The multidimensional approach to education has existed for quite a long time. For instance, educators in the early and mid-19th Century, such as Edward Séguin (Montessori, 1965), already had ideas about physical and mental training. Froebel’s (1894) Mother-Play and Nursery Songs aimed toward the development of the whole child. Rich in songs with lyrics, the book contained activities designed to develop empathy in children through play with their mothers. Moreover, the book is full of beautiful illustrations and kinesthetic activities. Also, Thurstone (1938) designed intelligence testing method for measuring abstraction, verbal, spatial, numerical, numerical figure recognition, and other abilities.
Key Terms in this Chapter
WebQuest: WebQuest is an online problem solving template created by Dodge (2006) . It typically assumes a group project that involves online research to complete an authentic task.
Netiquette: As online communication has become part of our life, netiquette, etiquette in cyber space, has increased its importance. Netiquette includes refraining from offensive comments, avoiding all capital letters because it looks like shouting, not forwarding e-mail messages without the original sender’s permission, and not forwarding jokes or any other items that may crowd the recipient’s inbox.
Online discussion board: Online discussion board is a common place in which participants of an online class can post and read messages.
Wiki: Wiki is an online server that allows viewers to create or edit entries. Wikipedia, an open encyclopedia that any viewers can edit entries, is a popular Wiki.
Flaming: Flaming is a public attack on another person in a cyber space. Since flaming makes other people uncomfortable, it can disable a well-functioning online community. For instance, if it happens in a LISTSERV, flaming can cause members to leave the group (Pankoko-Babatz & Jeffrey, 2002 AU8: The in-text citation "Pankoko-Babatz & Jeffrey, 2002" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
Teele Inventory of Multiple Intelligences: Sue Teele (1992) created an assessment tool for Multiple Intelligences using Gardner’s (1983) framework of linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligences. The purpose of this tool was to find out the dominant intelligence for learners ( Teele, 1995 ).
Montessori Method: Montesori (1965 AU9: The in-text citation "Montesori (1965" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ) created a curriculum that combine muscular, verbal, numerical, geometric, social, artistic, and musical training realizing promotion of multiple intelligences. She also facilitated the interaction between children and animals and plants through agricultural education.
Blog: Blog is another name for Web Log. Strands of online discussions can be facilitated with Blog and can be publicly available. Blog participation can be restricted to designated users or it can be open to anyone with access to the Internet.
Redundancy: Some educators may think it is a good idea to present the same material with text and audio so that students can use different modes of learning. However, identical audio text and visual text can cause redundancy, a form of cognitive overload (Mayers, 2001 AU10: The in-text citation "Mayers, 2001" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
Cognitive Overload: Learners process information in working memory so new knowledge will become a part of their long term memory. Working memory can process very limited amount of information at one time and if there is too much stimuli, cognitive overload would occur and learning would become ineffective. Premature understanding about multiple intelligences can lead a teacher to create or choose multimedia with excess stimuli and this can cause cognitive overload among learners.