This chapter analyzes the “state of the art” of OWLs, or online writing labs. It reports the results of a study of 343 OWLs that examined the extent to which OWLs have emerged into what Crump calls “true OWLs”—fully-interactive OWLs where tutors provide individualized help to students via computer-mediated communication like email. This chapter also examines what the literature and research on online tutoring say about the advantages and disadvantages of online tutoring in comparison with face-to-face tutoring. It is hoped that this chapter can illuminate the extent to which OWLs have fulfilled their promise to be places where students and tutors can freely exchange ideas and texts. It is also hoped that this chapter can suggest the extent to which OWL services can be expanded and improved.