The Nigerian e-Government Strategies (NeGST): A Strategic Approach to Poverty Eradication in Nigeria

The Nigerian e-Government Strategies (NeGST): A Strategic Approach to Poverty Eradication in Nigeria

Charles K. Ayo (Covenant University, Nigeria) and I.T. Fatudimu (Covenant University, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-789-3.ch009
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Nigeria has made frantic efforts towards achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) as spelt out in the United Nations’ Agenda for the world. A critical assessment of the e-Government strategies in Nigeria is important being responsible for 20% of the population of the entire African continent. This paper presents a review of the e-Government strategies in Nigeria; the human capital development initiatives; the information and communications technology (ICT) diffusion and e-Inclusion. The global and continental ranking of the country is presented as well as recommendations to accelerate developments towards achieving the MDGs. Findings revealed that there are ongoing efforts in Nigeria to address the issue of poverty. The various initiatives of government include: the National/State Economic Empowerment Strategies (NEEDS/SEEDS), the Vision 2020, the National e-Government Strategy (NeGST) and a well-formulated National IT policy to mention a few. The little hindrance encountered in the research is that the available data was only up to the year 2005 and 2006 in some cases. However, based on the human capital development indices such as: economic empowerment and poverty reduction, education, health, employment generation, etc, it was observed that the adult literacy level of 64.2% is satisfactory and better results are expected before 2015. The life expectancy level is constant (54 years) from 2002 to 2007, which is the one of the lowest in Africa. On school enrolment, the major problem is access and poverty. It was observed that only 25% of primary school leavers made it to the secondary school level, while about 14% of the students at this level made it to the tertiary level. Similarly, the average percentage of female enrolment in schools is 45%. The health facilities are under-funded and are grossly inadequate both in quality and quantity. There is an average of 1,700 persons per hospital bed and the ratio of physicians to the populace is about 1:6000. This calls for a state of emergency in this sector. One major sector of the economy that is experiencing a boost is the ICT and Telecoms. The sector had brought about a teledensity growth of 0.73 to 37.05 from 2001 to 2007. Consequently, Nigeria has been named the fastest growing Telecoms nation in Africa and the third in the world, with a number of direct and indirect jobs created. Similarly, the rate of Internet diffusion is encouraging bearing in mind that the level was almost nonexistent in 1999. It is obvious that Nigeria would be able to bridge the divide by 2015. Generally, there are some meaningful developments in the country arising from the various poverty eradication schemes but the resultant effect has not imparted positively on unemployment. This is the opinion of the populace and hence the need for government to restrategize, otherwise, fulfilling MDGs by 2015 may not be realistic.
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The world representatives assembled in Geneva from 10 – 12 of December 2003, for a maiden summit tagged: Building the information society: a global challenge in the millennium. The summit declared a common desire and commitment to build a people-oriented and development-poised information society that is aimed at enabling everyone to create, access, utilize, share information and knowledge (WSIS, 2003). The initiative was to enable individuals, communities and peoples achieve their full potentials by promoting sustainable development and improving quality of life premised on the principles of the United Nations. Arising from the summit is the recognition of ICT as a panacea for sustainable development, hence the evolvement of the concept of e-Government, e-Democracy, e-Policing, e-Health, e-Learning, etc. as contained in the eight (8) developmental goals called the millennium development goals (MDGs), with the overall objective of reducing poverty by 50% by the year 2015 (UNDP, 2000).

Information Technology for Development (IT4D) is defined as the implementation, use and management of IT infrastructures to stimulate social and economic development (Qureshi, 2007). IT offers access to information and expertise; it enhances competitiveness and access to markets; it enhances administrative efficiency; it enhances labour productivity and learning; and it is a veritable tool for poverty eradication.

e-Government refers to the use of information and communications technology in public administration combined with organizational change and new skills to improve public services and democratic processes and to strengthen support for public policies (Vassilios, 2004). ICT has been adopted in Europe, particularly at all levels of administration as a veritable tool for modernising public services, re-engineering administrative processes and empowering the citizens.

Agunloye (2004) presented e-Government as an interaction between citizens, businesses and organizations, government ministries and all the tiers of government. Thus, as against traditional governance in the developing world, that is characterized by hunger, war, poverty, sickness, ethnicity and oppression as well as unemployment, using ICT powered government would lead to transparency, accountability and efficiency in governance in order to deliver better services and wealth for the general well-being of the citizens. e-Government is seen as a route to better governance as it is open and transparent, and an enabler for participatory democracy; it is service-oriented, and it provides personalised and inclusive services to every citizen; and it is a panacea for enhanced productivity and better utilization of the taxpayers’ money.

Achieving the MDGs is a herculean task for most nations, particularly, the developing ones. For some years now, Africa has remained at the bottom of the table of the annual UN global e-Government readiness report (UN, 2005). Governance in Nigeria and Africa in general is characterized by corruption, debt overhanging, unemployment, low productivity, unfocussed policies, insensitivity and bad leadership (Gowon, 2006 & Nwabueze, 2003). All these have grave consequences on developmental issues like education, health, employment, electricity generation, transportation and other major sectors of the economy (Ezigbo, 2006).

Cookey (2005) identified corruption as a sine qua non for making progress on growth and human capital development in Nigeria. The high level of corruption has been identified to be responsible for the high degree of misrule, insecurity, hunger, poverty and politically motivated massacre in Africa (Iyayi, 2004).

Nigeria is the most populous black nation in the world and is responsible for 20% of the African population. It is the 6th largest oil producing country in the world but the accrued revenues have not translated to the well-being of the populace on account of corruption by government officials. Consequently, the country has not been able to provide the basic necessities of life for her citizenry; and meeting the MDGs may be an upheaval task. This practice is prominent among many African nations (Tell, 2006).


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The primary objectives of this paper include:

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Table of Contents
Abid Thyab Al Ajeeli, Yousif A. Latif Al-Bastaki
Abid Thyab Al Ajeeli, Yousif A. Latif Al-Bastaki
Chapter 1
Norma M. Riccucci, Marc Holzer
The literature shows that governments around the world have sought to improve their governing capabilities by developing and implementing strategic... Sample PDF
A Global Comparative Analysis of Digital Governance Practices
Chapter 2
Allaoua Chaoui, Okba Tibermacine, Amer R. Zerek
We introduce an approach that deals with the verification of UML collaboration and sequence diagrams in respect to the objects internal behaviors... Sample PDF
Formal Verification of a Subset of UML Diagrams: An Approach Using Maude
Chapter 3
A. A. Azeta, Charles K. Ayo, Aderemi Aaron Anthony Atayero, Nicholas Ikhu-Omoregbe
Government establishments are most times highly involved in different reorganization programs. The processes in e-Government are diversified and... Sample PDF
Voice-Based e-Learning Approach for e-Government
Chapter 4
Tarek Zernadji, Raida Elmansouri, Allaoua Chaoui
Current research on software reuse in Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) covers a variety of fields, including component design, component... Sample PDF
An Approach to Formal Specification of Component-Based Software
Chapter 5
Hacene Belhadef, Naouel Ouafek, Kholladi Mohamed-Khireddine
In this chapter we propose a new methodology for ontology building, which is based on a set of mapping rules from a conceptual schema... Sample PDF
A Methodology for the Development of Computer Ontologies Based Extractor Information
Chapter 6
Oyelami Olufemi Moses, Uwadia Charles Onuwa, Akinwale Adio Taofeek
People search websites for health information for self-care, but the information provided by these e-health portals are delivered in text form and... Sample PDF
An Intelligent Framework for Usable Speech-Enabled E-Health System
Chapter 7
Goonasagree Naidoo, S. Singh, Niall Levine
The usage of the internet has grown over recent years in South Africa but at a very slow rate. This is the result of several challenges facing the... Sample PDF
An Overview of Internet Developments and their Impact on E-Government in South Africa
Chapter 8
Jenny Backhouse
The Internet and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) have long been seen as potentially contributing to a solution to the problem of... Sample PDF
Enhancing Democratic Participation: The Emerging Role of Web 2.0 and Social Media
Chapter 9
Charles K. Ayo, I.T. Fatudimu
Nigeria has made frantic efforts towards achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) as spelt out in the United Nations’ Agenda for the world.... Sample PDF
The Nigerian e-Government Strategies (NeGST): A Strategic Approach to Poverty Eradication in Nigeria
Chapter 10
Panagiota-Aikaterina Sidiropoulou, Evangelos Moustakas
The 21st century is being characterized as the century of evolution for information technology, communication technology and electronic... Sample PDF
An Exploratory Analysis of the On-Line Dispute Resolution Mechanism
Chapter 11
Hisham M. Alsaghier, Marilyn Ford, Anne Nguyen, Rene Hexel
In e-government context, trust plays a vital role in helping citizens overcome perceived risks. Trust makes citizens comfortable sharing personal... Sample PDF
Factors Affecting the Citizens’ Trust in E-Government
Chapter 12
Tony Dwi Susanto, Robert Goodwin
Delivering public services through SMS (SMS-based e-government) is becoming popular in developed and developing countries as a strategy to engage... Sample PDF
An SMS-Based e-Government Model: What Public Services can be Delivered through SMS?
Chapter 13
Fatma Bouaziz
Stakeholders are proactive in the development of e-government initiatives; public organizations should be proactive in identifying all relevant... Sample PDF
E-Government Projects Risk Management: Taking Stakeholders in Perspective
Chapter 14
Marco De Maggio, Pasquale Del Vecchio, Gianluca Elia, Francesca Grippa
The rising of the knowledge economy, enhanced by the fast diffusion of ICTs, drives a wider perspective on the divide among Countries, interpreting... Sample PDF
An ICT-Based Network of Competence Centres for Developing Intellectual Capital in the Mediterranean Area
Chapter 15
Mohamed-Khireddine Kholladi
The posting of interactive mapping is essential for the dissemination of information to the general public and in all areas. All the elements... Sample PDF
Last Online Deposits Spatial Data in the Web
Chapter 16
Aqueo Kamada, Adriana Figueiredo, Marcos Rodrigues
Nowadays, the relationships among people, governments and organizations are subject to fast changes. The increasing demand for new services conducts... Sample PDF
Ontology Based Business Rules and Services Integration Environment
Chapter 17
Robert Jeyakumar Nathan, Mohammed Saeed Ahmed
This chapter presents a literature discussion and empirical research that examines the factors that affect Electronic Commerce (EC) adoption in the... Sample PDF
Electronic Commerce in the Arab World
Chapter 18
Apitep Saekow, Choompol Boonmee
In many countries, governments have been developing electronic information systems to support in labour market in form of on-line services... Sample PDF
Efficient Implementation of E-Government Interoperability in Labour Market Information Systems based on Service Oriented Architecture: A Case of Thailand
Chapter 19
Neil Andrew Gordon
This chapter considers aspects relating to the role of tertiary (i.e. higher) education in improving the engagement of the public with government... Sample PDF
E-Services and the Digital Divide: The Role of Tertiary Education in Improving Public Engagement and Trust in E-Delivery of Services
Chapter 20
Rafik Braham, Lilia C. Belcadhi, Narjess T. Chebaane, Maha Khemaja
In the year 2000, policy makers in Tunisian higher education decided to explore ways in which e-learning and e-management could be introduced to... Sample PDF
E-Learning and E-Management in Tunisian Universities
Chapter 21
Sarah Afzal Safavi, Maqbool Uddin Shaikh
The assessment of main risks in software development discloses that a major threat of delays are caused by poor effort / cost estimation of the... Sample PDF
Effort Estimation Model for each Phase of Software Development Life Cycle
Chapter 22
Charles K. Ayo, J.O. Daramola, A. A. Azeta
The electoral system is paramount to the survival of democracy all over the world. Current happenings around the world, particularly in the... Sample PDF
Developing a Secure Integrated E-Voting System
Chapter 23
Say Yen Teoh, Mohini Singh, Josephine Chong
This chapter is a discussion of e-health development in Australia. The Australian government has been very proactive in e-government and... Sample PDF
An Overview of E-Health Development in Australia
Chapter 24
Ali Maqousi, Tatiana Balikhina
Recently, many countries have adopted E-Government initiatives for providing public E-Services to their citizens. These initiatives, together with... Sample PDF
Building Security Awareness Culture to Serve E-Government Initiative
Chapter 25
J.D. Thomson
This Enterprise Resource Planning database model provides a systematic, logical and regular basis for the collection, collation, dissemination and... Sample PDF
Mapping and Data Base Modeling for Public Sector Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning
Chapter 26
Surviving with SMS  (pages 326-335)
Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza, Sajad Shirali-Shahreza
The mobile phone is one of the technologies which are widely used these days. It is available in most countries and all people, even children and... Sample PDF
Surviving with SMS
Chapter 27
Tarek Sobh, Heba Z. El-Fiqi
One of the most powerful weapons for attackers is the Internet worm. Specifically, a worm attacks vulnerable computer systems and employs... Sample PDF
Early Worm Detection for Minimizing Damage in E-Service Networks
Chapter 28
Abdelouahad Bayar, Khalid Sami
To justify texts, Arabic calligraphers use to stretch some letters with small flowing curves; the kashida instead of inserting blanks among words.... Sample PDF
Towards a Dynamic Font Respecting the Arabic Calligraphy
Chapter 29
E-government webs are among the largest webs in existence, based on the size, number of users and number of information providers. Thus, creating a... Sample PDF
Building Semantic Webs for E-Government with Wiki Technology
Chapter 30
Alain Sandoz
This chapter describes a holistic approach for the design of e-government platforms. It defines principles for architecting a system which must... Sample PDF
Design Principles for E-Government Architectures
Chapter 31
Fadi Salem, Yasar Jarrar
Large-scale electronic government projects had mixed results over the past decade. A considerably large percentage of such projects effectively... Sample PDF
Learning from Failure: Braving the Multifaceted Challenges to E-Government Development
Chapter 32
Wamedh Wadood Abdoul Hameed
This chapter presents a security framework architecture for electronic voting that permits the avoidance of problems occasioned by interposing... Sample PDF
A Secure Electronic Voting
Chapter 33
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This chapter outlines the important of e-business in today‘s world and how one thinks it affects decision making. In today‘s world e-business is... Sample PDF
E-Business: Concepts and Context with Illustrative Examples of E-Business and E-Commerce in Education
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