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Online Abuse: Cyberbullying, Harassment, and Stalking

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8.ch075|
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MLA

Bossler, Adam M. and Thomas J. Holt. "Online Abuse: Cyberbullying, Harassment, and Stalking." Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior. IGI Global, 2012. 911-917. Web. 22 Dec. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8.ch075

APA

Bossler, A. M., & Holt, T. J. (2012). Online Abuse: Cyberbullying, Harassment, and Stalking. In Z. Yan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior (pp. 911-917). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8.ch075

Chicago

Bossler, Adam M. and Thomas J. Holt. "Online Abuse: Cyberbullying, Harassment, and Stalking." In Encyclopedia of Cyber Behavior, ed. Zheng Yan, 911-917 (2012), accessed December 22, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8.ch075

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Abstract

The development of computers, cell phones, and the Internet allows individuals to connect with one another with ease in a variety of ways in near real time. The beneficial impact of these resources, however, has been adulterated by some to engage in abusive communications while online. Specifically, individuals now use email, text messaging, and social networking sites to spread hurtful or malicious information about others. This entry summarizes the problem of online abuse via cyberbullying, online harassment, and stalking by discussing the prevalence of these phenomena as well as the prospective predictors of victimization.
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Overview

Three primary areas of online abuse among juveniles and adults have been explored by researchers: bullying, harassment and stalking. The research community, however, has not established definitions that completely and clearly separate each form of offending from one another. Each form is interrelated as they all depend on email, instant messaging systems, and other technological resources. There is also conceptual overlap between bullying, harassment, and stalking because of the way in which victims may respond to the receipt of a message. One researcher may therefore define an act as harassment, while another may view the same behavior as bullying. These issues lead to complications in identifying those most likely to experience a specific form of online abuse. Some argue that juveniles are most likely to experience cyberbullying while only adults may experience harassment and stalking. As a consequence, the research literature is muddled due to competing and unclear definitions of relevant behaviors.

It is also important to note that sexual comments and imagery are not a requirement of cyberbullying, online harassment, or stalking (Bocij, 2004). Though sexually charged comments may be used by an individual to antagonize or harm a victim, no definition for any one of these forms of abuse incorporates sexuality. Additionally, child pornography and sexual victimization are defined and viewed differently from harassment and abuse by law enforcement and the research community (Wolack et al., 2006). Thus, it is important that individuals dispel the significance of sexual harm from online abuse. The following overview will explore each form of abuse and discuss researchers whose examinations of cyberbullying, harassment, and stalking provide significant insight into the prevalence of these forms as well as predictors of both offending and victimization.

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Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Zheng Yan
Chapter 1
Sherry Turkle  (pages 1-7)
Selma Šabanovic, Linnda R. Caporael
Sherry Turkle, a pioneer in the study of technology and the self, is both a scholar and a public intellectual. Using a unique voice and methodology... Sample PDF
Sherry Turkle
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Chapter 2
Social Network  (pages 8-24)
Roby Muhamad
Social network concerns the study of the structure of the patterns of relations among social entities. The study of social networks has a long... Sample PDF
Social Network
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Chapter 3
Lee Rainie
The Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project is a “fact tank” of primary research that has documented three revolutions in digital... Sample PDF
A Biography of the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project
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Chapter 4
NetLab  (pages 42-63)
Dimitrina Dimitrova, Barry Wellman
This chapter discusses NetLab -- an interdisciplinary scholarly network studying the intersection of social networks, communication networks, and... Sample PDF
NetLab
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Chapter 5
Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Adriana Manago
The Children’s Digital Media Center @ Los Angeles studies young people’s interactions with digital media – with a focus on the implications of these... Sample PDF
The Children’s Digital Media Center @ Los Angeles
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Chapter 6
Yi-Fan Chen
The Center for Mobile Communication Studies at Rutgers University is the world’s first academic unit to focus solely on social aspects of mobile... Sample PDF
The Center for Mobile Communication Studies
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Chapter 7
Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Ryan O. Murphy
Flashlight is an open source process-tracing tool that records mouse movements in real time during an information search task (Schulte-Mecklenbeck... Sample PDF
Flashlight as a Process Tracing Method
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Chapter 8
Ryan Alan Moreau, Howard Richard Hershorn
Children’s Internet safety websites come in many varieties, each with a focus on providing resources or education to help children learn to stay... Sample PDF
Children’s Internet Safety Websites
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Chapter 9
Rita S. Mano, Gustavo S. Mesch
E-mail provides organizations with detailed and timely information that cuts across hierarchical levels and departmental boundaries. The speed... Sample PDF
E-Mail and Work Performance
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Chapter 10
Human Behavior on the WWW  (pages 117-131)
Anja S. Göritz, Ranjit K. Singh, Birgit J. Voggeser
This entry summarizes psychological research on human behavior on the World Wide Web, excluding WWW topics addressed in other entries in this... Sample PDF
Human Behavior on the WWW
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Chapter 11
Minas Michikyan, Kaveri Subrahmanyam
In the past few years, social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and MySpace have become increasingly popular among Internet users. They allow... Sample PDF
Social Networking Sites: Implications for Youth
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Chapter 12
Shawn Loewen, Jiawen Wang
The development of new technologies has had an impact on human behavior and communication from time immemorial. With the growing rate of... Sample PDF
Human Behavior in Chatrooms
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Chapter 13
Asako Miura
A weblog, also known as a “blog,” is the standard form for any website that is frequently updated on a regular basis and is one of the most popular... Sample PDF
Human Behaviors with Blogs
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Chapter 14
Cyber Behavior with Wikis  (pages 164-177)
Tünde Varga-Atkins, Debbie Prescott, Peter Dangerfield
This entry summarizes research about cyber behavior with wikis. Wikis are collaborative websites allowing the easy creation of interlinked webpages... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior with Wikis
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Chapter 15
Simon B. Heilesen
Podcasts, i.e. digital media files (audio and video) distributed over the Internet, have become particularly popular since the introduction of... Sample PDF
Human Behaviors with Podcasts
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Chapter 16
Jeongyoon Lee, R. Karl Rethemeyer
The recent boom in the use of smartphones has led to an expansion of the concept of cyber behavior to include nearly perpetual virtual contact... Sample PDF
Virtual Interactions via Smartphones
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Chapter 17
The Net Generation  (pages 200-211)
Louis Leung, Cindy Pei Zheng
This article reviewed Net Generation attributes and examined how these attributes are linked to cyber behavior. Net Geners are global citizens and... Sample PDF
The Net Generation
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Chapter 18
Digital Natives  (pages 212-219)
Sue Bennett
The term “digital native” was popularized by Prensky (2001) as a means of distinguishing young people who are highly technologically literate and... Sample PDF
Digital Natives
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Chapter 19
Alice Ann Howard Gola, Sandra L. Calvert
Technology has dramatically changed the frequency with which US youth access the Internet as well as what they are doing while they are online. In... Sample PDF
U.S. Children’s and Adolescents’ Internet Access, Use, and Online Behaviors
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Chapter 20
Bob Lee
Seniors aged 65 and over have been the fastest growing group among Internet users in the past few years. Many factors contribute to the increased... Sample PDF
Cyber Behaviors among Seniors
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Chapter 21
Mary Gozza-Cohen, Deborah May
This entry examines the use of the internet by individuals with disabilities. Before people with disabilities can use the Internet for socializing... Sample PDF
Individuals with Disabilities and Internet Use
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Chapter 22
Wenli Chen, Wenting Xie
In the 21st Century, due to development of transportation and communication technology, people are living in a more globalized world than ever... Sample PDF
Cyber Behaviors of Immigrants
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Chapter 23
Michael J. Stern
Despite widespread advances in knowledge about how the Internet and other information and communication technologies are used as well as the... Sample PDF
Internet Use among Rural Residents in North America
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Chapter 24
Karin M. Eyrich-Garg, Eric Rice
A common stereotype is that persons experiencing homelessness have no access to digital and Information Technology. Even if they could obtain... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior of Homeless Adolescents and Adults
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Chapter 25
Stephen Reysen, Jason D. Lloyd
Fans of various interests (e.g., music, sport, media, hobbies) construct virtual communities to interact, share fan experiences, and produce fan... Sample PDF
Fanship and Fandom in Cyber Space
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Chapter 26
Chiungjung Huang
The direction of the correlation between Internet use and psychological well-being is debatable. The displacement hypothesis indicates the... Sample PDF
Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being
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Chapter 27
Linda A. Jackson, Edward A. Witt
There are surprisingly few studies of the effects of Internet use on children’s cognitive development. Surveys by the Pew Internet and American Life... Sample PDF
Internet Use and Cognitive Development
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Chapter 28
Michelle F. Wright, Yan Li
Prosocial behaviors in the cyber context (i.e., the internet, text messages) can be traced back to when the Internet was just a message board, used... Sample PDF
Prosocial Behaviors in the Cyber Context
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Chapter 29
Laura E. Levine, Bradley M. Waite, Laura L. Bowman
Cyber-media use creates opportunities to engage in immediate, multiple, concurrent activities. Research has demonstrated that cyber-media users... Sample PDF
Cybermedia Use, Multitasking, and Academic Distractibility
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Chapter 30
John P. Robinson
Each new Information Technology (IT) takes time away from other daily activities. Three highly-publicized early studies of the initial impact of... Sample PDF
IT Use and Social/Media Time Displacement
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Chapter 31
Xiaojun Yuan, Catherine Dumas
The emergence of rapidly developing Information Technologies, particularly the Internet and digital systems, provide people access to an... Sample PDF
Cyber Behaviors in Seeking Information
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Chapter 32
Jianwei Zhang, Jingping Chen
Knowledge building refers to social and collaborative processes to advance knowledge and ideas of value to a community, with individual learning and... Sample PDF
Building Knowledge through the Cyber space
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Chapter 33
Online Knowledge Sharing  (pages 394-402)
Will W.K. Ma
The concept of knowledge sharing finds historical support in theories on the acquisition and creation of knowledge. While the key to knowledge... Sample PDF
Online Knowledge Sharing
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Chapter 34
Online Collaboration  (pages 403-411)
Charalampos Z. Patrikakis, Lemonia Argyriou, Agis Papantoniou
In this chapter, the authors present the general framework for assessing collaborative work group behaviour over the Internet and their social or... Sample PDF
Online Collaboration
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Chapter 35
Online Friendship  (pages 412-421)
Lijun Tang
This entry reviews and discusses several issues regarding online friendship. After introducing two opposite perspectives: the cues-filtered-out... Sample PDF
Online Friendship
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Chapter 36
Sebnem Cilesiz
Among various forms of public access to computers and the Internet, cybercafés are a specific phenomenon around the world. Predominantly, they are... Sample PDF
Cybercafés and Youth Development
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Chapter 37
Heidi Campbell, Louise Connelly
Cyber behavior and religious practices on the Internet have grown in popularity and acceptability over the past decade. Consequently, a number of... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior and Religious Practice on the Internet
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Chapter 38
Online Assessment  (pages 447-455)
Seth Mayotte
The continuing development of online assessment capitalizes on the advantages of computerized and online technologies to improve the effectiveness... Sample PDF
Online Assessment
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Chapter 39
Yongqiang Sun, Nan Wang
Trust, which dominates the research on online shopping behavior, is relevant to various consumer behaviors across different online shopping stages.... Sample PDF
Trust in Online Shopping Behavior
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Chapter 40
Yi Cai, Brenda J. Cude
Online shopping is a broadly defined activity that includes searching for product information, buying products or services, and communicating with... Sample PDF
Consumers’ Adoption of Online Shopping
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Chapter 41
Kaan Varnali
Emerging online environments not only provide the most pertinent tools to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in a variety of daily and... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior in Marketing
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Chapter 42
Shumaila Yousafzai
How and why individuals use Internet banking (IB) has attracted a great deal of academic attention. This chapter reviews the literature on IB... Sample PDF
Internet Banking Adaptation Behavior
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Chapter 43
Cigdem Altin Gumussoy, Fethi Calisir
Customer behavior is a multi-stage decision process in an e-auction in which each step is critical to achieve success in e-auctions. The first step... Sample PDF
E-Auction: Acceptance and Bidding Strategies
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Chapter 44
Maria Lexhagen
Tourism is an intangible product that is simultaneously produced and consumed as well as perishable. Therefore, it is highly dependent on the... Sample PDF
The Search and Purchase Process among E-Travel Customers
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Chapter 45
E-Recruitment  (pages 525-536)
Reanna Poncheri Harman, Lori Foster Thompson
E-recruitment uses the Internet to identify and attract prospective employees through media such as internet job boards (e.g., monster.com)... Sample PDF
E-Recruitment
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Chapter 46
William Ross, Ross Slovensky
The development of the Internet affords new opportunities for organizations as they add talent to their workforce. Employers are using third-party... Sample PDF
Using the Internet to Attract and Evaluate Job Candidates
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Chapter 47
Ralf Caers, Claudia Vigna, Tim De Feyter
This chapter looks at how social network sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter can be used for recruiting staff members within or outside the... Sample PDF
Recruitment and Selection Using Social Network Sites
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Chapter 48
Christine A. Henle, Uma Kedharnath
Cyberloafing is employees’ intentional use of Internet technology during work hours for personal purposes. This can include surfing non-work related... Sample PDF
Cyberloafing in the Workplace
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Chapter 49
Kimberly Young
Employee Internet abuse is a problem among organizations often resulting in poor job productivity, high turnover rates due to job loss, and the... Sample PDF
Managing Employee Internet Abuse in the Digital Workplace
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Chapter 50
Tobias Kowatsch, Wolfgang Maass
With cyber shopping, consumers face a massive amount of product information before an educated purchase decision can be made. Identifying relevant... Sample PDF
Product Recommendation Agents for Cyber Shopping Consumers
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Chapter 51
Y. P. Chang, D. H. Zhu
The adoption of social networking sites has become an international phenomenon. This encyclopedia entry synthesizes the literature concerning... Sample PDF
Adoption of Social Networking Sites
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Chapter 52
Elizabeth Mazur, Margaret L. Signorella, Michelle Hough
Early research on older adult computer users focused on the possibility for technology to increase social interaction and alleviate loneliness.... Sample PDF
Older Adults and Their Internet Behaviors
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Chapter 53
Rashid L Bashshur, Gary W Shannon
This chapter provides both formal and operational definitions of telemedicine as well as the related concepts of telehealth, e-health, and m-health... Sample PDF
Telemedicine as a Modality of Health Care Delivery and its Implications
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Chapter 54
José Manuel Ortega Egea
Physicians’ acceptance of e-health refers to physicians’ voluntary or intended use of e-health services or applications—defined as ‘‘health services... Sample PDF
Physicians’ Acceptance of E-Health
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Chapter 55
E-Health Behaviors  (pages 649-660)
Deborah Linares, Kaveri Subrahmanyam
E-health (eHealth) is an emerging field of health communication encompassing medical informatics, public health, and business where health... Sample PDF
E-Health Behaviors
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Chapter 56
Grazia Orizio, Umberto Gelatti
Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations via the Internet. The purpose of this contribution is to summarize the... Sample PDF
Human Behaviors in Online Pharmacies
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Chapter 57
Neil S. Coulson, Sumaira Malik
In recent years, the Internet has provided new opportunities for individuals living with health-related problems to communicate with each other via... Sample PDF
Health-Related Online Support Communities
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Chapter 58
Thomas O. Blank, Steven D. Schmidt
In recent years, many cancer patients and families have turned to the Internet for information and support. Cyber support venues to serve those... Sample PDF
Cyber Support Venues for Cancer
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Chapter 59
Online Counseling  (pages 699-713)
Derek Richards, Noemi Viganò
Online counseling is defined as the delivery of therapeutic interventions in cyberspace where communication between a trained professional counselor... Sample PDF
Online Counseling
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Chapter 60
Peer Counseling Behaviors  (pages 714-721)
Ruben Fukkink
Peers have been supporting one another in a range of internet support groups since the 1980s. A unique feature is the shared social identity among... Sample PDF
Peer Counseling Behaviors
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Chapter 61
Gül Seçkin
The use of social computing technologies for health information and support has been of growing interest among researchers. Eight in ten computer... Sample PDF
Cyber Behaviors of Self Health Care Management
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Chapter 62
Daria J. Kuss, Mark Griffiths
As the Internet offers a new venue for gambling, the risks for engaging in pathological behaviors are potentially increased. In light of this, a... Sample PDF
Internet Gambling Addiction
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Chapter 63
Internet Addiction  (pages 754-767)
Petra Vondrackova, David Smahel
Internet addiction can be defined as overuse of the Internet leading to impairment of an individual’s psychological state; this includes both mental... Sample PDF
Internet Addiction
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Chapter 64
Jamie Marie Duggan, Janis Whitlock
This entry describes the evolution and current state of research related to Non-suicidal self-injury on the Internet across a variety of mediums... Sample PDF
Self-Injury Behaviors in Cyber Space
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Chapter 65
Liang Hu, Fan Lu
The chapter is intended to introduce Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), a widely spreading but largely unknown epidemic among professional and ordinary... Sample PDF
Computer Vision Syndrome among Internet Users
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Chapter 66
Keith F. Durkin, Ronald L. DeLong
Internet crimes against children are a contemporary social problem which has drawn a great deal of attention from the parents, educators... Sample PDF
Internet Crimes against Children
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Chapter 67
Internet Sexuality  (pages 807-827)
Nicola M. Döring
“Internet sexuality” is an umbrella term that refers to all sex-related content and activities observable on the internet. Six main categories of... Sample PDF
Internet Sexuality
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Chapter 68
Susanne E. Baumgartner, Patti M. Valkenburg, Jochen Peter
In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that... Sample PDF
Unwanted Online Sexual Solicitation and Online Sexual Risk Behavior
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Chapter 69
Patrick M. Markey, Charlotte N. Markey
Given the prevalence of online pornography and the ease with which this content can be accessed using Internet search engines, it is important to... Sample PDF
Online Pornography Seeking Behaviors
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Chapter 70
Online Child Pornography  (pages 847-854)
Catherine D. Marcum, George E. Higgins
This entry provides an examination of the past and present prevalence and issues surrounding online child pornography in the United States. Legal... Sample PDF
Online Child Pornography
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Chapter 71
Self-Disclosure Online  (pages 855-872)
Alison Attrill
Self-disclosure (SD) refers to revealing personal information about the self to others (Cozby, 1973). SD occurs in cyberspace via synchronous... Sample PDF
Self-Disclosure Online
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Chapter 72
Holly H. Schiffrin, Melissa Falkenstern
Self-disclosure, the sharing of personal information between communication partners, has long been a topic of interest due to the large impact it... Sample PDF
Online Self-Disclosure Behaviors
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Chapter 73
Online Intimacy Problems  (pages 885-799)
Katherine M. Hertlein, Jennifer H. Desruisseaux
Online intimacy problems are broadly defined as interpersonal issues occurring when: (1) computer-mediated communication interferes with online... Sample PDF
Online Intimacy Problems
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Chapter 74
Hichang Cho
The increasing use of the Internet and the development of more sophisticated data-mining and surveillance techniques have led to growing levels of... Sample PDF
Responses to Online Privacy Risks
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Chapter 75
Adam M. Bossler, Thomas J. Holt
The development of computers, cell phones, and the Internet allows individuals to connect with one another with ease in a variety of ways in near... Sample PDF
Online Abuse: Cyberbullying, Harassment, and Stalking
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Chapter 76
Cyber-Bullying Behaviors  (pages 918-930)
Qing Li, Deborah Lambert
A review of the literature reveals that current research has discovered that the severity of cyberbullying may be a result of the impact of many... Sample PDF
Cyber-Bullying Behaviors
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Chapter 77
Internet Fraud  (pages 931-943)
Michael Bachmann, Brittany Smith
This article provides an introduction into the topic of Internet fraud. A precise definition and detailed descriptions of the most prevalent... Sample PDF
Internet Fraud
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Chapter 78
Lying on the Internet  (pages 944-959)
Stepan Konecny
Mass media often presents a warped image of the Internet as an unreliable environment in which nobody can be trusted. In this entry, the authors... Sample PDF
Lying on the Internet
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Chapter 79
Internet Safety  (pages 960-975)
Yuriko Sasaki, Jon Hobbs
Internet safety has become a great concern in daily life. This entry provides information about Internet safety in terms of: (1) psychological... Sample PDF
Internet Safety
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Chapter 80
E-Participation  (pages 976-986)
Christopher Wells, Patricia Moy
Communication has long been understood as essential to the democratic process; it not only conveys information about politics to citizens, but also... Sample PDF
E-Participation
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Chapter 81
Shaun Goldfinch
The author of this article examines aspects of trust in government generally, and its relationship to trust in e-government. Trust in government has... Sample PDF
Public Trust in Government, Trust in E-Government, and Use of E-Government
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Chapter 82
Fadi Hirzalla, Shakuntala Banaji
This chapter reviews the body of academic literature about young people’s online civic participation. The authors first sketch how this literature... Sample PDF
Young People’s Online Civic Participation
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Chapter 83
The Democratic Divide  (pages 1010-1017)
Seong-Jae Min
The democratic divide, or the political participation gap in cyberspace, raises a critical social question as it suggests that new communication... Sample PDF
The Democratic Divide
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Chapter 84
Fabian Ströhle, Timm Sprenger
The rise of Twitter has changed human communication behavior not only in the political domain, but also in many other fields. Individuals are... Sample PDF
Twitter and Political Elections
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Chapter 85
Kevin Wallsten
“Blogging” has become an incredibly popular activity in recent years. Although political blogging broadly defined as a blog whose “content focuses... Sample PDF
The Causes and Consequences of Political Blogging
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Chapter 86
Weiwu Zhang, Sherice Gearhart
The increasing popularity of social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn, YouTube, and Twitter, in political campaigns and... Sample PDF
Political Behavior in Social Network Sites
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Chapter 87
Tetsuro Kobayashi
This chapter reviews historical development of research on cyber behavior and social capital, based on the definition by Robert D. Putnam, by... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior and Social Capital
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Chapter 88
Cyber Warfare  (pages 1074-1087)
Ralph D. Berenger
This entry explores the difficulty of defining precisely cyber warfare, of determining the motives behind cyber attacks, and reviews the history of... Sample PDF
Cyber Warfare
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Chapter 89
Kumi Ishii, Brittany R. Black
With the diffusion of networked technology in our society, online communication has become an integral part of daily life, and conflict no longer... Sample PDF
Cyber Conflict and Management
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Chapter 90
Hans van der Meij
E-learning (EL) is defined as communication and learning activities through computers and networks. EL in elementary education is mainly blended... Sample PDF
E-learning in Elementary Education
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Chapter 91
Kathleen Guinee
E-learning occurs throughout the middle school curriculum. Children use computers and the Internet to learn skills, complete assignments, and deepen... Sample PDF
E-learning Behaviors in Middle School
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Chapter 92
Michael J. Berson, Caroline C. Sheffield
Events throughout the world have demonstrated the powerful use of technology to shape political ideas, give people a voice, and impact human... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior in Social Studies Education
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Chapter 93
Carla Meskill, Shuyi Guan, Dongwan Ryu
A great deal of formal and informal language learning and teaching is taking place in cyberspace. A number of theoretically motivated affordances... Sample PDF
Learning Languages in Cyberspace
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Chapter 94
Bracha Kramarski
Online discussion forums have created both opportunities and challenges in the instruction of mathematics. They provide a variety of tools for... Sample PDF
Self-Regulated Learning in Online Mathematical Problem-Solving Discussion Forums
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Chapter 95
Cybertesting Behaviors  (pages 1156-1167)
Jeffrey R. Stowell, Wesley D. Allan
Online instruction and computerized testing has attracted a great deal of attention as college and universities increasingly move toward this mode... Sample PDF
Cybertesting Behaviors
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Chapter 96
Students’ Cyber-Plagiarism  (pages 1168-1177)
Tuomo Kakkonen, Maxim Mozgovoy
Educational institutions fight against students’ plagiarism, because plagiarizing contradicts the most basic learning principles. Among ways of... Sample PDF
Students’ Cyber-Plagiarism
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Chapter 97
Christa M. van Mierlo, Halszka Jarodzka, Femke Kirschner, Paul A. Kirschner
Cognitive load can be assessed and monitored using a multitude of subjective (self-reports, i.e. Hart & Staveland, 1988; Paas, 1992) and more... Sample PDF
Cognitive Load Theory in E-Learning
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Chapter 98
Victoria C. Coyle, Dianna L. Newman
As the number of Internet users grows, and the opportunities for online activity increase, it is worth considering what motivates or drives people... Sample PDF
Motivation in Online Environments
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Chapter 99
Christos N. Moridis, Anastasios A. Economides
During recent decades there has been an extensive progress towards several Artificial Intelligence (AI) concepts, such as that of intelligent agent.... Sample PDF
Affective Agents in E-Learning Platforms
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Chapter 100
Petter Bae Brandtzæg
This chapter aims to understand cyber behavior in terms of Internet usage patterns in Europe. It presents both an historical introduction to the... Sample PDF
Understanding Cyber Behavior in Europe
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Chapter 101
Alberto Chong, Cecilia de Mendoza
While the current scientific literature is quite scarce for most of the developing world, several leading researchers have made great strides in... Sample PDF
Cyber-Behaviors and Development Impacts in Latin America
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Chapter 102
Yurong He, Yang Wang
While China has the world’s largest Internet population, understanding of this huge group of Internet users still falls short. In this entry, the... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior of Chinese Internet Users
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Chapter 103
Mangala Anil Hirwade
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) was approved by the Government of India in the year 2006, comprising of 27 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) and 8... Sample PDF
Implementation of E-Governance in India
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Chapter 104
Kei Fuji, Fujio Yoshida
With the rapid growth of Internet in Japan, many researches have examined whether Internet use affects social behavior on daily life positively or... Sample PDF
Cyber Behavior and its Impact in Japan
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Chapter 105
Cyber Behaviors in Canada  (pages 1316-1327)
Matthieu J. Guitton
The real world impacts the use of the cyber world. Two characteristics shape the Canadian cyber world: first, the bilingual nature of Canada; second... Sample PDF
Cyber Behaviors in Canada
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Chapter 106
Alexander Voiskounsky
Theory, history (several decades long), and the current status of the studies in cyberpsychology in the USSR and later in Russia are presented in a... Sample PDF
The Origin and Current Status of Cyberpsychology in Russia
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