Content owned or licensed by academic libraries, such as electronic journals, art image databases, and digital videos, provides a means to enhance curricula and allow for deeper learning by students. Lack of interoperability between library systems and course management systems (CMS) limits the use of library content within CMS. Learning environments, CMS, and institutional repositories must all interoperate since content can be used in many ways in both research and learning. Librarians can also add value to CMS if their virtual services — such as reference and information literacy — are integrated into the CMS. The content of CMS raises many policy issues which must be addressed by institutions.