A Pedagogical Odyssey in Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds: The SECOND LIFE® Model

A Pedagogical Odyssey in Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds: The SECOND LIFE® Model

Sharon Stoerger (Indiana University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-729-4.ch014
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Schools based in the United States are trapped in a Henry Ford factory model of education that is focused on high-stakes testing. This model was effective when factories needed workers who possessed the same skill set. But the world has changed and societal demands on student learning have increased. Moreover, millions of students are failing to graduate from high school, which is a problem that continues to escalate. In an attempt to prepare students for work in the 21st century and to address the dropout crisis, educators are examining ways to integrate virtual worlds, including digital games, into the curriculum. This chapter begins by summarizing some of the theories that commonly frame the discussions about these worlds. Next an examination of the issues surrounding virtual worlds is presented. The concluding sections outline and describe the pedagogical mnemonic known as the “SECOND LIFE” model.
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The demand for education is on the rise. Between 2006 and 2015, the National Center for Educational Statistics (2006) anticipates a 13% increase in college enrollment alone. But for the most part, our academic institutions continue to follow a trajectory put forth in the 19th century (Herz cited in Foreman, 2004) – a path based on rote learning and high-stakes testing. While the Henry Ford model of education may have been effective when factories needed workers, today’s world is different and the societal demands on student learning are higher. Students in the 21st century are tech-savvy and claim that they are bored with school (Prensky, 2001). At the same time, school dropout rates in the United States have risen to crisis levels (e.g., Spellings, 2008). For students who do graduate from high school and college, the reports about their on-the-job performance are not positive. In fact, many employers note dissatisfaction with the young people that they hire (Cassner-Lotto & Wright Benner, 2006).

In an attempt to rectify this situation, individuals are investigating ways to make education more appealing and relevant to students by integrating fun into the curriculum (Barab et al., 2005; Quinn, 2005).To do this, educators are exploring a variety of technological options including virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL). This chapter begins by acknowledging the theoretical perspectives that inform teaching and learning initiatives that take place in virtual worlds. Constructivist, situated learning, and digital game-based learning theories will serve as the framework for this discussion. Next, the discussion explores the educational possibilities afforded by these spaces and the challenges teachers and students may face in-world. And finally, the chapter concludes with an outline of a pedagogical structure to support teaching and learning in virtual worlds - the SECOND LIFE model.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
George Siemens
Harrison Hao Yang, Steve Chi-Yin Yuen
Chapter 1
Stephen Downes
The purpose of this chapter is to outline some of the thinking behind new e-learning technology, including e-portfolios and personal learning... Sample PDF
Learning Networks and Connective Knowledge
Chapter 2
Ann Dutton Ewbank, Adam G. Kay, Teresa S. Foulger, Heather L. Carter
This chapter reviews the capabilities of social networking tools and links those capabilities to recent legal and ethical controversies involving... Sample PDF
Conceptualizing Codes of Conduct in Social Networking Communities
Chapter 3
Judi Repman, Cordelia Zinskie, Elizabeth Downs
As online learning continues to expand and evolve, new challenges emerge regarding the implementation of Web 2.0 tools and technologies in online... Sample PDF
Fulfilling the Promise: Addressing Institutional Factors that Impede the Implementation of E-Learning 2.0
Chapter 4
Robert Z. Zheng
The growth of online resources and the advancement of Web 2.0 technology are changing the instructional landscape and have significantly impacted... Sample PDF
Designing Dynamic Learning Environment for Web 2.0 Application
Chapter 5
Marshall G. Jones, Stephen W. Harmon
This chapter deals centrally with one emerging aspect of Web 2.0 for education, that of the increasing demand for real time and near real-time... Sample PDF
Instructional Strategies for Teaching in Synchronous Online Learning Environments (SOLE)
Chapter 6
Daniel W. Surry, David C. Ensminger
Higher education is changing in important and profound ways. New technologies are enabling universities to reach new students and create innovative... Sample PDF
University 2.0: Human, Social, and Societal Issues
Chapter 7
Jay Alden
The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies with its emphasis on social networking has presented an opportunity for academic institutions to take... Sample PDF
Use of Wikis to Support Collaboration among Online Students
Chapter 8
Curtis J. Bonk, Mimi Miyoung Lee, Nari Kim, Meng-Fen Grace Lin
A Wikibook is a transformative and disruptive technology that is finding increasing use in schools and higher education institutions. This new form... Sample PDF
Wikibook Transformations and Disruptions: Looking Back Twenty Years to Today
Chapter 9
Chareen Snelson
The recent explosive growth of Web-based video has expanded the repository of free content that can be tapped into for e-learning. Millions of video... Sample PDF
Web-Based Video for e-Learning: Tapping into the YouTubeTM Phenomenon
Chapter 10
Deborah Everhart, Kaye Shelton
Collaborative research teaches students critical knowledge management skills, whether they are undergraduates learning the basics of Web research or... Sample PDF
From Information Literacy to Scholarly Identity: Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Social Bookmarking
Chapter 11
Morris S.Y. Jong, Junjie Shang, Fong-Lok Lee, Jimmy H.M. Lee
VISOLE (Virtual Interactive Student-Oriented Learning Environment) is a constructivist pedagogical approach to empower computer game-based learning.... Sample PDF
VISOLE: A Constructivist Pedagogical Approach to Game-Based Learning
Chapter 12
Patricia Edwards, Mercedes Rico, Eva Dominguez, J. Enrique Agudo
Web 2.0 technologies are described as new and emerging for all fields of knowledge, including academia. Innovative e-learning formats like on-demand... Sample PDF
Second Language E-Learning and Professional Training with Second Life®
Chapter 13
Hyung Sung Park, Young Kyun Baek
The purpose of this chapter is to offer practical ideas and cases for educational use of the Second Life® virtual world with Web 2.0 based... Sample PDF
Empirical Evidence and Practical Cases for Using Virtual Worlds in Educational Contexts
Chapter 14
Sharon Stoerger
Schools based in the United States are trapped in a Henry Ford factory model of education that is focused on high-stakes testing. This model was... Sample PDF
A Pedagogical Odyssey in Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds: The SECOND LIFE® Model
Chapter 15
Youmei Liu, Shawn McCombs
E-Learning has undergone an amazing metamorphosis: it has changed from the delivery of individualized, static curricular information to the... Sample PDF
Podcasting: A Flexible E-Learning Tool
Chapter 16
Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Harrison Hao Yang
This chapter provides an overview and development of sense of community and social networking; discusses the potential uses of social networking in... Sample PDF
Using Social Networking to Enhance Sense of Community in E-Learning Courses
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