Optical Music Recognition: Architecture and Algorithms

Optical Music Recognition: Architecture and Algorithms

Pierfrancesco Bellini (University of Florence, Italy), Ivan Bruno (University of Florence, Italy) and Paolo Nesi (University of Florence, Italy)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 31
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-150-6.ch005
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Abstract

Optical music recognition is a key problem for coding western music sheets in the digital world. This problem has been addressed in several manners obtaining suitable results only when simple music constructs are processed. To this end, several different strategies have been followed, to pass from the simple music sheet image to a complete and consistent representation of music notation symbols (symbolic music notation or representation). Typically, image processing, pattern recognition and symbolic reconstruction are the technologies that have to be considered and applied in several manners the architecture of the so called OMR (Optical Music Recognition) systems. In this chapter, the O3MR (Object Oriented Optical Music Recognition) system is presented. It allows producing from the image of a music sheet the symbolic representation and save it in XML format (WEDELMUSIC XML and MUSICXML). The algorithms used in this process are those of the image processing, image segmentation, neural network pattern recognition, and symbolic reconstruction and reasoning. Most of the solutions can be applied in other field of image understanding. The development of the O3MR solution with all its algorithms has been partially supported by the European Commission, in the IMUTUS Research and Development project, while the related music notation editor has been partially funded by the research and development WEDELMUSIC project of the European Commission. The paper also includes a methodology for the assessment of other OMR systems. The set of metrics proposed has been used to assess the quality of results produce by the O3MR with respect the best OMR on market.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Kia Ng, Paolo Nesi
Chapter 1
Kia Ng, Paolo Nesi
The MUSICNETWORK project was co-supported by the European Commission to bring music industry and related research areas into the interactive... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia MUSICNETWORK: An Introduction
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Chapter 2
Pierfrancesco Bellini, Paolo Nesi, Giorgio Zioa
The evolution of digital communication devices and formats has recently produced fundamental changes in the practical approach to music... Sample PDF
MPEG Symbolic Music Representation: A Solution for Multimedia Music Applications
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Chapter 3
Pierfrancesco Bellini
The evolution of information technology has changed the use of music representation and notation in software applications, transforming and... Sample PDF
XML Music Notation Modelling for Multimedia: MPEG-SMR
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Chapter 4
Graham Jones, Bee Ong, Ivan Bruno, Kia NG
This paper presents the applications and practices in the domain of music imaging for musical scores (music sheets and music manuscripts), which... Sample PDF
Optical Music Imaging: Music Document Digitisation, Recognition, Evaluation, and Restoration
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Chapter 5
Pierfrancesco Bellini, Ivan Bruno, Paolo Nesi
Optical music recognition is a key problem for coding western music sheets in the digital world. This problem has been addressed in several manners... Sample PDF
Optical Music Recognition: Architecture and Algorithms
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Chapter 6
Jacques Steyn
XML-based languages for music have constraints not applicable to typical XML applications such as for standard text documents or data sets. Music... Sample PDF
Challenges of Designing a Markup Language for Music
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Chapter 7
Jacques Steyn
Design goals determine the particular structure of a markup language, while the philosophy of what markup languages are about determine the... Sample PDF
Alternative Design Goals for a General Music Markup Language
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Chapter 8
Michael Olivia
This chapter considers the development of systems to deliver multimedia content for new opera. After a short overview of the history of multimedia... Sample PDF
Interactive Systems for Multimedia Opera
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Chapter 9
Cornelius Poepel
An overview on problems and methods to map performers’ actions to a synthesized sound is presented. Approaches incorporating the audio signal are... Sample PDF
Driving Sound Synthesis with a Live Audio Signal
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Chapter 10
David Luigi Fuschi, Bee Ong, David Crombie
From the authors’ perspective, technology is both a tool and a developing factor which can foster cul-ture and learning development. This chapter... Sample PDF
How Technology Can Support Culture and Learning
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Chapter 11
Somnuk Phon-Amnuaisuk, Chee Keh Siong
Our work bridges two interesting topics: the research in the area of web-based applications and the area of learning technologies. We give an... Sample PDF
Web-Based Music Intelligent Tutoring Systems
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Chapter 12
Jaime Delgado, Eva Rodríguez
This chapter discusses technologies and standards related to digital rights management (DRM). Firstly, it presents DRM systems that are multimedia... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management Technologies and Standards
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Chapter 13
Martin Schmucker
This chapter explains the fundamental principles of audiovisual content protection. It explains the basic knowledge that is needed to understand the... Sample PDF
Possibilities, Limitations, and the Future of Audiovisual Content Protection
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Chapter 14
Online Music Distribution  (pages 325-363)
Francesco Spadoni
This Chapter analyses multiple aspects of on-line music distribution, investigating the major problems, the different approaches and business... Sample PDF
Online Music Distribution
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About the Contributors