Strengthening Learning on the Web: Programmed Instruction and Constructivism

Strengthening Learning on the Web: Programmed Instruction and Constructivism

Karen Smith-Gratto (North Carolina A&T State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2000 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-878289-59-9.ch015
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Abstract

In the brave new world of cyberlearning, we need to look back as well as forward to create the best learning environments for students. All fields of study require the learning of facts and definitions that have been mediated within that field of study. In addition, individuals must learn to manipulate both information and procedures within any given field to achieve expert status within that field. It can be argued that learning facts is different from learning how to solve a problem within the same field. The mental processes needed to learn facts and those needed to solve problems involve different ways of learning. If we believe that there are different types of learning, then it is logical to assume that different learning theories will contribute more to one type of learning than another. Programmed instruction as developed by B. F. Skinner (1968) was based upon operant conditioning principles. The material to be learned by students is presented in small increments, students are given a chance to answer questions related to the information, given feedback (and reinforcement) and the process continues until the end of the programmed instruction. Earlier computer software tutorials most often followed modified forms of programmed instruction (Poppen & Poppen, 1988), and while Web-based instruction can follow this model, there are basic differences that will result in less designer control than was possible with stand-alone software. Students using Web-based instruction that follows the programmed instruction paradigm will have more opportunity to leave the planned instruction and go elsewhere on the Web. However, the basic principles can be used and combined with constructivism to address learning in different ways.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Beverly Abbey
Chapter 1
Theo J. Bastiaens, Rob L. Martens
This chapter presents two converging developments. Traditionally, learning at schools or universities and working in a professional context were... Sample PDF
Conditions for Web-Based Learning with Real Events
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Chapter 2
Zane L. Berge, Mauri Collins, Karen Dougherty
Successful course creation for the Web environment means much more than the use of documents uploaded and electronically linked together. Course... Sample PDF
Design Guidelines for Web-Based Courses
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Chapter 3
Louis H. Berry
The advent of Web-based instruction, which relies upon hypertext models of interaction and design, reemphasizes the need for a clear understanding... Sample PDF
Cognitive Effects of Web Page Design
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Chapter 4
Curtis J. Bonk, Jack A. Cummings, Norika Hara, Robert B. Fischler, Sun Myung Lee
Owston (1997, p. 27) pointed out that, “Nothing before has captured the imagination and interests of educators simultaneously around the globe more... Sample PDF
A Ten-Level Web Integration Continuum for Higher Education
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Chapter 5
Mercedes M. Fisher
Today’s technology is delivering greater access of current information and knowledge for instructional use. The introduction of the Internet has... Sample PDF
Implementation Considerations for Instructional Design of Web-Based Learning Environments
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Chapter 6
Dorothy Leflore
More and more universities are turning to Web-based instruction in order to accommodate a larger student population. Much of the coursework... Sample PDF
Theory Supporting Design Guidelines for Web-Based Instruction
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Chapter 7
Jared Danielson, Barbara Lockee, John Burton
Several years ago a professor at a large research institution prepared to deliver her first on-line course. The activities had been planned... Sample PDF
ID and HCI: A Marriage of Necessity
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Chapter 8
Deborah L. Lowther, Marshall G. Jones, Robert T. Plants
The potential impact of the World Wide Web (WWW) on our educational system is limitless. However, if our teachers do not possess the appropriate... Sample PDF
Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Web-Based Education
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Chapter 9
Cleborne D. Maddux, Rhoda Cummings
There has been a recent explosion of interest in distance education. On college and university campuses, this interest owes much of its life and... Sample PDF
Developing Web Pages as Supplements to Traditional Courses
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Chapter 10
Susan M. Miller, Kenneth L. Miller
The intended audiences for this chapter are (a) individuals who design and develop Web-based instruction in any setting (i.e., university faculty... Sample PDF
Theoretical and Practical Considerations in the Design of Web-Based Instruction
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Chapter 11
Ron Oliver, Jan Herrington
Many writers argue for a place for the use the new educational technologies from the perspective of IT management (e.g., Holt & Thompson, 1998).... Sample PDF
Using Situated Learning as a Design Strategy for Web-Based Learning
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Chapter 12
Kay A. Persichitte
Like many instructors in higher education, I have found myself increasingly pressed to respond to demands for courses delivered with alternative... Sample PDF
A Case Study of Lessons Learned for the Web-Based Educator
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Chapter 13
Susan M. Powers, Sharon Guan
Distance learning is by no means a new phenomenon. However, new technologies provide a twist to distance learning that is making it grow and expand... Sample PDF
Examining the Range of Student Needs in the Design and Development of a Web-Based Course
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Chapter 14
Patricia L. Rogers
As an instructional medium, computer-based hypermedia environments (e.g., Web sites or CD-ROM materials) enable distinct and enriched activities... Sample PDF
Layers of Navigation for Hypermedia Environments: Designing Instructional Web Sites
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Chapter 15
Karen Smith-Gratto
In the brave new world of cyberlearning, we need to look back as well as forward to create the best learning environments for students. All fields... Sample PDF
Strengthening Learning on the Web: Programmed Instruction and Constructivism
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Chapter 16
J. Micael Spector
There are now many educational research and technology projects reporting a variety of outcomes and lessons learned with regard to how to... Sample PDF
Designing Technology Enhanced Learning Environments
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About the Authors