The Process and Application of XML Data Mining

The Process and Application of XML Data Mining

Richi Nayak (Queensland University of Technology, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-990-8.ch015
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Abstract

XML has gained popularity for information representation, exchange and retrieval. As XML material becomes more abundant, its heterogeneity and structural irregularity limit the knowledge that can be gained. The utilisation of data mining techniques becomes essential for improvement in XML document handling. This chapter presents the capabilities and benefits of data mining techniques in the XML domain, as well as, a conceptualization of the XML mining process. It also discusses the techniques that can be applied to XML document structure and/or content for knowledge discovery.
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Introduction

The Web is an immense and dynamic collection of pages and services that includes countless hyperlinks, thus, it provides a rich and diversified data mining source. Currently, the majority of this information is in Hyper Text Markup Language (html). html tags are primarily formatting markup and were designed to convey technical reports. Some internal structural information can be inferred from them, (e.g. <h1> indicating important information) but they hold no semantic information regarding content. With an increasingly distributed corporate world and progression to Web 2.0, HTML is considered an inferior means of data exchange.

To overcome these limitations, XML (eXtensible Markup Language) uses custom-defined tags to describe the data and the structural relationships of data within a document. XML is a subset of SGML (ISO 8879) and is defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (Yergeau et al., 2004). XML tags describe the structural and semantic meaning of information in text documents thus make the XML documents semi-structured and self-describing. XML is rapidly becoming the standard for exchanging and representing data. Many information sources have already or are beginning to structure their external view as a repository of XML documents, regardless of their internal storage mechanism.

As XML data becomes more abundant, the ability to gain knowledge from XML sources decreases due to their heterogeneity and structural irregularity. Several advanced data processing techniques are required to retrieve and analyse such large amounts of semi-structured data. Automatic storage of XML documents in the form of relational or object- oriented data has been actively studied by database researchers (Abiteboul et al., 2000) (Lee et al., 2002). Other researchers have successfully stored XML documents in native XML databases (Pardede, 2006). Consequently, several query languages for various XML data sources have been developed (Boag et al.). The use of these query languages is limited, for example, users need to know what kind of information is to be accessed and only limited inputs and outputs are acceptable. Additionally, indexing based on structural similarity and/or based on groupings of XML documents sharing frequent sub-structures are needed to support effective document storage and retrieval (Nayak et al., 2002).

Data mining techniques such as clustering (Jain et al., 1999) can improve XML document storage and retrieval by grouping XML documents according to their structural similarity. Computation of structural similarity is also a great value in managing the Web data. Many techniques of extraction and integration of relevant information from the Web data sources require grouping the Web data sources according to their structural similarity (Flesca et al., 2005). Moreover data mining (Fayyad, 1995) techniques allow the user to search for unknown facts, information that is hidden behind the data, and also allow users to pose more complex queries. For example, after identifying similarities among various XML documents using clustering, links between tags within a group of XML documents can be analysed using association mining. This may prove useful in analysis of e-commerce Web documents and subsequently in personalisation of Web pages.

There is a considerable body of research on mining useful information from numerical, symbolic and text data (Han & Kamber, 2001). There have been some progress on using XML as a language in data mining process models such as (1) Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) (Wettschereck, 2001) for utilizing XML to specify several kinds of data mining models, (2) XML based Data Mining Specification Language (XDMSL) for describing the data mining process (Kotásek & Zendulka, 2002) and (3) Log Markup Language for utilizing XML to structurally express the contents of Web server log files(Punin et al., 2001).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Subtree: The tree which is a child of a node in another tree.

XML Frequent Structures Mining: Identifying frequently occurring structures in the schema (e.g DTD (Document Type Definition), XML Schema), which describes the structure of an XML document

frequent patterns miningFrequent Patterns Mining: A Data Mining area focussing on the extraction of frequent patterns from a given data.

Frequent Patterns: Patterns which occurs more than a user-specified threshold limit (minimum support or min_supp) in a given database.

Contents in XML Document: The text between the start and end tag in an XML document. For instance, Data Mining , content refers to the text “Data Mining” between the tags

XML Frequent Content Mining: Mining for frequently occurring values which are instances of a relation in the XML document.

Subgraph: A graph whose vertices and edges are subsets of another graph.

Structures in XML Document: The element tags and their nesting dictate the structure of an XML document.

XML frequent patterns miningFrequent Patterns Mining: Mining of XML documents for frequent patterns which are either structural or content-oriented or a combination of both.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Xiaohua Hu
Preface
Min Song, Yi-Fang Brook Wu
Acknowledgment
Min Song, Yi-Fang Brook Wu
Chapter 1
Ying Liu
In the automated text classification, a bag-of-words representation followed by the tfidf weighting is the most popular approach to convert the... Sample PDF
On Document Representation and Term Weights in Text Classification
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Chapter 2
Yi-fang Brook Wu, Quanzhi Li
Document keyphrases provide semantic metadata which can characterize documents and produce an overview of the content of a document. This chapter... Sample PDF
Deriving Document Keyphrases for Text Mining
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Chapter 3
John Atkinson
This chapter introduces a novel evolutionary model for intelligent text mining. The model deals with issues concerning shallow text representation... Sample PDF
Intelligent Text Mining: Putting Evolutionary Methods and Language Technologies Together
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Chapter 4
Xiaoyan Yu, Manas Tungare, Weigo Yuan, Yubo Yuan, Manuel Pérez-Quiñones, Edward A. Fox
Syllabi are important educational resources. Gathering syllabi that are freely available and creating useful services on top of the collection... Sample PDF
Automatic Syllabus Classification Using Support Vector Machines
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Chapter 5
Xiao-Li Li
In traditional text categorization, a classifier is built using labeled training documents from a set of predefined classes. This chapter studies a... Sample PDF
Partially Supervised Text Categorization
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Chapter 6
Yu-Jin Zhang
Mining techniques can play an important role in automatic image classification and content-based retrieval. A novel method for image classification... Sample PDF
Image Classification and Retrieval with Mining Technologies
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Chapter 7
Han-joon Kim
This chapter introduces two practical techniques for improving Naïve Bayes text classifiers that are widely used for text classification. The Naïve... Sample PDF
Improving Techniques for Naïve Bayes Text Classifiers
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Chapter 8
Ricco Rakotomalala, Faouzi Mhamdi
In this chapter, we are interested in proteins classification starting from their primary structures. The goal is to automatically affect proteins... Sample PDF
Using the Text Categorization Framework for Protein Classification
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Chapter 9
Wilson Wong
Feature-based semantic measurements have played a dominant role in conventional data clustering algorithms for many existing applications. However... Sample PDF
Featureless Data Clustering
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Chapter 10
Xiaohui Cui
In this chapter, we introduce three nature inspired swarm intelligence clustering approaches for document clustering analysis. The major challenge... Sample PDF
Swarm Intelligence in Text Document Clustering
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Chapter 11
P. Viswanth
Clustering is a process of finding natural grouping present in a dataset. Various clustering methods are proposed to work with various types of... Sample PDF
Some Efficient and Fast Approaches to Document Clustering
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Chapter 12
Abdelmalek Amine, Zakaria Elberrichi, Michel Simonet, Ladjel Bellatreche, Mimoun Malki
The classification of textual documents has been the subject of many studies. Technologies like the Web and numerical libraries facilitated the... Sample PDF
SOM-Based Clustering of Textual Documents Using WordNet
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Chapter 13
Lean Yu, Shouyang Wang, Kin Keung Lai
With the rapid increase of the huge amount of online information, there is a strong demand for Web text mining which helps people discover some... Sample PDF
A Multi-Agent Neural Network System for Web Text Mining
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Chapter 14
Sangeetha Kutty
With the emergence of XML standardization, XML documents have been widely used and accepted in almost all the major industries. As a result of the... Sample PDF
Frequent Mining on XML Documents
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Chapter 15
Richi Nayak
XML has gained popularity for information representation, exchange and retrieval. As XML material becomes more abundant, its heterogeneity and... Sample PDF
The Process and Application of XML Data Mining
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Chapter 16
Francesco Buccafurri
In the context of Knowledge Discovery in Databases, data reduction is a pre-processing step delivering succinct yet meaningful data to sequent... Sample PDF
Approximate Range Querying over Sliding Windows
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Chapter 17
Jan H. Kroeze
This chapter discusses the application of some data warehousing techniques on a data cube of linguistic data. The results of various modules of... Sample PDF
Slicing and Dicing a Linguistic Data Cube
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Chapter 18
Yi-fang Brook Wu, Xin Chen
This chapter presents a methodology for personalized knowledge discovery from text. Traditionally, problems with text mining are numerous rules... Sample PDF
Discovering Personalized Novel Knowledge from Text
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Chapter 19
Catia Pesquita
Biomedical research generates a vast amount of information that is ultimately stored in scientific publications or in databases. The information in... Sample PDF
Untangling BioOntologies for Mining Biomedical Information
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Chapter 20
Luis M. de Campos
In this chapter, we present a thesaurus application in the field of text mining and more specifically automatic indexing on the set of descriptors... Sample PDF
Thesaurus-Based Automatic Indexing
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Chapter 21
Concept-Based Text Mining  (pages 346-358)
Stanley Loh, Leandro Krug Wives, Daniel Lichtnow, José Palazzo M. de Oliveira
The goal of this chapter is to present an approach to mine texts through the analysis of higher level characteristics (called “concepts’)... Sample PDF
Concept-Based Text Mining
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Chapter 22
Marcello Pecoraro
This chapter aims at providing an overview about the use of statistical methods supporting the Web Usage Mining. Within the first part is described... Sample PDF
Statistical Methods for User Profiling in Web Usage Mining
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Chapter 23
Quanzhi Li, Yi-fang Brook Wu
This chapter presents a new approach of mining the Web to identify people of similar background. To find similar people from the Web for a given... Sample PDF
Web Mining to Identify People of Similar Background
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Chapter 24
Pawan Lingras
This chapter describes how Web usage patterns can be used to improve the navigational structure of a Web site. The discussion begins with an... Sample PDF
Hyperlink Structure Inspired by Web Usage
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Chapter 25
Rosa Meo, Maristella Matera
In this chapter, we present the usage of a modeling language, WebML, for the design and the management of dynamic Web applications. WebML also makes... Sample PDF
Designing and Mining Web Applications: A Conceptual Modeling Approach
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Chapter 26
Brigitte Trousse, Marie-Aude Aufaure, Bénédicte Le Grand, Yves Lechevallier, Florent Masseglia
This chapter proposes an original approach for ontology management in the context of Web-based information systems. Our approach relies on the usage... Sample PDF
Web Usage Mining for Ontology Management
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Chapter 27
Yue-Shi Lee
Web mining is one of the mining technologies, which applies data mining techniques in large amounts of Web data to improve the Web services. Web... Sample PDF
A Lattice-Based Framework for Interactively and Incrementally Mining Web Traversal Patterns
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Chapter 28
Stanley R.M. Oliveira, Osmar R. Zaïane
Privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM) is one of the newest trends in privacy and security research. It is driven by one of the major policy issues... Sample PDF
Privacy-Preserving Data Mining on the Web: Foundations and Techniques
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Chapter 29
G.S. Mahalakshmi, S. Sendhilkumar
Automatic reference tracking involves systematic tracking of reference articles listed for a particular research paper by extracting the references... Sample PDF
Automatic Reference Tracking
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Chapter 30
Wilson Wong
As more electronic text is readily available, and more applications become knowledge intensive and ontology-enabled, term extraction, also known as... Sample PDF
Determination of Unithood and Termhood for Term Recognition
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Chapter 31
Fotis Lazarinis
Over 60% of the online population are non-English speakers and it is probable the number of non-English speakers is growing faster than English... Sample PDF
Retrieving Non-Latin Information in a Latin Web: The Case of Greek
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Chapter 32
Anne Kao
Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) or Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), when applied to information retrieval, has been a major analysis approach in text... Sample PDF
Latent Semantic Analysis and Beyond
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Chapter 33
Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Text mining systems such as categorizers and query retrievers of the first generation were largely hinged on word level statistics and provided a... Sample PDF
Question Answering Using Word Associations
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Chapter 34
Giuseppe Manco, Riccardo Ortale, Andrea Tagarelli
Personalization is aimed at adapting content delivery to users’ profiles: namely, their expectations, preferences and requirements. This chapter... Sample PDF
The Scent of a Newsgroup: Providing Personalized Access to Usenet Sites through Web Mining
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Chapter 35
Alexander Dreweke, Ingrid Fischer, Tobias Werth, Marc Wörlein
Searching for frequent pieces in a database with some sort of text is a well-known problem. A special sort of text is program code as e.g. C++ or... Sample PDF
Text Mining in Program Code
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Chapter 36
Nitin Agarwal, Huan Liu, Jianping Zhang
In Golbeck and Hendler (2006), authors consider those social friendship networking sites where users explicitly provide trust ratings to other... Sample PDF
A Study of Friendship Networks and Blogosphere
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Chapter 37
Pasquale De Meo
In this chapter we present an information system conceived for supporting managers of Public Health Care Agencies to decide the new health care... Sample PDF
An HL7-Aware Decision Support System for E-Health
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Chapter 38
Diego Liberati
Building effective multitarget classifiers is still an on-going research issue: this chapter proposes the use of the knowledge gleaned from a human... Sample PDF
Multitarget Classifiers for Mining in Bioinformatics
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Chapter 39
Shuting Xu
Text mining is an instrumental technology that today’s organizations can employ to extract information and further evolve and create valuable... Sample PDF
Current Issues and Future Analysis in Text Mining for Information Security Applications
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Chapter 40
E. Thirumaran
This chapter introduces Collaborative filtering-based recommendation systems, which has become an integral part of E-commerce applications, as can... Sample PDF
Collaborative Filtering Based Recommendation Systems
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Chapter 41
Hanna Suominen
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of prevalent measures for evaluating the quality of system output in seven key text mining... Sample PDF
Performance Evaluation Measures for Text Mining
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Chapter 42
Yanliang Qi
The biology literatures have been increased in an exponential growth in recent year. The researchers need an effective tool to help them find out... Sample PDF
Text Mining in Bioinformatics: Research and Application
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Chapter 43
Ki Jung Lee
With the increased use of Internet, a large number of consumers first consult on line resources for their healthcare decisions. The problem of the... Sample PDF
Literature Review in Computational Linguistics Issues in the Developing Field of Consumer Informatics: Finding the Right Information for Consumer's Health Information Need
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Chapter 44
Richard S. Segall
This chapter presents background on text mining, and comparisons and summaries of seven selected software for text mining. The text mining software... Sample PDF
A Survey of Selected Software Technologies for Text Mining
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Chapter 45
Ah Chung Tsoi, Phuong Kim To, Markus Hagenbuchner
This chapter describes the application of a number of text mining techniques to discover patterns in the health insurance schedule with an aim to... Sample PDF
Application of Text Mining Methodologies to Health Insurance Schedules
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Chapter 46
Miao-Ling Wang, Hsiao-Fan Wang
With the ever-increasing and ever-changing flow of information available on the Web, information analysis has never been more important. Web text... Sample PDF
Web Mining System for Mobile-Phone Marketing
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Chapter 47
Neil Davis
Text mining technology can be used to assist in finding relevant or novel information in large volumes of unstructured data, such as that which is... Sample PDF
Web Service Architectures for Text Mining: An Exploration of the Issues via an E-Science Demonstrator
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About the Editors
About the Contributors