Measuring Crime in and around Public Housing Using GIS

Measuring Crime in and around Public Housing Using GIS

Harold R. Holzman (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, USA), Robert A. Hyatt (Austin Peay State University, USA) and Tarl Roger Kudrick (Independent Contractor, USA)
Copyright: © 2005 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-453-8.ch018
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Abstract

For many people, the phrase “public housing” conjures up images of serious violent crime. However, the neighborhood surrounding public housing may be a greater factor in crime than the housing itself. Because most police departments do not routinely keep statistics on small parcels of land like public housing developments or neighborhoods, measuring the incidence of crime in public housing has proved difficult. Consequently, there is little hard evidence with respect to whether public housing is more or less crime-ridden than the neighborhoods that surround it. This chapter explores the application of geographic information systems (GIS) technology in measuring reported crime levels in and around public housing developments. GIS technology was used to extract crime counts from police data bases of reported incidents for (1) public housing developments and (2) the surrounding neighborhoods. Rates of reported Part I crimes in public housing developments are compared with those in the surrounding neighborhoods and in the respective municipal jurisdictions. Odds ratios are used to compare the risk of victimization in public housing with that in the respective neighborhood and municipal catchment zones. The GIS-based analysis of reported crime in and around public housing communities reveals that risk of falling victim to aggravated assault in public housing communities is much higher than in the surrounding neighborhoods or in the parent jurisdictions as whole. Conversely, risk of property crimes such as burglary, larceny and car theft appears to be much lower. These crime patterns are discussed in the context of routine activity theory.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1
Jochen Albrect, James Pingel
We examine the role of GIS in communication and decision-making processes by re-interpreting the experiences of the Milwaukee COMPASS Project... Sample PDF
GIS as a Communication Process: Experiences from the Milwaukee COMPASS Project
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Chapter 2
Mark R. Leipnik, Donald P. Albert
This chapter discusses the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to create and disseminate geospatial data among multiple law enforcement... Sample PDF
Interjurisdictional Law Enforcement Data Sharing Issues: Benefits of the Use of Geo-Spatial Technologies and Barriers to More Widespread Cooperation
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Chapter 3
Tess McCarthy, Jerry Ratcliffe
Advances in computing technology and analytical techniques have given crime analysts increasingly powerful toolboxes with which to unlock the... Sample PDF
Garbage In, Garbage Out: Geocoding Accuracy and Spatial Analysis of Crime
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Chapter 4
Elizabeth Groff, J. Thomas McEwen
This research examines the distance traveled by offenders and victims to their involvement in homicide. Key research topics include (1) the... Sample PDF
Disaggregating the Journey to Homicide
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Chapter 5
Fahui Wang, Van O’Brien
The rate estimates for rare events like homicide in small populations are very susceptible to data errors, and thus compromise the validity of... Sample PDF
Constructing Geographic Areas for Analysis of Homicide in Small Populations: Testing Herding-Culture-of-Honor Proposition
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Chapter 6
D. Kim Rossmo, Ian Laverty, Brad Moore
This chapter describes the technique and application of geographic profiling, a methodology for analyzing the geographic locations of a linked... Sample PDF
Geographic Profiling for Serial Crime Investigation
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Chapter 7
Richard Z. Gore, Nikolas J. Tofiluk, Kenneth V. Griffiths
This chapter describes the results obtained by using simulation software to determine the ability to rank the suspects of a single incident based on... Sample PDF
Single Incident Geographical Profiling
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Chapter 8
Sunghoon Roh, Mark R. Leipnik
The characteristics of the crime of serial homicide are examined, the concept of geographic profiling is presented, and the application of... Sample PDF
Geographic Profiling and Spatial Analysis of Serial Homicides
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Chapter 9
Peter A. Rogerson
In this chapter, I describe a system for monitoring crime frequencies for a set of small areas. The objective is to detect as quickly as possible... Sample PDF
Geographic Surveillance of Crime Frequencies in Small Areas
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Chapter 10
Wilpen L. Gorr, Shannon A. McKay
Tracking signals are widely used in industry to monitor inventory and sales demand. These signals automatically and quickly detect departures in... Sample PDF
Application of Tracking Signals to Detect Time Series Pattern Changes in Crime Mapping Systems
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Chapter 11
Gregory A. Frost
Computer applications for conducting complex spatial analysis of crime data are widely used by law enforcement agencies. By combining sophisticated... Sample PDF
Integrating GIS, GPS and MIS on the Web: EMPACT in Florida
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Chapter 12
Lin Liu, Xuguang Wang, John Eck, Jun Liang
This chapter presents an innovative approach for simulating crime events and crime patterns. The theoretical basis of the crime simulation model is... Sample PDF
Simulating Crime Events and Crime Patterns in a RA/CA Model
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Chapter 13
Kevin M. Curtin, Fang Qui, Karen Hayslett-McCall, Timothy M. Bray
This chapter presents a new method for determining the most efficient spatial distribution of police patrols in a metropolitan region, termed the... Sample PDF
Integrating GIS and Maximal Covering Models to Determine Optimal Police Patrol Areas
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Chapter 14
Tung-Kai Shy, Robert J. Stimson, John Western, Alan T. Murray, Lorraine Mazerolle
This chapter describes a prototype Web geographic information system (GIS) and spatial model application for mapping person crime rates in Brisbane... Sample PDF
Web GIS for Mapping Community Crime Rates: Approaches and Challenges
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Chapter 15
Yongmei Lu
Crime is typically a multi-location event where multiple locations are associated through one crime incident. Understanding the patterns of the... Sample PDF
Identifying "Hot Link" Between Crime and Crime-Related Locations
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Chapter 16
Dongmei Chen, John R. Weeks, John V. Kaiser Jr.
This chapter explores the feasibility and utility of using aerial photography or remotely sensed satellite imagery to identify geographic or “place”... Sample PDF
Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics as Tools in Crime Analysis
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Chapter 17
Caterina Gouvis Roman
This chapter discusses how a geographic information system (GIS) and spatial analysis are used to model the relationship between the daily routine... Sample PDF
Routine Activities of Youth and Neighborhood Violence: Spatial Modeling of Place, Time and Crime
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Chapter 18
Harold R. Holzman, Robert A. Hyatt, Tarl Roger Kudrick
For many people, the phrase “public housing” conjures up images of serious violent crime. However, the neighborhood surrounding public housing may... Sample PDF
Measuring Crime in and around Public Housing Using GIS
$37.50
About the Authors