Multimedia Dictionary and Synthesis of Sign Language

Multimedia Dictionary and Synthesis of Sign Language

Franc Solina (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia), Slavko Krapez (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia), Ales Jaklic (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) and Vito Komac (Zoom Promotion, Slovenia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-930708-00-6.ch013
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Deaf people, as a marginal community, may have severe problems in communicating with hearing people. Usually, they have a lot of problems even with such—for hearing people—simple tasks as understanding the written language. However, deaf people are very skilled in using a sign language, which is their native language. A sign language is a set of signs or hand gestures. A gesture in a sign language equals a word in a written language. Similarly, a sentence in a written language equals a sequence of gestures in a sign language. In the distant past deaf people were discriminated and believed to be incapable of learning and thinking independently. Only after the year 1500 were the first attempts made to educate deaf children. An important breakthrough was the realization that hearing is not a prerequisite for understanding ideas. One of the most important early educators of the deaf and the first promoter of sign language was Charles Michel De L’Epée (1712-1789) in France. He founded the fist public school for deaf people. His teachings about sign language quickly spread all over the world. Like spoken languages, different sign languages and dialects evolved around the world. According to the National Association of the Deaf, the American Sign Language (ASL) is the third most frequently used language in the United States, after English and Spanish. ASL has more than 4,400 distinct signs. The Slovenian sign language (SSL), which is used in Slovenia and also serves as a case study sign language in this chapter, contains approximately 4,000 different gestures for common words. Signs require one or both hands for signing. Facial expressions which accompany signing are also important since they can modify the basic meaning of a hand gesture. To communicate proper nouns and obscure words, sign languages employ finger spelling. Since the majority of signing is with full words, signed conversation can proceed with the same pace as spoken conversation.

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Table of Contents
Mahbubur Rahman Syed
Chapter 1
Helen C. Purchase, Daniel Naumann
Models of multimedia communication are attempts to classify the numerous types of media objects available, and to provide a basis for the use of... Sample PDF
A Semiotic Model of Multimedia: Theory and Evaluation
Chapter 2
Nevenka Dimitrova, Yong Rui, Ishmar K. Sethi
The production of multimedia content has grown overwhelmingly in recent years due to decreasing hardware costs, inexpensive storage and ubiquitous... Sample PDF
Media Content Management
Chapter 3
Ray-I. Chang, Wei-Kuan Shih
The great progresses in computer and network technologies make applications of distributed multimedia ever more popular. Various commercial products... Sample PDF
Real-Time Disk Scheduling for Multimedia Data Retrieval
Chapter 4
Chin-Chen Chang, Yung-Kuan Chan, Annie Y.H. Chou, Wei-Pang Yang
2D-string and 2D H-string are commonly used to describe the spatial relationships among the objects of a picture. This chapter introduces a new data... Sample PDF
Representing Symbolic Pictures Using Iconic Indexing
Chapter 5
Nick Bryan-Kinns
This chapter presents a conceptual framework which supports reuse in hypermedia applications. Reuse is important in hypermedia, and especially... Sample PDF
A Framework for Supporting Reuse in Hypermedia
Chapter 6
Peter Kroll, Torsten Radtke, Volker Zerbe
Data compression, and in particular image compression, plays an important role in today’s information age. Images take up over 90% of the data... Sample PDF
Compression of Still Images
Chapter 7
David Squire, Henning Muller, Wolfgang Muller, Stephane Marchand-Maillet, Thierry Pun
The growth in size and accessibility of multimedia databases has changed our approach to information retrieval. Classical text-based systems show... Sample PDF
Design and Evaluation of a Content-Based Image Retrieval System
Chapter 8
Du-Seok Jin, Jae-Woo Chang
Recently it is common for users to acquire through the World Wide Web a variety of multimedia documents. As the number of Web documents is... Sample PDF
A Multimedia Document Retrieval System Supporting Structure- and Content-Based Retrieval
Chapter 9
Lilac Al-Safadi, Janusz Getta
The advancement of multimedia technologies has enabled electronic processing of information to be recorded in formats that are different from the... Sample PDF
Semantic Content-Based Retrieval for Video Documents
Chapter 10
Paolo Ciaccia, Wilma Penzo, Danilo Montesi, Alberto Trombetta
This chapter presents a fuzzy-based algebra, called SAMEW, to query multimedia objects. SAMEW allows for dealing within a common framework with... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Query Languages for Multimedia Data
Chapter 11
Bruce H. Thomas
Cartoon animation techniques have previously been used to enhance the illusion of direct manipulation in 2D graphical user interfaces. In... Sample PDF
Using Animation to Enhance 3D User Interfaces for Multimedia
Chapter 12
Antonia Lucinelma Pessoa Albuquerque, Jonas Gomes, Luiz Velho
Techniques of filming using special effects have existed since the 1920s, well before the advent of computers. Two of them are known as Back... Sample PDF
Virtual Sets: Concepts and Trends
Chapter 13
Franc Solina, Slavko Krapez, Ales Jaklic, Vito Komac
Deaf people, as a marginal community, may have severe problems in communicating with hearing people. Usually, they have a lot of problems even with... Sample PDF
Multimedia Dictionary and Synthesis of Sign Language
Chapter 14
Gour C. Karmakar, Laurence Dooley, Mahbubhur Rahman Syed
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of various methods of fuzzy logic-based image segmentation techniques. Fuzzy image segmentation... Sample PDF
Review of Fuzzy Image Segmentation Techniques
Chapter 15
Claus Witfelt
This chapter is a step on the way to establishing a multimedia didactics for compulsory school. In the chapter we review findings from the European... Sample PDF
Educational Multimedia and Teacher Competencies
Chapter 16
Juhani E. Tuovinen
The work described in this chapter is a synthesis of recent instructional cognition research implications for fundamental educational multimedia... Sample PDF
Cognition Research Basis for Instructional Multimedia
Chapter 17
Pavel Slavik, Marek Kulvejt, David Hromas, Josef Novak
The importance of multimedia in distance education has increased steadily over the last few years. This fact implies a growing need for the... Sample PDF
Cheap Production of Multimedia Programs
Chapter 18
Balakrishnan Prabhakaran
Temporal models associated with a multimedia presentation describe the ordering of presentation of various objects in the time domain. In multimedia... Sample PDF
Temporal Models and Their Applications in Multimedia Information Retrieval
Chapter 19
Willrich Roberto, Pierre de Saqui-Sannes, Patrick Senac, Michel Diaz
Multimedia authoring involves people not familiar with formal design techniques, but eager to check documents against synchronization, scheduling... Sample PDF
HTSPN: An Experience in Formal Modeling of Multimedia Applications Coded in MHEG or Java
Chapter 20
Rosanne Price, Bala Srinivasan
Recent interest in spatiotemporal data modeling comes from Multimedia Information Retrieval and Geographic Information System communities. Early... Sample PDF
Issues in Spatiotemporal Data Modeling
Chapter 21
Josef Pieprzyk
Internet and its widespread usage for multimedia document distribution put the copyright issue in a complete new setting. Multimedia documents... Sample PDF
Multimedia Copyright Protection
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