Land Evaluation - An Artificial Intelligence Approach

Land Evaluation - An Artificial Intelligence Approach

G. Tsoumakas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece) and I. Vlahavas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-930708-02-0.ch009
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Abstract

A major environmental concern of today’s scientists is the inefficient exploitation of natural resources. The land is the ultimate source of wealth and the foundation on which civilization is constructed. Inappropriate land use, leads to destruction of the land resource, poverty and other social problems, and even to the destruction of civilization. To avoid such phenomena, land evaluation is employed, for rational land use planning and appropriate and sustainable use of natural and human resources (Rossiter, 1994). The management of land use is an interdisciplinary activity that relies on large amounts of information from different sources. Land evaluators need to collect information from soil surveyors, climatologists and census takers on land resource. They also need the expert knowledge of soil scientists, agronomists and economists on land use. In addition, land evaluators must select and apply the most appropriate analytical methods to evaluate land qualities and to combine these into overall physical and/or economic suitability. This evaluation is then calibrated against expert judgement and related experience. Finally they must present the results of the evaluation with reports and maps. This output has to be dynamic, considering the continuous refinement of the whole land evaluation process. The above characteristics of land evaluation denote that the management of such a process definitely requires the support of computer systems, especially expert systems, remote sensing and image processing systems, and geographical information systems (GIS). Such systems exist, but they are usually stand-alone units, hence human intervention (land evaluators) for the flow of information from one system towards the other is indispensable. Therefore, integrated systems are highly desirable. The latest research and development trends in this area progressively encompass Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to a greater extent, in order to achieve an optimal performance in the analysis of the vast geographical data. Expert systems were included early on, in an effort to model the domain knowledge of land evaluation from experts. Now, such systems introduce fuzzy logic to cope with uncertainty within the data sources and the inference procedure. Machine learning techniques are also included to model the land evaluation procedures when expert knowledge is insufficient or even absent. In general, there exists an amount of both symbolic and non-symbolic AI techniques, which scientists are keen on combining and integrating with traditional land information systems. This chapter is structured as follows. An overview of three of the most used AI techniques in land evaluation problems is given. Following that, the next section introduces ISLE (Tsoumakas and Vlahavas, 1999), an Intelligent System for Land Evaluation that is designed as a framework for the integration of AI techniques with a geographical information system. The final section discusses conclusions and future trends in this field.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Claus Rautenstrauch, Susanne Patig
Chapter 1
Bernd Page, Claus Rautenstrauch
The protection of our environment remains one of the greatest challenges in industrialized societies. This challenge is addressing politics, economy... Sample PDF
Environmental Informatics - Methods, Tools and Applications in Environmental Information Processing
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Chapter 2
Patrick J. Ogao, Connie A. Blok
Measurements from dynamic environmental phenomena have resulted in the acquisition and generation of an enormous amount of data. This upsurge in... Sample PDF
Cognitive Aspects on the Representation of Dynamic Environmental Phenomena Using Animations
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Chapter 3
Eberhard Gulch
Sustainability and protection of the environment are requirements of high priority in our society. These tasks need an efficient monitoring of the... Sample PDF
3D Modelling of Urban Environment: Data Collection Techniques
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Chapter 4
Ubbo Visser, Heiner Stuckenschmidt, Holger Wache, Thomas Vogele
Environmental information systems have gained more importance both in the public administration and industry since the beginning of 1990. For... Sample PDF
Using Environmental Information Efficiently: Sharing Data and Knowledge from Heterogeneous Sources
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Chapter 5
Thomas Blaschke
Integrated ecological information systems are characterized by a broad range of thematic spatial data layers and a variety of specific application... Sample PDF
Environmental Monitoring and Management of Protected Areas through Integrated Ecological Information Systems - An EU Perspective
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Chapter 6
Gilbert Ahamer
This contribution presents four modelling frameworks that can be structured along their level of detail, their geographic coverage and their degree... Sample PDF
A Structured Basket of Models for Global Change
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Chapter 7
Goetz Wiegand, Volker Diegmann
FLADIS is an extendable software system integrated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) for displaying temporal and spatial distributions of... Sample PDF
FLADIS - A GIS Based System for Extending Air Pollution Point Data to Continuous Spatial Information
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Chapter 8
A. Van Rompaey, G. Govers
Soil erosion is regarded as a major and widespread soil degradation process. The consequences of soil erosion occur both on- and off-site. On-site... Sample PDF
Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Policy on Soil Erosion Risk: Possibilities and Constraints of Geographical Information Systems
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Chapter 9
G. Tsoumakas, I. Vlahavas
A major environmental concern of today’s scientists is the inefficient exploitation of natural resources. The land is the ultimate source of wealth... Sample PDF
Land Evaluation - An Artificial Intelligence Approach
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Chapter 10
Lorenz M. Hilty, Ruth Meyer, Thomas F. Ruddy
Traffic comprises a large and persistently growing share of resource consumption and environmental stress in modern economies. Even on our way... Sample PDF
A General Modelling and Simulation System for Sustainability Impact Assessment in the Field of Traffic and Logistics
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Chapter 11
V. Kamp
Applications like environmental information systems define various scenarios of multidimensional data analysis, and they require special efforts... Sample PDF
Explorative Data Analysis Support for Environmental Epidemiology
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Chapter 12
Victor P. Belogurov
Many emergency safety problems are connected to detection of risk zones. It is not enough only to display on a map sources of risk and protected... Sample PDF
GIS Application for Detection of Ecological Risk Zones
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Chapter 13
Hubert B. Keller, Bernd Muller, Andreas Fick
Presently waste incineration is one of the most commonly used techniques for residual waste processing. It is an important step of making inert and... Sample PDF
Innovative Control Methods in Waste Management
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Chapter 14
Mohamad K. Kayyal
In response to government and public pressures, the healthcare industry has in the past few years directed a significant effort toward the proper... Sample PDF
Estimation of Amounts of Waste Generated from Healthcare Facilities
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Chapter 15
Azedine Boulmakoul, Robert Laurini, Karine Zeitouni
The concept of Environmental Information Systems (EIS) emerged from the concerns and the efforts carried on by world wide private and official... Sample PDF
Spatial Monitoring and Routing System for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials
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Chapter 16
E. Luque
Forest fire are one of the most critical environmental risks in all the Mediterranean countries. The fight against these emergencies requires useful... Sample PDF
High Performance Computing, Simulation and Forest Fires
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Chapter 17
Nick A. Theophilopoulos, Pavlos Kassomenos
Emergencies are most probably the most important issue at the European and, of course, at the international level, in terms of impact to the... Sample PDF
Modelling and Simulation of Environmental Hazards
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Chapter 18
F. GuarnierI, S. Olampi, A. Napoli
In forest fire research, it is now accepted that computational simulation and databases have become essential components of the scientific process... Sample PDF
Toward a "Virtual Laboratory" to Support Forest Fire Behaviour Modelling and Metrology
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Chapter 19
Stefan Gobel, Uwe Jasnoch
The more information and data are produced by the actual information society, the more important become mechanisms and systems which organize the... Sample PDF
Metadata Information Systems for Geospatial Data
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Chapter 20
Kristina Voigt, Gerhard Welzl, Joachim Benz
Chemistry and the environmental sciences are scientific disciplines with an enormous output of and demand for data. As of June 8th, 2000, 16,813,792... Sample PDF
Meta Information System for Environmental Chemicals: Set-up and Analysis of its Contents
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Chapter 21
Virginia Brilhante, Dave Robertson
Ecological models should be rooted in data derived from observation, allowing methodical model construction and clear accounts of model results with... Sample PDF
Metadata-Supported Automated Ecological Modelling
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Chapter 22
Klaus Tochtermann, Andree Keitel, Thomas Schutz
Reporting to and providing the public with information on the environment is becoming increasingly important for governmental environmental agencies... Sample PDF
Environmental Reporting in Print and Electronic Media
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Chapter 23
Hans-Knud Arndt, Mario Christ, Oliver Gunther
Organizations of all kinds are increasingly forced to develop an environmental conflict strategy. Otherwise, in the case of environmental conflicts... Sample PDF
Environmental Reporting in the Public Interest
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Chapter 24
Jorg V. Steinaecker, Gunnar Jurgens
Within Germany’s industry the issue of environmental protection has increased in importance within recent years. A distinct indicator to support... Sample PDF
Material Flow Management in the Machine Building Industry
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Chapter 25
Jurgen Hesselbach, Karsten V. Westernhagen
While in the past only the product phases of development, production, distribution as well as use and service were considered, today, more complete... Sample PDF
An Integrated Approach for the Planning and Control of Flexible Retro-Production Systems
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Chapter 26
Andreas Moller, Bernd Page, Arno Rolf, Volker Wohlgemuth
This chapter describes the foundations of Material Flow Networks for environmental management and gives an overview about their application fields.... Sample PDF
Foundations and Applications of Computer Based Material Flow Networks for Environmental Management
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Chapter 27
Alexander Huber, Jorge Marx-Gomez, Claus Rautenstrauch
For some years, the massive spreading of technically complex products as well as the shortening of product life cycles have led to a constantly... Sample PDF
Recycling and Disassembly Planning
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About the Authors