What is intelligence? What do we know about knowledge? Are design and technological knowledge unique? Do different types of knowledge demand different organizations? How can we employ cognitive skills in the resolution of technological problems? This chapter provides an introduction to current theories of intelligence and knowledge with an emphasis on instructional organization. We will discuss learning theories and theories of cognition in Chapter VI. In the previous chapter, we acknowledged that despite the proliferation of communication and information technologies, communication skills for most people have atrophied. At the same time this proliferation of new technologies has created conditions for what we experience as information overload. For this reason, it is extremely important that teachers develop effective skills and techniques for the communication, organization, and presentation of information and knowledge. It is essential that teachers develop working understandings of current theories of knowledge and skills. Our understandings of technological knowledge and literacy along with the theories that we act on determine the way we teach about, through, and for design and technology. Current theories of intelligence, or cognitive pluralism, and the organization of knowledge are fundamental to effective instruction. This chapter builds on the basic communication and organization techniques provided in Chapter I. The effective organization of instruction requires the effective organization of knowledge.