The effects of open, distance, and flexible learning, and the changed role of technology in learning have been felt in almost all educational sectors and institutions. Technology in many subjects now plays a central role and learning management systems (LMSs) are part of the standard software of higher education institutions. However the influence of learning technology has not been limited to education. The literature on human resource management (HRM) recognizes that there are benefits to be gained through the application of some of the techniques and technologies of flexible learning to training and development (Smith, 1992; Wilson, 1999). For example, LMSs are also providing efficiencies to organizations in the development of their human resources. As mentioned earlier in this book, the term flexible learning is used here to refer collectively to the approaches of open, distance, online, and e-learning and to the literature that is concerned with them. More recently terms such as blended learning and e-learning have appeared to refer to learning experiences that incorporate an electronic element. Typically flexible learning or e-learning would involve the use of the learning technologies discussed here.