Service Science and Automation Laws

Service Science and Automation Laws

Andrew Targowski (Haworth College of Business, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-004-2.ch011
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to define a scope of service science and service automation in service economy based on ideal generic service systems originally developed by the author. There are two goals of this study: 1) to develop generic service categories and their generic systems, and 2) to define a scope of service science based upon the presented generic models of service systems, which determine the required support from emerging system science. The research methodology is based on the architectural modeling according the paradigm of enterprise-wide systems (Targowski, 2003). The architectural system approach is based on the philosophy of the system approach (Klir, 1985), and management cybernetics (Beer, 1981) which provide comprehensive and cohesive solutions to the problems of systems design, thus eliminating the fuziveness of the “application portfolio” and the “information archipelago” (McFarlan, 1981; Targowski, 1990). The mission of the architectural system approach is to find the ultimate synthesis of the whole system structure that involves appropriate logic, appropriate technological accommodation, operational quality, a positive user involvement, and co-existence with nature (Targowski, 1990). In its nature, the architectural system approach is of deductive rather than inductive nature. It looks for the ideal model of a solution, which in practice is far away from its perfect level. The difference between the architectural system approach and the engineering approach is in the level of abstraction. The architectural models are more conceptual whereas engineering outcomes are more technical and specific. The architectural system approach is the response to the complexity of expected outcomes. Prior to spending a few million dollars for a new information system, one must provide its information architecture and the business and social implications associated with it (Targowski, 2003). In this sense, this study will define service systems’ architectures.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to define a scope of service science and service automation in service economy based on ideal generic service systems originally developed by the author. There are two goals of this study: 1) to develop generic service categories and their generic systems, and 2) to define a scope of service science based upon the presented generic models of service systems, which determine the required support from emerging system science. The research methodology is based on the architectural modeling according the paradigm of enterprise-wide systems (Targowski, 2003).

The architectural system approach is based on the philosophy of the system approach (Klir, 1985), and management cybernetics (Beer, 1981) which provide comprehensive and cohesive solutions to the problems of systems design, thus eliminating the fuziveness of the “application portfolio” and the “information archipelago” (McFarlan, 1981; Targowski, 1990). The mission of the architectural system approach is to find the ultimate synthesis of the whole system structure that involves appropriate logic, appropriate technological accommodation, operational quality, a positive user involvement, and co-existence with nature (Targowski, 1990). In its nature, the architectural system approach is of deductive rather than inductive nature. It looks for the ideal model of a solution, which in practice is far away from its perfect level. The difference between the architectural system approach and the engineering approach is in the level of abstraction. The architectural models are more conceptual whereas engineering outcomes are more technical and specific. The architectural system approach is the response to the complexity of expected outcomes. Prior to spending a few million dollars for a new information system, one must provide its information architecture and the business and social implications associated with it (Targowski, 2003). In this sense, this study will define service systems’ architectures.

Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments. First is the increased importance of the Hsector in industrialized economies. Services account for a higher percentage of U.S. GDP than 20 years ago, since modern-day off-shore outsourcing of manufacturing contributes to the growing service sector of the American economy. The 2006 Fortune 500 companies list contains more service companies and fewer manufacturers than in previous decades. The service sector is classified as the tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service industry) and is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing, construction), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). Services are defined in conventional literature as “intangible goods” (Drucker, 1969; Rathmell, 1974; Bell, 1976; Shostack, 1977). According to Laroche (2001), it is clear that intangibility has been cited by several authors as the fundamental factor differentiating services from goods (Rust, Zahorik, & Keiningham, 1996; Breivik, Troye, & Olsson, 1998; Lovelock, 2001). All other differences emerge from this distinction (Bateson, 1979; Zeithaml & Bitner, 2000). According to evident practice, service tends to be wealth- consuming, whereas manufacturing is wealth-producing. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers and citizens (users of government services). Services may involve the transport, distribution and sale of goods from producer to a consumer as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, or may involve the provision of a service such as in pest control or entertainment. Goods may be transformed in the process of providing a service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Andrew Targowski
Chapter 1
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive model of generic civilizations and world civilization, applying the cybernetic technique of... Sample PDF
The Civilization Grand Model
$37.50
Chapter 2
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this study is to define the role of civilization’s critical powers in the civilization life cycle. The role of... Sample PDF
Civilization Life Cycle: Introduction
$37.50
Chapter 3
The Civilization Index  (pages 62-77)
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define energy levels of civilizations, particularly in respect to a role of information-communication processes.... Sample PDF
The Civilization Index
$37.50
Chapter 4
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate a role of information-communication (INFOCO) processes in human development according to the following... Sample PDF
(A) Liberating the Future from the Past
$37.50
Chapter 5
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define intrinsic values of information-communication processes in human development. The development of... Sample PDF
(B) Liberating the Past from the Future
$37.50
Chapter 6
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate whether we humans are wise enough to save our civilization from threats of internal conflicts and... Sample PDF
Will Wisdom Save the Human Project?
$37.50
Chapter 7
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define processes triggering the emergence of global civilization at the beginning of the 21st century. In... Sample PDF
From Global to Universal-Complementary Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 8
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define information- based tools for the study of the human story in order to “informate” traditional historic... Sample PDF
Theory of Critical Total History of Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 9
Andrew Targowski
This chapter will attempt to analyze the cumulative evolution of labor, intellect (information & knowledge), and politics. In pursuit of this aim... Sample PDF
The Information Wave of Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 10
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define information, mainly in terms of cognition units, and also to find out its other perspectives and images.... Sample PDF
Information and Organization
$37.50
Chapter 11
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define a scope of service science and service automation in service economy based on ideal generic service systems... Sample PDF
Service Science and Automation Laws
$37.50
Chapter 12
Information Laws  (pages 277-288)
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define information laws which control the development of the global and universal civilizations as well as... Sample PDF
Information Laws
$37.50
Chapter 13
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define the architecture of information-communication systems which play key roles in the development of the... Sample PDF
The Electronic Global Village
$37.50
Chapter 14
Information Societies  (pages 311-343)
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define the evolution and key indicators of the information society that is being triggered by the Information Wave... Sample PDF
Information Societies
$37.50
Chapter 15
Asymmetric Communication  (pages 345-362)
Andrew Targowski
This chapter defines a framework for the crosscultural communication process, including efficiency and cost. The framework provides some directions... Sample PDF
Asymmetric Communication
$37.50
Chapter 16
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is to define the dynamics of the economic infrastructure, which supports any civilization and defines the modus operandi... Sample PDF
Civilization Market Integration
$37.50
Chapter 17
Andrew Targowski
The purpose of this chapter is the investigation whether human civilization has much of a future on the Earth. This investigation is partially based... Sample PDF
The Future of Civilization
$37.50
Chapter 18
Andrew Targowski
For years, the construction of the universe has occupied the best minds of theologians and scientists. The first modern breakthrough was made by... Sample PDF
The Information Architecture of the Universe
$37.50
About the Contributors