The Technology of Writing Assessment and Racial Validity

The Technology of Writing Assessment and Racial Validity

Asao B. Inoue (California State University, Fresno, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-667-9.ch006
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Abstract

This chapter articulates writing assessment as a technology, theorized with three aspects (power, parts, and purpose), accounting for the ways in which assessment dialectically constructs and is constructed by its historical environment. Seeing writing assessment as a technology provides a full account of assessment as an environment of conflict and social (re)production, but most importantly, it accounts for racial formations existing around it and because of it. This articulation of writing assessment reveals problems with the concept of validity (and traditional validation research), particularly consequential validity. The chapter concludes by offering racial validity, which investigates how our writing assessments reproduce and are produced by the racial formations in and around our schools, classrooms, and writing assessments.
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Introduction

Writing assessment, both classroom and large-scale, perhaps can be best understood as a technology with three aspects: power, parts, and purpose. Writing assessment’s history in the U.S. and the social formations created by it not only suggest such an articulation of writing assessment, but demonstrate a need for us to reconceptualize assessment in ways that address more directly the racial formations that assessment technologies produce, which further demonstrates that racial formations in society and schools are not natural, nor inevitable, but engineered, therefore changeable.1 In this chapter, I begin by offering a brief account of assessment as one way society produces social arrangements, making it a technology in general terms. I trace earlier discussions of “testing” as a technology, which use the term in a less productive “instrumentalist” fashion. Then I define technology as an environment, and offer a more detailed theory of writing assessment as a technology. For this theory of writing assessment, I draw on Michel Foucault’s (1977) analysis of power and its disciplinary tactics, Andrew Feenberg’s (1991) “critical theory of technology” and his use of Marcuse’s (1998, originally published in 1936) discussion of technology and “technological rationality,” and George Madaus’s original definition of testing as a technology that he began formulating almost two decades ago (Madaus, 1990; Madaus, 1993; Madaus and Horn 2000). My discussion of “technology” is not one, however, concerned directly with computers or new media in writing assessment, although it does not exclude these commonly assumed forms of “technology.” Framing these three aspects of technology, I use Antonio Gramsci’s (2000) theorizing of hegemony and historical bloc, which provide ways to understand how technology is imbricated in the historical, political, and material, and how power may be the unifying aspect in technology. Throughout my discussion, I use data from my own institution’s writing program assessment endeavors in order to illustrate both the technological aspects of a writing assessment and possible racial validity inquiries. I will not, however, engage in any validity arguments in this chapter, only suggest possibilities. In the last portion of this chapter, I argue that by understanding writing assessment as a technology, racial validity becomes important as a new organizing concept for validity inquiries.2 The purpose of this chapter is to articulate writing assessment as a technology that reveals more clearly the racism and racial formations that our practices often produce,3 articulate clearly racial validity as a distinct inquiry into our writing assessment practices, then offer some strategies for making racial validity arguments from such articulations of writing assessment.

Before I begin, I need to provide some context for the data I’ll insert throughout this chapter. My current institution, California State University, Fresno, is in the middle of a five year pilot writing program that uses directed self-placement (DSP) and a program portfolio in all mandatory First Year Writing (FYW) courses. Because of the newest of the pilot, I will not attempt to produce any validity arguments here, only suggest directions for validity inquiries. Our DSP system, like others, allows our students to choose from several options, or paths, to fulfill their university writing requirement.4 The most common choice is the “stretch” program, which is a year long, two course sequence (Engl 5A and 5B). The other main choice is an accelerated, one semester course, Engl 10. A few students select a course called Ling 6 (offered through the Linguistics Department), which helps them with more extreme native language proficiency issues to get ready to take Engl 5A and 5B.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Consequential Validity: An argument that explains the social consequences of an assessment’s decisions through empirical evidence and theoretical rationales.

Historical Bloc: A neo-Marxian term from Antonio Gramsci that explains the ways in which social practices (structure) both are created by and create the values and theories (superstructure) we use to rationalize and explain our practices.

Validity: An argument that explains the degree to which empirical evidence and theoretical rationales support the adequacy and appropriateness of decisions made from an assessment.

Assessment Technology: An historically situated, hegemonic environment in which power is made, used, and, transformed, that consists of sets of artifacts and technical codes, manipulated by institutionally-sanctioned agents, constructed for particular purposes that have relations to abstract ideas and concepts, and whose effects or outcomes shape, and are shaped by, the racial, class-based, gender, and other socio-political arrangements.

Racial Formation: The product and process of a host of social projects that contribute to conceptions, constructions, and social arrangements based on “race” as a lived phenomenon, a theoretical concept, and an organizing principle by which people act in their worlds.

Disciplinary Strategies: Taken from Foucault, this term refers to the way power, as a set of tactics, tables, and determined activities, constructs people as “docile bodies.”

Technological Rationality: A term from Herbert Marcuse that refers to the ways in which physical mechanisms and technologies that people interact with contain in their designs and uses logics that feel inevitable and unavoidable, and create our choices.

Hegemony: A neo-Marxian term from Antonio Gramsci that refers to the multitude of economic, political, moral, and cultural relations of force that produce coercion and consent in society between dominated groups (usually the proletariat) for the benefit of political leadership, or the dominant group (usually the bourgeoisie).

Racial Validity: An argument that explains the degree to which empirical evidence of racial formations around an assessment and the theoretical frameworks that account for racial formations support the adequacy and appropriateness of inferences and decisions made from the assessment.

Complete Chapter List

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Dedication
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Preface
Christopher S. Schreiner
Acknowledgment
Christopher S. Schreiner
Chapter 1
Melissa A. Dyehouse, John Y. Baek, Richard A. Lesh
This chapter describes a model for evaluating complex organizations or systems. The design assessment model the authors propose is a response to... Sample PDF
Multi-Tier Design Assessment in the Development of Complex Organizational Systems
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Chapter 2
Hedva Lewittes
In this chapter critical thinking is assessed using two critical thinking learning outcomes that were required for the State University of New... Sample PDF
A Critical Thinking Rubric as the Basis of Assessment and Curriculum
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Chapter 3
Suzanne Pieper, Erika Edwards, Brandon Haist, Walter Nolan
The purpose of this chapter is to review literature over the past ten years regarding technology tools that are being used in higher education to... Sample PDF
A Survey of Effective Technologies to Assess Student Learning
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Chapter 4
John Baer, Sharon S. McKool
The Consensual Assessment Technique is a powerful tool used by creativity researchers in which panels of expert judges are asked to rate the... Sample PDF
Assessing Creativity Using the Consensual Assessment Technique
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Chapter 5
Christine Charyton, Zorana Ivcevic, Jonathan A. Plucker, James C. Kaufman
This chapter discusses creativity assessment as a means for evaluating skills required in higher education. Creativity is assessed in the context of... Sample PDF
Creativity Assessment in Higher Education
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Chapter 6
Asao B. Inoue
This chapter articulates writing assessment as a technology, theorized with three aspects (power, parts, and purpose), accounting for the ways in... Sample PDF
The Technology of Writing Assessment and Racial Validity
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Chapter 7
Sheila S. Thompson, Annemarie Vaccaro
The purpose of this chapter is to address epistemological and methodological approaches to assessing assessment. The authors’ intent is to show how... Sample PDF
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods as Complementary Assessment Tools
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Chapter 8
Teresa Flateby
The development of the Cognitive Level and Quality of Writing Assessment online system is described in this chapter. Beginning with needs identified... Sample PDF
Effects of Assessment Results on a Writing and Thinking Rubric
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Chapter 9
Barbara D’Angelo, Barry Maid
Outcomes-based assessment provides data for programs to demonstrate student learning as a result of their enrollment in the program and to assess... Sample PDF
Assessing Outcomes in a Technical Communication Capstone
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Chapter 10
Sonya Borton, Alanna Frost, Kate Warrington
As Jacqueline Jones Royster articulated at the 2006 Conference on College Composition and Communication, English departments are already assessing... Sample PDF
Assessing the Composition Program on Our Own Terms
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Chapter 11
Joan Aitken
This chapter uses a case study to exemplify one approach to assessment of three instructional delivery formats: (a) online, (b) distance, satellite... Sample PDF
A Case Study of Instructional Delivery Formats
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Chapter 12
Victor W. Brunsden
The author present a case-study of a classroom technique that allows assessment and some remediation of several shortcomings of college student... Sample PDF
Inverting the Remedial Mathematics Classroom with Alternative Assessment
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Chapter 13
David A. Eubanks
This chapter describes Coker College’s subjective performance assessment program to rate student thinking and communication skills. It uses a... Sample PDF
A Case Study of Authentic Assessment
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Chapter 14
P. Tokyo Kang, David Gugin
This chapter reports an outcomes assessment study conducted at the University of Guam. The assessment project was conducted during the 2006-07 and... Sample PDF
Outcomes Assessment in Japanese Language Instruction
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Chapter 15
Barika Barboza, Frances Singh
This chapter describes an outcomes assessment study completed in a basic composition course at a small urban open admissions community college. The... Sample PDF
Assessing the Effectiveness of a Basic Writing Course
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Chapter 16
Lorraine Gilpin, Yasar Bodur, Kathleen Crawford
Peer assessment holds tremendous potential to positively impact the development of preservice teachers. The purpose of this chapter is to describe... Sample PDF
Peer Assessment for Development of Preservice Teachers
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Chapter 17
Charlotte Brammer, Rhonda Parker
In 2002, Samford University began working on a long-term learning assessment plan designed to evaluate its undergraduates’ competencies in written... Sample PDF
Workshops and E-Portfolios as Transformational Assessment
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Chapter 18
Daniel F. Chambliss
This chapter describes how the trend favoring assessment initiatives of a system-wide scope such as program review and collegiate learning... Sample PDF
A Neglected Necessity in Liberal Arts Assessment: The Student as the Unit of Analysis
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Chapter 19
Deirdre Pettipiece, Timothy Ray, Justin Everett
Perhaps due to its applicability as a performance of skill sets in virtually all disciplines, writing as a mechanism for measuring student success... Sample PDF
Redefining Writing Reality Multi-Modal Writing and Assessment
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Chapter 20
Sean A. McKitrick
This chapter introduces methods that can be used to engage faculty in the assessment process, working within a shared governance structure in... Sample PDF
Engaging Faculty as a Strategic Choice in Assessment
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Chapter 21
Steven M. Culver, Ray VanDyke
There is much in the assessment literature about the necessity of developing a culture of assessment and mandates from accrediting bodies include... Sample PDF
Developing a Receptive and Faculty-Focused Environment for Assessment
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Chapter 22
John Wittman
This chapter argues that as primary stakeholders in writing program assessment, students and instructors need to be included proactively in... Sample PDF
New Collaborations for Writing Program Assessment
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Chapter 23
Mya Poe
The study of racial-ethnic group differences on educational tests has yielded a substantial body of research internationally in the last decade. In... Sample PDF
Reporting Race and Ethnicity in International Assessment
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Chapter 24
Joan Hawthorne, Tatyana Dumova, April Bradley, Daphne Pederson
In this chapter the authors describe a method developed to assess the outcome of a “cultural familiarity” general education goal. Challenges in... Sample PDF
Method Development for Assessing a Diversity Goal
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About the Contributors