Over the past decade, groupware technologies, such as e-mail, electronic bulletin boards, and group support systems, have become an important part of the business computing infrastructure in many organizations. Organizations adopt groupware applications to enhance communication and collaboration among group members and thus improve group performance. While some groupware applications, e.g., e-mail, have been commonly accepted, many other applications, especially those that require significant collaboration and cooperation among users, are not widely used in organizations and their potential benefits are far from being fully realized (Orlikowski, 1993). Although numerous laboratory and field studies have consistently shown the relevance and positive impact of group support systems on group work, more research is needed in understanding how to increase the rate of diffusion and adoption of the technology (Nunamaker, 1997). Behavioral-related elements, recognized by many, are the primary cause of resistance of users toward a newly implemented system or technology. Information technology (IT) research, however, tends to under-utilize existing knowledge in the behavioral science (Turner, 1982; Robey, 1979). Expectancy theory has been recognized as one of the most promising conceptualizations of individual motivation (Ferris, 1977). Many researchers have proposed that expectancy theory can provide an appropriate theoretical framework for research that examines a user’s acceptance of and intent to use a system (DeSanctis, 1983). This study uses expectancy theory as part of a student-based experiment to examine users’ behavioral intention (motivation) to utilize a groupware application.