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Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

Copyright © 2012. 11 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0101-7.ch002
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MLA

Patra, Chiranjib, Arindam Mondal, Parama Bhaumik and Matangini Chattopadhyay. "Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Networks." Wireless Sensor Networks and Energy Efficiency: Protocols, Routing and Management. IGI Global, 2012. 14-24. Web. 24 Apr. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0101-7.ch002

APA

Patra, C., Mondal, A., Bhaumik, P., & Chattopadhyay, M. (2012). Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Networks. In N. Zaman, K. Ragab, & A. Abdullah (Eds.) Wireless Sensor Networks and Energy Efficiency: Protocols, Routing and Management (pp. 14-24). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0101-7.ch002

Chicago

Patra, Chiranjib, Arindam Mondal, Parama Bhaumik and Matangini Chattopadhyay. "Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Networks." In Wireless Sensor Networks and Energy Efficiency: Protocols, Routing and Management, ed. Noor Zaman, Khaled Ragab and Azween Bin Abdullah, 14-24 (2012), accessed April 24, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-0101-7.ch002

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Abstract

Topology management is a key component of network management of wireless sensor networks. The primary goal of topology management is to conserve energy while maintaining network connectivity. Topology management consists of knowing the physical connections and logical relationships among the sensors and at the same time creating a subset of nodes actively participating in the network, thus creating less communication and conserving energy in nodes. Networks require constant monitoring in order to ensure consistent and efficient operations. The primary goal of topology management is to maintain network connectivity in an energy-efficient manner. Topology management is one of the key aspects of configuration management, which entails initial set-up of the network devices and continuous monitoring and controlling of these devices. The main objective of this chapter is to throw a light on the recent developments and future directions of research in these directions.
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Background

One primary goal of network management in sensor networks is that it be autonomous. This is especially important in fault and configuration management. Configuration management includes the self-organization and self-configuration of the sensor nodes. Since WSN’s involve very little human intervention after deployment, it is imperative that the areas of fault management be self diagnostic and self-healing. Another important issue to consider in fault management of WSN’s is that a single node failure should not impact the operation of the network, unlike a traditional network device failure causing impact to several users to potentially the entire network. There are several new functional areas of network management in sensor networks. Apart from topology management there are still new functional areas introduced for network management of WSN’s are energy management and program management.

In (Akyildiz et al., 2002) energy management the most common way to conserve energy in WSN’s is to power off a node when idle, but there have been many proposals in existing algorithms and protocols as well as establishing new protocols in order to be more energy efficient.

Program or code management (Wattenhoffer & Zollinger, 2004) is another aspect of network management in WSN’s. The traditional method of updating a program in a sensor node is to attach the node to a programming interface of a laptop or PDA. This is not feasible in many WSN deployments. Transmitting an entire new program version to all sensors in a WSN is not practical as it consumes too much energy and will lead to a short network lifetime. There needs to be a way to transmit minimal packets to all nodes requiring the update while ensuring appropriate nodes receive the update reliably. There have been several proposals in the area of code update/management and it continues to be an active research area.

To begin with topology management (Zhang et al., 2009) there is six properties that should exist in the topology of WSN’s: 1) symmetry, 2) connectivity, 3) spanner, 4) sparseness, 5) low degree, and 6) low interference. It is often observed the case that two properties, connectivity and sparseness conflict with each other. Despite all conflicts, the objective of topology management is to provide a backbone to various routing protocols so that there is an energy-efficient communication of the data. The algorithms responsible for building up the backbone may be categorized into three types (1) topology discovery, (2) sleep cycle management, and (3) clustering.

  • 1.

    Initialization Phase (Topology discovery Phase): In this phase, nodes discover themselves and use their maximum transmission power to build the initial topology.

  • 2.

    Sleep cycle management: To conserve energy, in a node is to only have it powered on when necessary; the node would be powered off or put to sleep all other times.

  • 3.

    Clustering: Clustering algorithms are used to decrease the number of nodes that transmit data to the base station (BS). These algorithms arrange the nodes deployed in the WSN into groups or clusters. One node in each cluster is identified as the leader of the cluster or the cluster head (CH). The nodes that are in a cluster, but are not cluster head, become member nodes of that cluster. The member nodes will transmit their data to their cluster head, which is typically within only a short distance thus consuming less energy.

Over the entire life of the network topology control cycle will repeat many times until the energy of the network is depleted.

Topology discovery involves a network management station, or a base station, determining the organization or topology of the nodes in the sensor network. The physical connectivity and/or the logical relationship of nodes in the network are reported to the management station, which maintains a topology map of the WSN. The base station, or network management station, will send a topology discovery request to the network. Each node in the network will respond with its information. There are three basic approaches taken for topology discovery:

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Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Noor Zaman, Khaled Ragab, Azween Abdullah
Chapter 1
Seema Ansari, Syeda Fariha Hasnain, Adeel Ansari
Wireless Sensor Networks are an exciting technology that can solve a variety of applications. Wireless sensor networks, coupled with the efficient... Sample PDF
Introduction and Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 2
Chiranjib Patra, Arindam Mondal, Parama Bhaumik, Matangini Chattopadhyay
Topology management is a key component of network management of wireless sensor networks. The primary goal of topology management is to conserve... Sample PDF
Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 3
Sana Khan, Sheikh Tahir Bakhsh
Wireless sensor networks have become a popular research area of distributed computing. It is the emerging area of pervasive computing, for... Sample PDF
On Network Management of Wireless Sensor Networks: Challenges, Solutions and Research Trends
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Chapter 4
Jorge Higuera, Jose Polo
The syntactic and semantic interoperability is a challenge of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) with smart sensors in pervasive computing... Sample PDF
Interoperability in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on IEEE 1451 Standard
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Chapter 5
Tayseer A. Al-Khdour, Uthman Baroudi
In this chapter, the authors present a literature review for MAC, routing, and cross layer design protocols proposed for WSN. This chapter consists... Sample PDF
Literature Review of MAC, Routing and Cross Layer Design Protocols for WSN
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Chapter 6
Muhammad Ayaz, Azween Abdullah, Ibrahima Faye
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are finding different applications for offshore exploration and ocean monitoring. In most of these... Sample PDF
A Taxonomy of Routing Techniques in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 7
Khalid El-Darymli, Mohamed H. Ahmed
The rapid increase in WSN-Testbed deployments alongside intra-academic and inter-industrial collaboration are two healthy signs which not only... Sample PDF
Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds: A Survey
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Chapter 8
Fernando Gielow, Michele Nogueira, Aldri Santos
The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has increased over the past years, supporting applications such as environmental monitoring, security... Sample PDF
Mitigation of Hot Spots on Wireless Sensor Networks: Techniques, Approaches and Future Directions
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Chapter 9
Noor Zaman, Azween Abdullah, Muneer Ahmed
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are taking a major share with almost all types of different applications and especially, it is most suited in very... Sample PDF
Node Localization: Issues, Challenges and Future Perspectives in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
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Chapter 10
Vasaki Ponnusamy, Azween Abdullah, Alan G. Downe
This research presents a survey of energy efficient routing protocols in sensor network by categorizing into a main classification as architecture... Sample PDF
Energy Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
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Chapter 11
Tommy Hult, Abbas Mohammed
Wireless Sensor Networks can be used for a multitude of applications, but they all have in common that they need to send their collected data to... Sample PDF
Cooperative Diversity Techniques for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 12
Nauman Israr
Longer life time is the primary goal of interest in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Communication dominates the power consumption among all the... Sample PDF
Energy Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 13
Hamid Ali, Waseem Shahzad, Farrukh Aslam Khan
In this chapter, the authors propose a multi-objective solution to the problem by using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO)... Sample PDF
Using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for Energy-Efficient Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 14
Low Tang Jung, Azween Abdullah
This chapter presents the studies and analysis on the approaches, the concepts, and the ideas on data packet size optimization for data packets... Sample PDF
Wireless Sensor Networks: Data Packet Size Optimization
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Chapter 15
Zhe Yang, Abbas Mohammed
In this chapter, a novel approach is explored to employ high-altitude platforms (HAPs) to remove the relaying burden and/or de-centralize... Sample PDF
Reducing Complexity and Achieving Higher Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network Communications by Using High Altitude Platforms
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Chapter 16
Noor Zaman, Azween Abdullah, Khalid Ragab
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming common in use, with a vast diversity of applications. Due to its resource constraints, it is hard to... Sample PDF
Wireless Sensor Network: Quality of Service QoS Issues and Challenges
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Chapter 17
J. H. Kong, J. J. Ong, L.-M. Ang, K. P. Seng
This chapter presents low complexity processor designs for energy-efficient security and error correction for implementation on wireless sensor... Sample PDF
Low Complexity Processor Designs for Energy-Efficient Security and Error Correction in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 18
Pardeep Kumar, Mesut Gunes
This chapter provides an overall understanding of the design aspects of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A... Sample PDF
Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: Design Space, Challenges, and Future Directions
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Chapter 19
Majdi Mansouri, Khoukhi Lyes, Hichem Snoussi, Cédric Richard
Due to the limited energy supplies of nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN), optimizing their design under energy constraints, reducing their... Sample PDF
Routing Optimization and Secure Target Tracking in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 20
Adamu Murtala Zungeru, Li-Minn Ang, SRS. Prabaharan, Kah Phooi Seng
High efficient routing is an important issue in the design of limited energy resource wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This chapter presents an... Sample PDF
Improved Energy-Efficient Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 21
Asfandyar Khan, Azween Abdullah, Nurul Hasan
Wireless sensor networks (WSANs) are increasingly being used and deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and detect events of... Sample PDF
Event Based Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 22
S. Mehta, B. H. Kim, K.S. Kwak
Game Theory provides a mathematical tool for the analysis of interactions between the agents with conflicting interests, hence it is a suitable tool... Sample PDF
A Game Theoretical Approach to Design: A MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 23
Alok Kumar, Shirshu Varma
This chapter surveys routing algorithms in Euclidean, virtual, and hyperbolic space for wireless sensor networks that use geometric structures for... Sample PDF
Geometric Structures for Routing Decision in Wireless Sensor Networks
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Chapter 24
M. Yasir Malik
With the expansion of wireless sensor networks, the need for securing the data flow through these networks is increasing. These sensor networks... Sample PDF
An Outline of Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Threats, Countermeasures and Implementations
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Chapter 25
H Ranganathan
The future generation of vehicles on the road is going to be driven by wire. To aid in this ‘electronic’ revolution in the vehicle, the role of... Sample PDF
Wireless Sensor Network to Support Intelligent Transport Systems
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Chapter 26
Nova Ahmed
The middleware is a very important component in the wireless sensor network system. It has major challenges that are generic for any distributed... Sample PDF
Middleware Systems for Sensor Network: A Study on Different Middleware Systems
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Chapter 27
Thu Nga Le, Xue Jun Li, Peter Han Joo Chong
This chapter presents a novel grid-based localization technique dedicated for forest fire surveillance systems. The proposed technique estimates the... Sample PDF
A Grid-Based Localization Technique for Forest Fire Surveillance in Wireless Sensor Networks: Design, Analysis, and Experiment
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