People-Led Enterprise Architecture

People-Led Enterprise Architecture

Neil Fairhead (Fujitsu Services, UK) and John Good (Serco Consulting, UK)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch013
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This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology. It identifies the major stakeholders in Enterprise Architecture and suggests where in the organisation they may be found and how they may be connected with the Enterprise Architecture. It highlights the roles of stakeholders throughout the process of defining and implementing an Enterprise Architecture. The view of stakeholders managing the EA effort is described through the complete lifecycle, from setting the EA mission to sustaining the benefits after implementation. In proposing the adoption of such an approach, we aim to encourage a more direct link between Enterprise Architecture, the needs of the stakeholders it serves, and the pubic policy outcomes it enables.
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Over recent years there has been an increasing focus in Government and the wider public sector on technology and transformation. For example, the UK Government published ‘Transformational Government – Enabled by Technology’ (Cabinet Office, 2005) as a key strategy for the reform of public service provision and managing the relationship between citizens, organisations and Government. However, while technology does enable transformation, it does not cause it. People have to decide what transformation is needed and why. They have to think through all the steps which lead from current situation to desired state – and build the plans to implement those steps.

People have to communicate to everybody impacted by the proposed change that the change is necessary, that it is possible and that it will happen – again and again. In short, People have to lead the change – if they want other people to follow it.

Figure 1.

However, there are still many government organisations where enterprise architecture is led by a choice of method or framework, or a desire to model the enterprise, before an understanding of the problem, from the problem owner’s perspective, is obtained. Coupled with a typically long distance from the determination of public policy and the delivery of public services to the chief architect (if one even exists), enterprise architecture has a long way to go to realise its potential in the public sector.

This chapter, based on our experience of doing enterprise architecture in the public sector, describes how enterprise architects can deliver an approach in which people lead, and technology enables, real business transformation. We propose a “both/and” world not an “either/or” one. Both people and technology are necessary but the sequence is important. There are still far too many large change programmes which come close to failure because the people affected were not involved early enough and so are not committed. It is not the technology that successfully delivers transformation, it is people using the technology. Beginning enterprise architecture with this simple recognition and ensuring that people are at the centre of the architecture – the big picture of change – is a strong first step towards successful transformation.

This approach, and therefore this chapter, is as much about choices and values as it is about specific techniques. Enterprise architecture is about change. Change is driven by a need to improve the business outcomes. The current outcomes are not satisfactory or are not sustainable. Stakeholders in these outcomes, i.e. people, have to choose what needs to change in order to achieve the improved outcomes. The changes are implemented though changes to the enterprise assets which are the subject of the enterprise architecture. Hence the key link between the target outcomes and the enterprise architecture is the stakeholder. Enterprise architecture must therefore be people-led and people-focused to make a lasting and positive impact.

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Table of Contents
John A. Zachman
Pallab Saha
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
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