Interoperability in E-Government: Stages of Growth

Interoperability in E-Government: Stages of Growth

Petter Gottschalk (Norwegian School of Management, Norway) and Hans Solli-Sæther (Norwegian School of Management, Norway)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-240-4.ch004
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Abstract

Improved interoperability between public organizations as well as between public and private organizations is of critical importance to make electronic government more successful. In this chapter, stages of e-government interoperability are identified and discussed. Four stages are presented: work process stage, knowledge sharing stage, value creation stage, and strategy alignment stage.
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Interoperability

Interoperability is referring to a property of diverse systems and organizations enabling them to work together. When systems and organizations are able to inter-operate then information and services are provided and accepted between them. In a narrow sense, the term interoperability is often used to describe technical systems. In a broad sense, social, political, and organizational factors influencing systems and systems performance are also taken into account.

For example, new technologies are being introduced in hospitals and labs at an ever-increasing rate, and many of these innovations have the potential to interact synergistically if they can be integrated effectively. However, as pointed out by Eckman et al. (2007), the current health-care information exchange is inefficient and error-prone; it is largely paper-based in most countries, fragmented, and therefore overly complex, often relying on antiquated information technology.

At the same time, health care costs are rising dramatically. Errors in medical delivery are associated with an alarming number of preventable, often fatal adverse events. A promising strategy for reversing such a trend is to modernize and transform the health-care information exchange, that is, the mobilization of health-care information electronically across organizations within a region or community (Eckman et al., 2007).

However, in the case of hospitals, there are limitations to free flow of information. Information systems often handle sensitive information about individuals and other organizations. Collection and sharing of such information is affected by privacy concerns (Otjacques et al., 2007).

As electronic government refers to the delivery of government services (information, interaction and transaction) through the use of information technology, a distinction can be made between the front and back offices of public service delivery organizations. The interaction between citizens and civil servants occurs in the front office, while registration and other activities take place in the back office. Bekkers (2007) found that back-office co-operation is a serious bottleneck in e-government due to different interoperability problems.

One important action to improve information sharing is standardization in information systems. It is necessary to define the compatibility standards to be adopted among systems (Santos and Reinhard, 2007). Some organizations will have to change their technical and organizational processes and make accommodations in response to standardization initiatives (Gogan et al., 2007).

Interoperability of systems enables interoperability of organizations. Systems interoperability is concerned with the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged. Organizational interoperability is concerned with the ability of two or more units to provide services to and accept services from other units, and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together (Legner and Lebreton, 2007).

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
J. Satyanarayana
Preface
Susheel Chhabra, Muneesh Kumar
Acknowledgment
Susheel Chhabra, Muneesh Kumar
Chapter 1
Hai Thi Thanh Nguyen, Toshio Obi
The incorporation of e-business models into e-government applications is an additional approach in building the citizen-centric strategy. The value... Sample PDF
Government Transformation: The First Step to Integrate E-Business into E-Government
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Chapter 2
Vasiliki Moumtzi, Marios Chatzidimitriou, Adamantios Koumpis
Work reported in this chapter relates with work carried out in the context of the European IST Project SemanticGov (www.semantic-gov.org). The... Sample PDF
Collaborative E-Gov Networks: The Case of the Semantic-Gov Project
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Chapter 3
S. Siddharth, Rajat K. Baisya, Gupta
This case study examines the growth of e-governance in financial treasuries in India and examines the growth of computerization among treasuries... Sample PDF
Treasury Computerization in India: A Case Study
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Chapter 4
Petter Gottschalk, Hans Solli-Sæther
Improved interoperability between public organizations as well as between public and private organizations is of critical importance to make... Sample PDF
Interoperability in E-Government: Stages of Growth
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Chapter 5
Tagelsir Mohamed Gasmelseid
The adoption of e-government projects is growing both in scale and context across the world. While the implementation of such projects is increasing... Sample PDF
Towards an Organizationally Enabled E-Government Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 6
Tuyen Thanh Nguyen, Donald Elkin Schauder
This chapter explores preconditions for the successful development of e-government in Vietnam, particularly the readiness of the population to... Sample PDF
Understanding Citizens' E-Readiness as a Precondition to Building a Responsive E-Government: A Case Study of Vietnam1
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Chapter 7
Kalpana Chauhan, K. B.C. Saxena
Customer Relationship Management (CRM), primarily a concept of the private sector for its multi-benefit approach, is catching up fast in public... Sample PDF
CRM in E-Government: Issues and Challenges
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Chapter 8
Susana Berenice Vidrio Barón
Human Computer Interaction is a relatively new field. It has borrowed theories, techniques, and tools from such diverse disciplines such as computer... Sample PDF
Human-Computer Interaction: National Culture and Electronic Government Website Usability
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Chapter 9
Shefali Nandan
Successful implementation of e-government programs, policies, and effective service delivery to citizens is faced with many obstacles related to... Sample PDF
E-Government: Good Deliverance through Effective Performance Management
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Chapter 10
Jeffrey Roy
The emergence of the Internet has given rise to internal connectivity and external, online delivery as centrepieces of both the public and private... Sample PDF
The Governance of Integrated Service Delivery in Canada: An Examination of Service Canada's New Business Model
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Chapter 11
Sangeeta Sharma
The changing economic scenario is redefining the socio-cultural dynamics. The notional domains of conventional concepts are changing and therefore... Sample PDF
Breaking Mind Inertia for Humane Business through E-Governance
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Chapter 12
Peter Demediuk, Rolf Solli
Modern society will only reach its potential when citizens individually and collectively are able to use their knowledge and capabilities to shape... Sample PDF
E-Participation in Local Government Decision Making: Swedish and Australian Case Studies
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Chapter 13
Pauline Ratnasingam
E-government has gained a lot of attention and public interests of government, technology providers, and researchers. Despite the growing awareness... Sample PDF
The Role of Knowledge Management Security Requirements for E-Government
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Chapter 14
Sanjay Nayyar, Vinayshil Gautam, M. P. Gupta
The railroads sector in the developing countries like the other services sectors (i.e. electricity, post, and telegraphs, health, and transport) are... Sample PDF
A Study of Information Systems in Indian Railways with Specific Reference to Konkan Railway Application Package
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Chapter 15
Daniel Serrano, Antonio Maña, Gimena Pujol, David Donnan, Joseph Latanicki
University of Málaga, Spain; University of Málaga, Spain; University of Málaga, Spain; Thales Services – Theresis, France; Thales Services –... Sample PDF
Security Aware Development of E-Government Systems
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About the Contributors