDF
Knowledge Exchange in Electronic Networks of Practice: An Examination of Knowledge Types and Knowledge Flows
Chapter 10
Isa Jahnke
How do the Internet and new interactive Web-based tools, for example, wikis and discussion boards, affect people and their behavior in... Sample PDF
Knowledge Sharing Through Interactive Social Technologies: Development of Social Structures in Internet-Based Systems Over Time
Chapter 11
Kalpana Shankar, David J. Wild, Jaesoon An, Sam Shoulders, Sheetal Narayanan
Crisis and disaster management requires the sharing of complex information among numerous entities and individuals. Traditional knowledge management... Sample PDF
Information Technology in Times of Crisis: Considering Knowledge Management for Disaster Management
Chapter 12
Cécile Godé-Sanchez, Pierre Barbaroux
This chapter introduces a theoretical framework to study how Internet technologies provide organizations with additional capabilities to handle... Sample PDF
Managing Knowledge-Based Complexities Through Combined Uses of Internet Technologies
Chapter 13
Deogratias Harorimana
This chapter introduces the role of the knowledge gatekeeper as a mechanism by which knowledge is created and transferred in a networked... Sample PDF
Leading Firms as Knowledge Gatekeepers in a Networked Environment
Chapter 14
Enrico Scarso
This chapter discusses the role of online knowledge mediator, an entity that occupies an intermediate position in a knowledge transfer/exchange... Sample PDF
The Role of Knowledge Mediators in Virtual Environments
Chapter 15
Stavros T. Ponis, George Vagenas, Ilias P. Tatsiopoulos
The new globalized and demanding business environment of the 21st century has created a shift from traditional organizations to more loose and... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management in Virtual Enterprises: Supporting Frameworks and Enabling Web Technologies
Chapter 16
G. Scott Erickson, Helen N. Rothberg
As knowledge management (KM) practice increasingly moves onto the Internet, the field is changing. The Internet offers new opportunities to use... Sample PDF
Sharing and Protecting Knowledge: New Considerations for Digital Environments
Chapter 17
June Tolsby
How can three linguistical methods be used to identify the Web displays of an organization’s knowledge values and knowledge-sharing requirements?... Sample PDF
Identifying Knowledge Values and Knowledge Sharing Through Linguistic Methods: Application to Company Web Pages
About the Contributors