Geographic information systems (GIS) refers to the computer hardware and software that supports the management and analysis of spatial information. There has been a recent increase in the development of Internet accessible GIS applications, called Web- GIS (Al-Kodmany, 2001; Carver, Evans, Kingston, & Turton, 2000). Web-GIS facilitates participation among stakeholders through disseminating user interfaces for storing, accessing, and analyzing spatial information using the Internet (Al-Kodmany, 2001; Carver et al., 2000; Dragicevic & Balram, 2004). Participatory and community GIS approaches focus on system design that supports collaboration among organizations serving and representing interests of many constituent groups, including nontechnical users (Carver, 2003; Craig, Harris, & Weiner, 2002; Drew, 2003; Elwood & Ghose, 2004; Elwood & Leitner, 2003; Ghose, 2005; Ghose& Elwood, 2003; Kyem, 2004; Seiber, 2003).
Key Terms in this Chapter
GIScience: The science associated with developing and advancing GIS and technologies.
Participatory GIS: A GIS that has been designed to involve multiple stakeholders and seeks to increase engagement in advocacy, planning and management processes among participating groups
Web-GIS: A GIS that is developed using Web resources disseminated through the Web, or involves Web-based communication
Geographic Information Systems (GIS): The computer hardware and software that supports the management and analysis of spatial information.
Spatial Data: Information that identifies the location of features in alignment with georeferencing systems, along with attributes qualifying that information
Geovisualization: The visual communication aspects of displaying spatial information.
Geocollaboration: The collaborative aspects of designing and using spatial information resources.