Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code

Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code

Ellen L. Bloxsome (Queensland University of Technology, Australia) and Nigel K. Ll. Pope (Griffith University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-406-4.ch020
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This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with athletes. Correspondence analysis is a frequently used tool for social network analysis that evaluates relationships between actors and events. Correspondence analysis allows examination of the effectiveness of positioning efforts, as well as the assessment of potential brand damage caused by the off-field activities of athletes and endorsers. This technique can be used for snap-shot analyses of events, or longitudinal evaluation of changes in consumer and media schemas over time. The digital emphasis of the paper incorporates use of both non-traditional and external media commentary made about athletes and brands. Where media commentary is not controlled by management groups or brands, evaluation of potential schemas developing out of external media sources becomes important. Web logs, fan sites, and other digital information sources outside the control of sport managers contribute to the development of consumer perceptions, potentially affecting consumer sport involvement and merchandising revenue. When external media sources focus primarily on negative on- and off-field behavior by athletes, we suggest that there is potential for digital damage to sporting codes and brands.
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As the penultimate game of the NFL, the Super Bowl is routinely investigated because of its economic impact and advertising spectacle. However, Super Bowl crowds have not increased much since the inception of the competition. In 1967 attendance at the first game was 61,946; while in the last 20 years it has averaged 73,600 (NFL, n.d). Despite this, revenues are strong. Following the 2008 event Arizona reportedly gained additional income of $500 million from an average tourist spend of $600 per day, during a four day visit (Associated Press, 2008). This type of figure alone indicates the importance of research into this area. That said, game attendance and tourist spending provide only half the picture of commercial sport as a business.

Speculation about attendance figures for the Indianapolis 500 has occurred each year since Tony Hulman purchased the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in 1945. It appears that this will be a perennially unresolved issue (Cavin, 2004). The Speedway provides approximately 250,000 ticketed seats, a large crowd by any standard, although unsubstantiated guess-estimates of race day crowds have reached as high as 400,000 (Cavin, 2004). Spectators who do not hold tickets for seats stand on spectator mounds, and it is this group that is hardest to count. Yet it is still only a fraction of the real audience.

For the 2008 race, 50 hours of broadcast were scheduled for television and radio (Powell, 2008). Podcasts and other multimedia events were provided by the series organizers and various race sponsors during the month of May. Authorized and scheduled media exposure of this event is extensive. Unofficial commentary, including websites endorsing all manner of racing paraphernalia, blog sites, and commercial sites that are effectively engaged in ambush marketing, are also to be found. The resultant noise surrounding the event can make it difficult to distinguish between the official sites and myriad others.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Graham Cuskelly
Nigel Pope, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, John J.H. Forster
Chapter 1
John J.H. Forster
One of the major forces shaping modern sport is the application of digital technology. This is transforming the mass consumption, distribution... Sample PDF
Digital Technologies and the Intensification of Economic and Organisational Mechanisms in Commercial Sport
Chapter 2
Sean Reilly, Peter Barron, Vinny Cahill, Kieran Moran, Mads Haahr
The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of... Sample PDF
A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems
Chapter 3
Veljko Potkonjak, Miomir Vukobratovic, Kalman Babkovic, Branislav Borovac
This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a... Sample PDF
Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports
Chapter 4
Brendan Burkett
Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of... Sample PDF
Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition
Chapter 5
Chee Kwang Quah, Michael Koh, Alex Ong, Hock Soon Seah, Andre Gagalowicz
Through the advancement of electronics technologies, human motion analysis applications span many domains. Existing commercially available magnetic... Sample PDF
Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
Chapter 6
Amin Ahmadi, David D. Rowlands, Daniel A. James
Tennis is a popular game played and viewed by millions of people around the world. There is a large impetus for players to improve their game and... Sample PDF
Technology to Monitor and Enhance the Performance of a Tennis Player
Chapter 7
Daniel A. James, Andrew Busch, Yuji Ohgi
The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has... Sample PDF
Quantitative Assessment of Physical Activity Using Inertial Sensors
Chapter 8
Volker Wulf, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Eckehard F. Moritz, Gunnar Stevens, Martin R. Gibbs
Augmenting existing sports experiences with computing technology is increasingly gaining attention due to its potential for performance enhancement.... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: An Emerging Paradigm
Chapter 9
Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
Recent advances in computing technology have contributed to a new trend that merges digital gaming with physical sports activities and combines the... Sample PDF
Digital Sport: Merging Gaming with Sports to Enhance Physical Activities Such as Jogging
Chapter 10
Lauren Silberman
Just at the moment when gaming has achieved broad cultural acceptance, a new way of using commercial sport video games is emerging, which adds a new... Sample PDF
Double Play: How Video Games Mediate Physical Performance for Elite Athletes
Chapter 11
Donald P. Roy, Benjamin D. Goss
The explosion of fantasy sports and the dearth of research about it create a need for investigation in this relatively new form of sport... Sample PDF
A League of Our Own: Empowerment of Sport Consumers Through Fantasy Sports Participation
Chapter 12
Jean-Pierre Dussault, Michael Greenspan, Jean-François Landry, Will Leckie, Marc Godard, Joseph Lam
We introduce pool and its variants, and describe the challenges of computationally simulating the game to create a robot capable of selecting and... Sample PDF
Computational and Robotic Pool
Chapter 13
Scott Bingley, Stephen Burgess
Sport plays a major part in the Australian psyche with millions of people participating every year. However organised sport at the local or social... Sample PDF
A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example
Chapter 14
Anthony K. Kerr
Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those... Sample PDF
Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom
Chapter 15
Gaoqi He, Zhigeng Pan, Weimin Pan, Jianfeng Liu
Virtual reality and the Olympic Games Museum are used to create a virtual digital Olympic museum (VDOM). This is available solely through the medium... Sample PDF
Virtual Digital Olympic Museum
Chapter 16
Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn
A multi-billion dollar industry, electronic games have been experiencing strong and rapid growth in recent times. The world of games is not only... Sample PDF
The Market Structure and Characteristics of Electronic Games
Chapter 17
Beth A. Cianfrone, James J. Zhang
This chapter introduces the new and unique sport promotional format of sport video game sponsorships and in-game advertising. Information on the... Sample PDF
Sport Video Game Sponsorships and In-Game Advertising
Chapter 18
Mark Lee, Rajendra Mulye, Constantino Stavros
This chapter reports a recent research study involving a sports video game which sought to provide an overview on the use of in-game advertising... Sample PDF
In-Game Advertising: Effectiveness and Consumer Attitudes
Chapter 19
Monica D. Hernandez, Sindy Chapa
The authors’ study examined factors affecting Mexican adolescent’s memory of brand placements contained in advergames. Specifically, two concerns... Sample PDF
The Effect of Arousal on Adolescent's Short-Term Memory of Brand Placements in Sports Advergames
Chapter 20
Ellen L. Bloxsome, Nigel K. Ll. Pope
This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with... Sample PDF
Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code
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