P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment

P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment

Leonardo B. Oliveira (University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil), Isabela G. Siqueira (Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil), Daniel F. Macedo (Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris VI, France), José M. Nogueira (Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil) and Antonio A.F. Loureiro (Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-715-7.ch005
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Abstract

Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to route queries in a distributed environment. However, whilst MANETs are composed of resource-constrained devices susceptible to faults, P2P networks are popular for their resilience and fault-tolerance. This makes P2P networks the ideal data sharing system for MANETs. This chapter focuses on the integration of these networks. More specifically, the authors evaluate routing strategies of both the network layer and the application layer. Their results indicate that the performance of the protocols depends greatly on the environment and point out the need for new approaches.
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Introduction

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks have emerged as a solution for data sharing as well as processing in distributed environments (Borg, 2003; Talia & Trunfio, 2003; Oliveira, Siqueira, & Loureiro, 2005), and have been rapidly and widely adopted in the Internet.

At the same time, Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) have enabled a wide range of novel applications in areas such as medicine, including pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency care, rescue team communication in disaster situations, and exchange of information in battle fields (Zhou & Haas, 1999; Borg, 2003), situations where it is not possible to rely on previous infrastructure.

The P2P paradigm (Oram, 2001) is the basis for both P2P networks and MANETs. One of the most significant characteristics of the P2P paradigm is the fact that central units, which manage and meet the needs of the network, are non-existent. In this model, nodes have equivalent features and capabilities and as a consequence, are called “peers”. Every peer thus is able to launch and answer requests originated from any other peer. Additionally, both MANETs and P2P networks are self-organizing networks with dynamic topology responsible for routing queries in a distributed environment.

MANETs and P2P networks are not only similar, but complement each other. Nodes in a MANET typically have low computing capacity and, therefore, are unable to play the role of servers. On the other hand, a P2P application appears to be a powerful tool to disseminate information in MANETs. In other words, since a P2P network does not possess a unique service provider at a certain time, the distribution of tasks among nodes prevents them from becoming overloaded.

Some MANET-enabled applications (e.g. rescue team communication in a disaster scenario and information exchange in battle fields) are bound to have peers cooperating continuously with other peers. For instance, a rescue team player could request the location of his nearest colleague. Although a central server could store such an information, this approach is not only more expensive (as it requires more hops and frequent location updates) but also less resilient: a single point of failure is not desirable in rescue team situations, and servers are the target of attacks in battle fields. In spite of the synergy between P2P systems and MANETs, their integration is not straightforward.

Routing in MANETs was conceived for client-server applications, which usually employ asymmetric flows (i.e., many-to-one). This characteristic contrasts sharply with P2P systems, which have a many-to-many traffic pattern. P2P networks, conversely, have been designed assuming the conventional Internet infrastructure, i.e., a static and fixed underlying topology. As a result, it is crucial that novel solutions, which would take into account the idiosyncrasies of both P2P and ad hoc networks, be devised for P2P systems operating over MANETs (P2P over MANETs).

In this work, we conduct a detailed routing assessment of P2P over MANETs. Specifically, we carried out the following evaluations: (i) AODV (Perkins & Royer, 1999), DSR (Johnson & Maltz, 2001), and DSDV (Perkins & Bhagwat, 1994) routing protocols under a Gnutella P2P network; and (ii) two P2P protocols Gnutella & Chord (Stoica et al., 2003) over MANET with AODV as the network routing protocol.

The remainder of this work is organized as follows. We first explain the synergy between P2P networks and MANETs. Next, we discuss related works on P2P over MANETs. This is followed by a description of the network characterization process. We then evaluate several MANET routing protocols under P2P networks and provide a discussion of the results. Finally, we conclude the chapter.

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Boon-Chong Seet
Chapter 1
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Pascal Felber
The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly... Sample PDF
P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
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Chapter 2
Thomas Repantis, Vana Kalogeraki
In this chapter the authors study the problems of data dissemination and query routing in mobile peerto- peer networks. They provide a taxonomy and... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 3
Jie Feng, Lisong Xu, Byrav Ramamurthy
With the evolution of wireless technologies, mobile networks can provide much more interesting services and resources to users than before.... Sample PDF
Overlay Construction in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 4
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah, Li Li
Peer-to-Peer computing is a popular, relatively new, distributed computing paradigm. It allows for a flexible set of participants to coordinate... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in a P2P System for Publish/Subscribe Applications
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Chapter 5
Leonardo B. Oliveira, Isabela G. Siqueira, Daniel F. Macedo, José M. Nogueira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro
Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to... Sample PDF
P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment
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Chapter 6
Fotis Loukos, Helen Karatza
Mobile Peer-to-Peer networks are an emerging topic in networking. One of the major usages is the cooperation between peers. The aim of this chapter... Sample PDF
Enabling Cooperation in MANET-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems
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Chapter 7
Tobias Hoßfeld, Daniel Schlosser, Kurt Tutschku, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 8
Tobias Hoßfeld, Michael Duelli, Dirk Staehle, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity
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Chapter 9
Wei Wu, Kian-Lee Tan
Caching and prefetching are two effective ways for mobile peers to improve access latency in mobile environments. With short-range communication... Sample PDF
Peer-Based Collaborative Caching and Prefetching in Mobile Broadcast
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Chapter 10
Mark Kai-Ho Yeung, Yu-Kwong Kwok
The widespread deployment of competing wireless technologies has created new research opportunities. In particular, the authors consider media... Sample PDF
Wireless Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Incentives and Resource Management Issues
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Chapter 11
Panayotis Antoniadis
The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices... Sample PDF
Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality
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Chapter 12
Johann van der Merwe, Dawoud Dawoud
Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing... Sample PDF
Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
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Chapter 13
James Walkerdine, Peter Phillips, Simon Lock
The growth of mobile devices with near PC equivalent capabilities has brought with it the possibility of mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. However... Sample PDF
A Tool Supported Methodology for Developing Secure Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 14
Spyridon L. Tompros
Enabled by the emergence of high-speed Internet access in last mile communications, P2P systems have witnessed significant growth in the recent... Sample PDF
Integration and Interworking of Fixed and Mobile P2P Systems
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Chapter 15
Erkki Harjula, Jani Hautakorpi, Nicklas Beijar, Mika Ylianttila
Due to the increasing popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, the information technology industry and standardization organizations have started... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer SIP for Mobile Computing: Challenges and Solutions
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Chapter 16
Kurt Tutschku, Andreas Berl, Tobias Hossfeld, Hermann de Meer
The telecommunication industry has recently seen two areas with very high growth rates: cellular networks, for example, GSM (Global System for... Sample PDF
Mobile P2P in Cellular Mobile Networks: Architecture and Performance
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Chapter 17
Norihiro Ishikawa, Hiromitsu Sumino, Takeshi Kato, Johan Hjelm, Shingo Murakami, Kazuhiro Kitagawa, Nobuo Saito
Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer technologies has functions to realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform and Its Applications for Mobile Phones
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Chapter 18
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Timothée Maret
Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number... Sample PDF
Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
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Chapter 19
Alf Inge Wang
This chapter presents the Peer2Me mobile peer-to-peer framework, Peer2Me applications, and discusses the experiences from using the Peer2Me... Sample PDF
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Framework and Applications
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Chapter 20
Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Luciana S. Lima, Markus Endler
This chapter surveys the approaches to service discovery that are relevant to mobile peer-to-peer systems in a variety of scenarios. More... Sample PDF
Service Discovery Approaches to Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing
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Chapter 21
Marco Conti, Franca Delmastro, Andrea Passarella
Recently, the popularity of p2p computing paradigm has been increasing, especially in the mobile environments, due to the large use of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Aware P2P Over Opportunistic Networks
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About the Contributors