This section presents the following conceptual foundations for managing learning throughout the CKM change: CKM implementation, modes of learning, and OL.
There have been a lot of misconceptions surrounding the concept of CKM. Many of the early implementations projects were seen as ICT initiatives (Buttle, 2004). Sometimes, business firms have mistakenly dealt with CKM as an ICT project not as a business program. Snyder and Davidson (2003) suggest that up to 80 percent of CRM projects fail, and such failure in implementation may be attributed to several reasons, such as the lack of CRM understanding, the failure to adopt a clear strategy, failure to make appropriate changes to its business processes, and focusing on technology to the exclusion of people, process, and organizational changes required (Bolton, 2004; and Xu and Walton, 2005).
As customer-facing processes depend on structure, structure depends on strategy, and strategy depends on environment, therefore, there is a huge potential for business organizations to have a far more responsive organization through learning from CKM change at an accelerated pace for change. Responsiveness could make every aspect of the good or service configuration unique, and could enable customers to receive customized and individualized treatment. The ability to meet customers’ preferences in dynamic and competitive environments is based on the ability of organizations to leverage CK generated through DCCs, e.g. people, technologies, and facilities, which are capable of designing, developing, and delivering adaptable and successful CKM change.