There is an increasing need for cost control and improved outcomes in both primary and secondary medical education. This chapter reviews the characteristics of medical learners, and summarizes shortcomings of traditional medical training that may be amenable to technological intervention. Technologies useful for educating medical students and practicing physicians will be described, along with examples pertaining to each technology. The chapter concludes with a summary of potential barriers to the adoption of medical education technology.
Key Terms in this Chapter
The “Brain-Drain” Phenomenon: Refers to emigration of healthcare professionals from impoverished to wealthier health-care systems.
Procedural Skills: Are those physician skills that require hands-on manipulation of the patient, such as physical examination, obstetrical delivery, or surgery.
Information Overload: Refers to the phenomenon in which the body of information to be mastered is too large to be assimilated by the student.
Just-in-Time Learning: Learning tools that attempt to offer knowledge at the point when the physician would most need it, often in the course of clinical care.
Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Evaluation: Four potential levels of evaluation for training programs: user satisfaction, learning outcomes, performance improvement, and the result of the training on the process outcome.
Automated Flashcard Programs: Are computer programs that allow the user to quiz himself about terms and their definitions, onscreen. They are an excellent example of how computerized tools can improve the flexibility and efficiency of a classic learning tool.
The Constructivist School of Adult Learning: Suggests these learners may master the material most efficiently when allowed to navigate the material freely, according to their own curiosity.
Hyperlinked Text: Text on the screen that, when clicked, connects the learner to a different page with the related information.
Primary medical education: Describes the period in which the future physician builds a knowledge base de novo and learns to apply that knowledge effectively.
Secondary medical education: Refers to the ongoing efforts of a practicing physician to renew and update her knowledge and skills.
Simulation Tools: Learning tools in which a real-life situation is simulated using models or interactive computer programs.
Complete Chapter List
Terry T. Kidd, Holim Song
Terry T. Kidd, Holim Song
Paula Jones, Rita Davis
Feng-Qi Lai, Lynn Lohmeyer
Jared Keengwe, Grace Onchwari
Diana M. Ragbir, Permanand Mohan
Petek Askar, Kagan Kalinyazgan, Arif Altun, S. Serkan Pekince
Torsten Reiners, Imke Sassen
Ali Ahmed, Abdulaziz Elfessi
Heather Jagman, Melissa Koenig, Courtney Greene
Drew Polly, Craig Shepard
Chien Yu, Angela Williams, Chun Fu Lin, Wei-Chieh Yu
Youmei Liu, Shawn McCombs
Harrison Hao Yang, Sai-Wing Pun
Merrilee Cunningham, Ruth Robbins, Deborah Buell
Dawn E. Woodland, Linda F. Szul
Sarah R. Edmonson
Michael Rees, Charles Herring
Kit Hang Leung, Zhidong Zhang
Luigi Anolli, Fabrizia Mantovani, Massimo Balestra, Piet Kommers, Odile Robotti, Anne-Dominique Salamin, Alessia Agliati, Olivia Realdon, Valentino Zurloni, Linda Confalonieri, Marcello Mortillaro, Antonietta Vescovo, Pietro Venturini, Joachim Wetterling, Anna Tarocchi
Robert A. Bartsch
Chee Siang Ang, Panayiotis Zaphiris
Nancy Sardone, Roberta Devlin-Scherer, Joseph Martinelli
Spiros Borotis, Panagiotis Zaharias, Angeliki Poulymenakou
Geoffrey Dick, Tom Case, Craig Van Slyke
Sunil Hazari, Kristin Caverly
Jeonghee Huh, Atsusi Hirumi
Fethi Inan, Michael Grant
Xiaojing Liu, Seung-hee Lee, Curtis J. Bonk, Richard J. Magjuka, Shijuan Liu
David Judkins, Youmei Liu
Wendy Maboudian, Colin S. Ward
Patricia Lupion Torres, Rita de Cassia Veiga Marriott
Tibor Skala, Igor Ljubi
Tibor Skala, Stella Lee
Charlene Sox, Pil-Won On
Panagiotis Zaharias, Angeliki Poulymenakou
Habib Mir M. Hosseini, Keck Voon Ling, Bing Duan
Valentino Zurloni, Fabrizia Mantovani, Marcello Mortillaro, Antonietta Vescovo, Luigi Anolli
Luigi Anolli, Olivia Realdon, Linda Confalonieri, Alessia Agliati, Fabrizia Mantovani
Emmanuel Blanchard, Claude Frasson
Deepak Prem Subramony
Thomas A. Lucey, Michael Grant
Jorge Gaytan, Sunil Hazari, Alexa North
Karen Rasmussen, Joyce Coleman Nichols
António Quintas-Mendes, Lina Morgado, Lúcia Amante
Robert A. Bartsch
Sue-Jen Chen, Edward Caropreso, Chao-Li Hsu