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Using Geographic Information Systems to Solve Community Problems

Copyright © 2005. 8 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-553-5.ch530
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MLA

Garb, Jane L. and Richard B. Wait. "Using Geographic Information Systems to Solve Community Problems." Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, First Edition. IGI Global, 2005. 2978-2985. Web. 31 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-553-5.ch530

APA

Garb, J. L., & Wait, R. B. (2005). Using Geographic Information Systems to Solve Community Problems. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, First Edition (pp. 2978-2985). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-553-5.ch530

Chicago

Garb, Jane L. and Richard B. Wait. "Using Geographic Information Systems to Solve Community Problems." In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, First Edition, ed. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, 2978-2985 (2005), accessed October 31, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-553-5.ch530

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Abstract

This article describes how the technology of geographic information systems (GIS) can be used as a tool to integrate various types of community-level data to address local problems. The purpose of the article is to present an approach that can be replicated by others. This approach is based on community-wide collaborative sharing of resources, data, and research applications with an aim to enhance the health and well-being of the local area population. Although the example used relates to health, the approach can be used to deal with any “event” or series of events in the community.
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Complete Chapter List

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Chapter 1
Yung-Kuan Chan, Yu-An Ho, Hsien-Chu Wu, Yen-Ping Chu
An optical character recognition (OCR) system enables a user to feed an article directly into an electronic computer file and translate the... Sample PDF
A Duplicate Chinese Document Image Retrieval System
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Chapter 2
Paul Johannesson
There are several different views of the role of information systems. Two of the most important are the data view and the communicative view.... Sample PDF
A Language/Action Based Approach to Information Modelling
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Chapter 3
Shannon Howle Schelin
E-government (electronic government) has become a mainstay in local, state, and federal government. The era of e-commerce and e-business began with... Sample PDF
A Primer on E-Government
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Chapter 4
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Mahboobur Rahman
The revolutionary advent of IT has accelerated the pace of day-to-day office, personal and corporate communication. However, even now, Bangladesh... Sample PDF
A Socio-Technical Case Study of Bangladesh
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Chapter 5
Ala Abu-Samaha
Traditionally, information technology (IT) evaluation, pre-implementation appraisals, and post-implementation reviews have been characterised as... Sample PDF
A Systemic Approach for Information Systems Evaluation
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Chapter 6
David Ruppel, Cynthia Ruppel
Companies want employees with core values who ascribe to corporate values. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is used by companies in recruitment (Foote... Sample PDF
A University/Community Partnership to Bridge the Digital Divide
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Chapter 7
V. De Antonellis, G. Pozzi, F.A. Schreiber, L. Tanca, L. Tosi
The design of a Web-geographical information system, Web-GIS (Worboys & Duckham, 2004; Zhong Ren & Ming Hsiang, 2003), strongly requires... Sample PDF
A Web-Geographical Information System to Support Territorial Data Integration
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Chapter 8
Arthur Tatnall, Stephen Burgess
Just because e-commerce technologies seems like useful tools that may assist a small to medium enterprise (SME) in doing its business better, it... Sample PDF
Actor-Network Theory and Adoption of E-Commerce in SMEs
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Chapter 9
Arthur Tatnall
Building an information system is a difficult task, partly due to the problem of ascertaining the requirements of the intended users, but also... Sample PDF
Actor-Network Theory in Information Systems Research
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Chapter 10
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah
The convergence of two technological developments has made mobile computing a reality. In the last few years, developed countries spent large... Sample PDF
Adaptive Mobile Applications
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Chapter 11
Marco Roccetti, Stefano Ferretti
The transmission of speech over the Internet is often dismissed as an impractical application because of the poor quality experienced by many users... Sample PDF
Adaptive Playout Control Schemes for Speech over the Internet
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Chapter 12
John M. Artz
The central problem in cyber ethics is not, as many might think, how to address the problems of protecting individual privacy, or preventing... Sample PDF
Addressing the Central Problem in Cyber Ethics through Stories
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Chapter 13
Judith Jeffcoate
This article describes an analytical framework to identify the triggers for value chain transformation that will encourage small and medium... Sample PDF
Adoption of E-Commerce in the Value Chain by SMEs
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Chapter 14
Y. J. Zhang
Along with the progress of imaging modality and the wide utility of digital images (including video) in various fields, many potential content... Sample PDF
Advanced Techniques for Object-Based Image Retrieval
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Chapter 15
William R. Gates, Mark E. Nissen
Two modes of matching people with jobs prevail at present: hierarchical planning and distributed markets. Patterned after centrally planned (e.g.... Sample PDF
Agent- and Web-Based Employment Marketspaces in the U.S. Department of Defense
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Chapter 16
Zaiyong Tang, Subramanian Sivaramakrishnan
Today’s enterprises must go beyond traditional goals of efficiency and effectiveness; they need to be intelligent in order to adapt and survive in a... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Intelligence Infrastructure
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Chapter 17
V. K. Murthy, E. V. Krishnamurthy
This article describes in brief the design of agent-based negotiation system in e-marketing. Such a negotiation scheme requires the construction of... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Negotiation in E-Marketing
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Chapter 18
Sheng-Uei Guan
An emerging outcome of the popularization of the Internet are electronic commerce and payment systems, which present great opportunities for... Sample PDF
Agents and Payment Systems in E-Commerce
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Chapter 19
El-Sayed Abou-Zeid
The role of knowledge as a crucial asset for an enterprise’s survival and advancement has been recognized by several researchers (e.g., von Krogh... Sample PDF
Alignment of Business and Knowledge Management Strategies
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Chapter 20
K. F. Dery, D. A. Samson
Increased productivity within modern organizations over the past two decades has largely been generated by more effective use of information... Sample PDF
Alignment of Information Technology and Human Resources Strategies
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Chapter 21
José Esteves, Joan Pastor
Nowadays, the enterprise resource planning (ERP) products and services industry is one of the most promising. Through the usage of ERP systems such... Sample PDF
An ERP Life-Cycle Cost Model
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Chapter 22
Robert M. Verburg, J. H. Erik Andriessen, Joris P.G. de Rooij
Global market developments and the large-scale use of diverse applications in the area of information and communication technology (ICT) have been... Sample PDF
Analyzing the Quality of Virtual Teams
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Chapter 23
Françoise Preteux, Marius Preda
The first 3D virtual human model was designed and animated by means of the computer in the late ’70s. Since then, virtual character models have... Sample PDF
Animated Characters within the MPEG-4 Standard
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Chapter 24
Catherine M. Ridings, David Gefen
Online virtual communities have existed on the Internet since the early 1980s as Usenet newsgroups. With the advent of the World Wide Web and... Sample PDF
Antecedents of Trust in Online Communities
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Chapter 25
Mikael Wiberg
Kleinrock (1996, 1998) claims that advanced wireless technologies, the Internet, Global Positioning Systems, portable and distributed computing, and... Sample PDF
Anytime, Anywhere in the Context of Mobile Work
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Chapter 26
Mary Jane Lenard, Pervaiz Alam
In light of recent reporting of the failures of some of the major publicly-held companies in the U.S. (e.g., Enron & WorldCom), it has become... Sample PDF
Application of Fuzzy Logic to Fraud Detection
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Chapter 27
Matthew W. Guah, Wendy L. Currie
Several historical shifts in information systems (IS) involved strategies from a mainframe to a client server, and now to application service... Sample PDF
Application Service Provision for Intelligent Enterprises
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Chapter 28
Victoria Youngohc Yoon, Peter Aiken, Tor Guimaraes
The importance of a company-wide framework for managing data resources has been recognized (Gunter, 2001; Lee, 2003, 2004; Madnick, Wang & Xian... Sample PDF
Applying a Metadata Framework to Improve Data Quality
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Chapter 29
Mark Kieler, Michael J. West
The authors define “intellectual creations” as human expressions embodied in text, music, or other forms of art. Increasingly, we encode these... Sample PDF
Archival Issues Related to Digital Creations
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Chapter 30
Rezaul Begg
Now-a-days, researchers are increasingly looking into new and innovative techniques with the help of information technology to overcome the rapid... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Medicine and Health Care
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Chapter 31
Bruce Vanstone, Clarence Tan
Soft computing represents that area of computing adapted from the physical sciences. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques within this realm... Sample PDF
Artificial Neural Networks in Financial Trading
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Chapter 32
Fred L. Kitchens
As the heart of the insurance business, the underwriting function has remained mostly unchanged for nearly 400 years when Lloyd’s of London was a... Sample PDF
Artificial Neural Networks Used in Automobile Insurance Underwriting
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Chapter 33
Charlene A. Dykman
Accurate assessment of the potential or realized value and impact of an information systems investment is becoming increasingly important. While... Sample PDF
Assessing the Value of Information Systems Investments
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Chapter 34
David A. Banks
Audience Response Systems (ARS) are gradually being introduced into educational settings, having previously proved their value in business.... Sample PDF
Audience Response Systems and Face-to-Face Learning
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Chapter 35
Olga De Troyer
In the last few years, Web sites have evolved from a simple collection of hypertext pages towards applications supporting complex business... Sample PDF
Audience-Driven Web Site Design
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Chapter 36
Simon Dixon
The last decade has seen a revolution in the use of digital audio: The CD, which one decade earlier had taken over the home audio market, is... Sample PDF
Audio Analysis Applications for Music
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Chapter 37
J. William Holland
Criminal Justice has been one of the public sectors in the forefront of the move toward automation and digital government. The effect of... Sample PDF
Automation of American Criminal Justice
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Chapter 38
El-Sayed Abou-Zeid
In the last decade a new generation of information systems (IS), such as enterprise resource planning, Web-based information systems and knowledge... Sample PDF
Autopoietic Approach for Information System Development
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Chapter 39
Joseph Bradley
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems claim to meet the information needs of organizations. These off-the-shelf software packages replace hard... Sample PDF
Balancing Risks and Rewards of ERP
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Chapter 40
Maurizio Rafanelli
The term multidimensional aggregate data (MAD; see Rafanelli, 2003) generally refers to data in which a given fact is quantified by a set of... Sample PDF
Basic Notions on Multidimensional Aggregate Data
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Chapter 41
Andrey Naumenko
This article reviews the Triune Continuum Paradigm - a logically rigorous theoretical base for organization of modern conceptual frameworks that are... Sample PDF
Basics of the Triune Continuum Paradigm
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Chapter 42
C. L. Vidal-Rodeiro, M. I. Santiago-Perez, E. Vazquez-Fernandez, M. E. Lopez-Vizcaino, X. Hervada-Vidal
Disease mapping is a big focus of interest in the area of public health (Bailey, 2001; Moore & Carpenter, 1999), and the geographical distribution... Sample PDF
Bayesian Analysis of Geographical Variation in Disease Risk
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Chapter 43
Bayesian Machine Learning  (pages 229-235)
Eitel J.M. Lauria
Bayesian methods provide a probabilistic approach to machine learning. The Bayesian framework allows us to make inferences from data using... Sample PDF
Bayesian Machine Learning
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Chapter 44
Paul Rippon, Kerrie Mengersen
Learning algorithms are central to pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, machine learning, data mining, and statistical learning. The term... Sample PDF
Bayesian Modelling for Machine Learning
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Chapter 45
Purnendu Mandal, Dale H. Shao, Chong W. Kim
Recently, there has been a growing trend among information technology (IT) organizations to form strategic alliances to increase competitive... Sample PDF
Behavioral Factors in Strategic Alliances
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Chapter 46
Yining Chen, Hao Lou
Over the past decade, groupware technologies, such as e-mail, electronic bulletin boards, and group support systems, have become an important part... Sample PDF
Behavioral Perspective of Groupware Adoption
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Chapter 47
Charles R. Graham, Stephanie Allen, Donna Ure
The term “blended learning” has become a corporate buzzword in recent years (Lamb, 2001). Recently, the American Society for Training and... Sample PDF
Benefits and Challenges of Blended Learning Environments
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Chapter 48
D. Sandy Staples, Ian K. Wong, Ann Frances Cameron
The use of teams as fundamental building blocks in organizations is growing (Furst, Blackburn & Rosen, 1999), as is the frequency of teams to be... Sample PDF
Best Practices for Effective Virtual Teams
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Chapter 49
Frédéric Adam, Jean-Charles Pomerol
After more than 30 years of research on how the work of managers can be supported by computers, the observation that developing computer systems... Sample PDF
Better Executive Information with the Dashboard Approach
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Chapter 50
Scott Nicholson, Jeffrey Stanton
Most people think of a library as the little brick building in the heart of their community or the big brick building in the center of a campus.... Sample PDF
Bibliomining for Library Decision-Making
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Chapter 51
Anna Malina
Perceptions of the different meanings and issues surrounding the term digital divide have set the scene for policy development in various countries.... Sample PDF
Bridging the Digital Divide in Scotland
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Chapter 52
Ioannis Tarnanas, Vassilios Kikis
That portion of the Internet known as the World Wide Web has been riding an exponential growth curve since 1994 (Network Wizards, 1999; Rutkowski... Sample PDF
Bridging the Growing Digital Divide
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Chapter 53
Ned Kock
Virtually every university in the US and overseas has seen a significant increase in demand for information technology (IT) courses and programs in... Sample PDF
Bridging the Industry-University Gap through Action Research
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Chapter 54
István Mezgar
Thanks to the rapidly developing information and communication technologies, the complexity of networked organizations becomes very high, so the... Sample PDF
Building and Management of Trust in Information Systems
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Chapter 55
John M. Carroll
Educational technology provides many examples of how efficient software development and deployment is not enough. Teachers work in a complex and... Sample PDF
Building Educational Technology Partnerships through Participatory Design
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Chapter 56
Helen Thompson
Information communications technology (ICT) has been identified as a key enabler in the achievement of regional and rural success, particularly in... Sample PDF
Building Local Capacity via Scaleable Web-Based Services
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Chapter 57
Susan A. Baim
Over the past two decades, police departments around the globe have been involved in a slow, but steady transition from call-based policing to... Sample PDF
Building Police/Community Relations through Virtual Communities
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Chapter 58
Daniel Brandon Jr.
The UML (Unified Modeling language) has become a standard in design of object-oriented computer systems (Schach 2004). UML provides for the use of... Sample PDF
Business Model Application of UML Stereotypes
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Chapter 59
Chung-Shing Lee
Most Internet ventures failed because they did not have viable business models and sustainable long-term strategies. Their business models failed to... Sample PDF
Business Model Innovation in the Digital Economy
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Chapter 60
María Carmen Leonardi
Rational unified process (RUP) (Jacobson, Booch, & Rumbaugh, 1999) is an iterative, incremental and use case driven methodology. RUP starts the... Sample PDF
Business Modeling with Client-Oriented Requirements Strategy
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Chapter 61
Vincent Yen
In large organizations, typical systems portfolios consist of a mix of legacy systems, proprietary applications, databases, off-the-shelf packages... Sample PDF
Business Process and Workflow Modeling in Web Services
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Chapter 62
John S. Edwards
Knowledge has been a subject of interest and enquiry for thousands of years, since at least the time of the ancient Greeks, and no doubt even before... Sample PDF
Business Process and Knowledge Management
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Chapter 63
Petros Theodorou
The structure of production during the last decade has been changed radically. The importance of design, flexibility, quality, and dependability... Sample PDF
Business Strategy, Structure and IT Alignment
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Chapter 64
Dimitrios Katsaros, Yannis Manolopoulos
In recent years, the World Wide Web, or simply the Web (Berners-Lee, Caililiau, Luotonen, Nielsen, & Secret, 1994), has become the primary means for... Sample PDF
Cache Management for Web-Powered Databases
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Chapter 65
Morgan Jennings, Charles H. Mawhinney, Janos Fustos
How can we retain computer information systems (CIS) students? A decline in enrollment similar to that which occurred in the 80’s (Mawhinney... Sample PDF
Case-Based Learning in Computer Information Systems
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Chapter 66
Jane L. Garb, Richard B. Wait
The epidemiologist works with researchers in various disciplines as well as public and private health practitioners who are responsible for... Sample PDF
Census Data for Health Preparedness and Response
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Chapter 67
Hareton Leung
Software certification can not only greatly improve the overall quality of software; it can also help to control the cost of software development.... Sample PDF
Certifying Software Product and Processes
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Chapter 68
Challenges in M-Commerce  (pages 387-391)
Pouwan Lei, Chris Chatwin, Rupert Young
E-commerce activity is growing exponentially, and it is revolutionizing the way that businesses are run. In Asia, there is now an explosion of... Sample PDF
Challenges in M-Commerce
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Chapter 69
Luiz A. DaSilva
The original communication networks were designed to carry traffic with homogeneous performance requirements. The telephone network carried... Sample PDF
Challenges in Quality of Service for Tomorrow's Networks
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Chapter 70
H. D. Richards, C. Makatsorsis, Y. S. Chang
The main focus of this article is a study of the transformation processes occurring in industry and business at large. It deals with the social and... Sample PDF
Change Process Drivers for E-Business
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Chapter 71
Mark Snyder
Traditionally, the main purpose of printing is to generate reproductions in quantity. Before printing existed, scribes reproduced manuscripts by... Sample PDF
Changing Trends in the Preparation of Print Media
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Chapter 72
Chief Knowledge Officers  (pages 409-413)
Richard T. Herschel
A chief knowledge officer (CKO) is a senior executive who is responsible for ensuring that an organization maximizes the value it achieves through... Sample PDF
Chief Knowledge Officers
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Chapter 73
Peter J. Smith, Elizabeth Smythe
Not long ago globalization had only one face, that of a restructured capitalist economy employing new information technologies to operate on a... Sample PDF
Citizenship and New Technologies
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Chapter 74
Rafael S. Parpinelli, Heitor S. Lopes, Alex A. Freitas
Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a relatively new computational intelligence paradigm inspired by the behaviour of natural ants (Bonabeau, Dorigo &... Sample PDF
Classification-Rule Discovery with an Ant Colony Algorithm
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Chapter 75
Jennifer Paige Nightingale
Employing technology that students find enticing and will prepare them well for the future, may be easier than preparing the teachers who will... Sample PDF
Classroom Communication on a Different Blackboard
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Chapter 76
Stuart D. Galup, Ronald Dattero, Richard C. Hicks
Data, information, and knowledge are three related but not interchangeable concepts. Data are a set of discrete, objective facts about events.... Sample PDF
Client/Server and the Knowledge Directory
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Chapter 77
Kevin E. Voges
Cluster analysis is a fundamental data reduction technique used in the physical and social sciences. The technique is of interest to managers in... Sample PDF
Cluster Analysis Using Rough Clustering and k-Means Clustering
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Chapter 78
Felix B. Tan, M. Gordon Hunter
The existence and significance of cognition in organizations and its influence on patterns of behaviour in organizations and organizational outcomes... Sample PDF
Cognitive Research in Information Systems
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Chapter 79
Giancarlo Fortino
Advances in communications and software technology are leading the Internet to become an open and distributed computing platform able to provide... Sample PDF
Collaborative Learning On-Demand
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Chapter 80
Richard P. Bagozzi, Utpal M. Dholakia
The Internet is an important innovation in information science and technology and profoundly affects people in their daily lives. To date, these... Sample PDF
Collective Intentional Action in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 81
Hannu Salmela, Juha Parnisto
Since the 1990s, services characterized by a considerable geographical distance between the service person and the customer have become increasingly... Sample PDF
Combining Local and Global Expertise in Services
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Chapter 82
Elayne Coakes, Dianne Willis
This article addresses issues concerning the suitability of particular media as mass communication tools in an UK higher education setting. It looks... Sample PDF
Communication Management for Large Modules
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Chapter 83
Paul Lajbcygier
Once, the seminal Black–Scholes (Black & Scholes, 1973) model was thought to be the last word on option pricing: all that was needed, it was... Sample PDF
Comparing Conventional and Non-Parametric Option Pricing
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Chapter 84
Anet Potgieter, Kurt April, Judith Bishop
In a world where the market, customer profiles and demands change constantly and the events in the global marketplace are unpredictable, it becomes... Sample PDF
Complex Adaptive Enterprises
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Chapter 85
Zoran Stojanovic, Ajantha Dahanayake
One of the main challenges enterprises face today is how to manage complexity of systems being developed, effectively utilize the power of the... Sample PDF
Component-Oriented Approach for Designing Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 86
David Taniar, Eric Pardede, J. Wenny Rahayu
Object-Relational Database (ORDB) is increasingly popular as the database storage. Its popularity is based on its ability to capture the... Sample PDF
Composition in Object-Relational Database
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Chapter 87
Pieter Blignaut, Andies Burger, Theo McDonald, Jnase Tolmie
Computers in the workplace are a given. Although the advantages of computers are well-known and proven, many people still try to avoid using them.... Sample PDF
Computer Attitude and Anxiety
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Chapter 88
Charles R. Graham, Melanie Misanchuk
Online learning has seen tremendous growth over the past decade in both the corporate and higher education sectors of society. This has been... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Learning Groups
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Chapter 89
Anthony Scime
Information technology (IT) is an umbrella term that encompasses disciplines dealing with the computer and its functions. These disciplines... Sample PDF
Computing Curriculum Analysis and Development
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Chapter 90
Dohoon Kim
The enterprise intelligence through e-transformation is one of the cornerstones of the next-generation e-business era where the Internet constitutes... Sample PDF
Concepts and Dynamics of the Application Service Provider Industry
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Chapter 91
Sagarmay Deb
Images are generated everywhere from various sources. It could be satellite pictures, biomedical, scientific, entertainment, sports and many more... Sample PDF
Concepts of Emergence Index in Image Databases
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Chapter 92
Lynne D. Roberts, Liegh M. Smith, Claie M. Pollock
The rapid growth of the Internet has been accompanied by a growth in the number and types of virtual environments supporting computer-mediated... Sample PDF
Conducting Ethical Research in Virtual Environments
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Chapter 93
Sergio Greco, Eester Zumpano
The aim of data integration is to provide a uniform integrated access to multiple heterogeneous information sources, which were designed... Sample PDF
Consistent Queries Over Databases with Integrity Constraints
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Chapter 94
Isabel Ramos, João Álvaro Carvalho
Scientific or organizational knowledge creation has been addressed from different perspectives along the history of science and, in particular, of... Sample PDF
Constructionist Perspective of Organizational Data Mining
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Chapter 95
Herbert Kotzab
Retailing can be defined as a set of specific business processes that add value to products and services sold to end users (e.g., Levy & Weitz... Sample PDF
Contemporary IT-Assisted Retail Management
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Chapter 96
Ali Arya
Face animation is a challenging area of computer graphics and multimedia systems research (Parke, 1996). Realistic personalized face animation is... Sample PDF
Content Description for Face Animation
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Chapter 97
Anne Honkaranta, Pasi Tyrvainen
Content management may be characterized as “a variety of tools and methods that are used together to collect, process, and deliver content of... Sample PDF
Content Management in Organizations
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Chapter 98
Colin C. Venters, Richard J. Hartley, William T. Hewitt
The proliferation in volume of digital image data has exacerbated the general image retrieval problem, creating a need for efficient storage and... Sample PDF
Content-Based Image Retrieval Query Paradigms
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Chapter 99
Yung-Kuan Chan, Chin-Chen Chang
Because of the demand for efficient management in images, much attention has been paid to image retrieval over the past few years. The text-based... Sample PDF
Content-Based Retrieval Concept
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Chapter 100
Farhad Daneshgar
Like many existing ERP models (e.g., Podolsky, 1998; Van Stijn & Wensley, 2001), the OOAB framework is also based on a widely accepted assumption... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Framework for ERP
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Chapter 101
Virpi Lyytikainen, Pasi Tiitinen, Airi Salminen
Metadata has always been an important means to support accessibility of information in document collections. Metadata can be, for example... Sample PDF
Contextual Metadata for Document Databases
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Chapter 102
John R. Burrett, Lisa Burnell, John W. Priest
In this article, we investigate the potential of using a synthesis of organizational research, traditional systems analysis techniques, and... Sample PDF
Contingency Theory, Agent-Based Systems, and a Virtual Advisor
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Chapter 103
V. K. Murthy, E. V. Krishnamurthy
This overview describes an object-based workflow paradigm to support long and short duration transactions in a mobile e-commerce (or m-commerce)... Sample PDF
Contract-Based Workflow Design Patterns in M-Commerce
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Chapter 104
Abdulwahed Mohammed Khalfan, Majed Z. Al-Hajery, Khamis Al-Gharbi
As organisations need diverse and high quality IS/IT services to survive and excel in the rapidly changing business environment (Lacity & Willcocks... Sample PDF
Contracting Mechanisms in the IS/IT Outsourcing Phenomenon
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Chapter 105
Elaheh Pourabbas
In recent years, the enormous increase of independent databases widely accessible through computer networks has strongly motivated the... Sample PDF
Cooperation of Geographic and Multidimensional Databases
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Chapter 106
André de Carvalho, Antonio P. Braga, Tersea Ludermir
The widespread use of databases and the fast increase in the volume of data they store are creating problems and new opportunities for credit... Sample PDF
Credit Card Users' Data Mining
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Chapter 107
Philip J. Dobson
Many recent articles from within the information systems (IS) arena present an old-fashioned view of realism. For example, Iivari, Hirschheim, and... Sample PDF
Critical Realism as an Underlying Philosophy for IS Research
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Chapter 108
Sven A. Carlsson
The Information Systems (IS) field is dominated by research approaches and theories based in positivism (Arnott, Pervan, O’Donnell, & Dodson, 2004;... Sample PDF
Critical Realism in IS Research
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Chapter 109
Dane Peterson, Chung S. Kim
Despite enormous progress in the methodologies and technologies used in the development and implementation of information systems (IS), the failure... Sample PDF
Critical Strategies for IS Projects
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Chapter 110
Ben Martz, Venkat Reddy
Distance education is playing an ever-growing role in the education industry. As such, it is prudent to explore and understand driving conditions... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors for Distance Education Programs
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Chapter 111
Leopoldo E. Colmenares, Jim O. Otieno
An enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is an integrated set of programs that provides support for core organizational activities, such as... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors of ERP Implementation
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Chapter 112
John H. Nugent
As in all industries, in order to win in a market, it is important to know as much as possible about that market and have at one’s disposal tools... Sample PDF
Critical Trends in Telecommunications
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Chapter 113
Elena Karahanna, Roberto Evaristo, Mark Srite
“Globalization of business highlights the need to understand the management of organizations that span different nations and cultures” (Srite et... Sample PDF
Cross-Cultural Research in MIS
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Chapter 114
Andrew Targowski, Ali Metwalli
In this millennium, global organizations will increasingly focus on the critical value of the cross-cultural communication process, efficiency... Sample PDF
Cross-Culture Communication
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Chapter 115
Moez Limayem
Group support systems (GSSs) are an increasingly popular means of aiding decision making in a variety of organizational settings, by combining the... Sample PDF
Culture and Anonymity in GSS Meetings
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Chapter 116
Gabor Hosszu
Multicast technology is one-to-many communication, oppositely from the usual one-to-one (unicast) communication, which provides an efficient... Sample PDF
Current Multicast Technology
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Chapter 117
Göran Pulkkis, Kaj Grahn, Peik Astrom
Network security is defined as “a set of procedures, practices and technologies for protecting network servers, network users and their surrounding... Sample PDF
Current Network Security Systems
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Chapter 118
Johanna Lammintakanen, Sari Rissanen
A paradigm shift has taken place in the last decade, with a move from traditional to Web-based education at different educational levels (Harasim... Sample PDF
Curriculum Development in Web-Based Education
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Chapter 119
Stu Westin
Experimental studies involving the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) are becoming increasingly common in disciplines such as management information... Sample PDF
Data Collection Methodologies for Web-Based Experiments
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Chapter 120
Michael W. Dixon, Johan M. Karlsson, Tanya J. McGill
Information and communications technology (ICT) has increasingly influenced higher education. Computer-based packages and other learning objects... Sample PDF
Data Communications and E-Learning
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Chapter 121
Agustinus Borgy Waluyo, Bala Srinivasan, David Taniar
The development of wireless technology has led to mobile computing, a new era in data communication and processing (Barbara, 1999; Myers & Beigl... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination in Mobile Databases
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Chapter 122
Richi Nayak
Research and practices in mobile (m-) business have seen an exponential growth in the last decade (CNN, 2002; Leisen, 2000; McDonough, 2002; Purba... Sample PDF
Data Mining and Mobile Business Data
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Chapter 123
Chi Kin Chan
The traditional approach to forecasting involves choosing the forecasting method judged most appropriate of the available methods and applying it to... Sample PDF
Data Mining for Combining Forecasts in Inventory Management
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Chapter 124
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Manoj K. Singh
Supply chain comprises the flow of products, information, and money. In traditional supply chain management, business processes are disconnected... Sample PDF
Data Mining for Supply Chain Management in Complex Networks
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Chapter 125
Ye-Sho Chen, Bin Zhang, Bob Justis
Franchising has been a popular business approach given the high rate of business failures (Justis & Judd, 2002; Thomas & Seid, 2000), and its... Sample PDF
Data Mining in Franchise Organizations
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Chapter 126
Data Mining in Practice  (pages 723-728)
Sherry Y. Chen, Xiaohui Liu
There is an explosion in the amount of data that organizations generate, collect, and store. Organizations are gradually relying more on new... Sample PDF
Data Mining in Practice
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Chapter 127
José María Cavero Barca, Esperanza Marcos Martinez, Mario G. Piattini, Adolfo Sánchez de Miguel
The concept of data warehouse first appeared in Inmon (1993) to describe a “subject oriented, integrated, non-volatile, and time variant collection... Sample PDF
Data Warehouse Development
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Chapter 128
Database Integrity  (pages 734-738)
Jorge H. Doorn
One of the factors that stimulated the development of database technology was the need to guarantee the consistency of the stored data. On the other... Sample PDF
Database Integrity
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Chapter 129
Hong Va Leong
M-commerce applications have evolved out of e-commerce applications, riding on the rapid advancement in mobile communication technologies in the... Sample PDF
Database Support for M-Commerce
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Chapter 130
J. F. Aldana Montes, A. C. Gómez Lora, N. Moreno Vergara, I. Navas Delgado, M. M. Roldán Garcia
Database community has been seriously disturbed with the Web technologies expansion. Particularly, two reports have produced a special commotion in... Sample PDF
Database Technologies on the Web
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Chapter 131
Daniel J. Power
Since the late 1960s, researchers have been developing and implementing computerized systems to support management decision makers. A number of... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems Concept
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Chapter 132
Yanqing Duan, Mark Xu
Decision support systems (DSSs) are widely used in many organisations (Arslan et al., 2004; Belecheanu et al., 2003; Dey, 2001; Gopalakrishnan et... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems in Small Businesses
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Chapter 133
Guisseppi Forgionne, Manuel Mora, Jatinder N.D. Gupta, Ovsei Gelman
Decision-making support systems (DMSS) are specialized computer-based information systems designed to support some, several or all phases of the... Sample PDF
Decision-Making Support Systems
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Chapter 134
Jean-Charles Pomerol, Frédéric Adam
The concept of Decision Support System (DSS), which was first coined by Gorry and Scott Morton (1971), was proposed in an attempt to focus the... Sample PDF
Decision-Making Support Systems and Representation Levels
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Chapter 135
David Sammon, Frédéric Adam
The last 15 years have seen the emergence on the software market of a category of software called Enterprise Resource Planning systems or ERP, which... Sample PDF
Defining and Understanding ERP Systems
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Chapter 136
Mark E. Nissen
The practice of knowledge management (KM) purports to take the power of knowledge to the group, organization and even enterprise level (Davenport &... Sample PDF
Delineating Knowledge Flows for Enterprise Agility
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Chapter 137
Kathryn A. Marold
A decade of hindsight allows us to examine the phenomenon of Web-based course delivery and evaluate its successes and failures. When Web-delivered... Sample PDF
Delivering Web-Based Education
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Chapter 138
Democratic E-Governance  (pages 791-796)
Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
The changing role of the state and a managerialist view of the operations of public-sector organizations gave rise to the idea of new public... Sample PDF
Democratic E-Governance
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Chapter 139
Janice C. Sipior
The impact of cultural diversity on group interactions through technology is an active research area. Current research has found that a student’s... Sample PDF
Departure of the Expert Systems Project Champion
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Chapter 140
Judith V. Boettcher
The importance of design for instructional programs — whether on campus or online or at a distance — increases with the possible combinations of... Sample PDF
Design Levels for Distance and Online Learning
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Chapter 141
Jana Polgar
Agents are viewed as the next significant software abstraction, and it is expected they will become as ubiquitous as graphical user interfaces are... Sample PDF
Designing Agents with Negotiation Capabilities
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Chapter 142
Ian K. Wong, D. Sandy Staples
In the past several decades, we have seen tremendous advancements in the development of communication technology. Since the invention of the... Sample PDF
Designing High Performance Virtual Teams
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Chapter 143
Yin-Leng Theng
Hypertext and Web technology still continue to excite many, ever since it became popular in the late 1980s. Early visionary thinkers such as Bush... Sample PDF
Designing Hypertext and the Web
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Chapter 144
Kam Hou Vat
Today, the view that knowledge is a valuable organizational resource has become widely recognized and accepted in the business community. This is... Sample PDF
Designing OMIS-Based Collaboration for Learning Organizations
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Chapter 145
Gustavo Rossi, Daniel Schwabe
The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the most widely used platform for application development and information delivery. Web applications have... Sample PDF
Designing Web Applications
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Chapter 146
Pallab Saha
With the advent of scientific management in the late 19th century came attempts to increase worker efficiency by setting standards for various... Sample PDF
Developing Dynamic Balanced Scorecards
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Chapter 147
Niki Panteli
During the last few years, there has been an increasing acknowledgment of the importance of trust in business interactions within the management and... Sample PDF
Developing Trust in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 148
Petek Askar, Ugur Halici
Most of the discussions related to education are about technological innovations. Indeed as Rogers (1995) stated, we often use the word “innovation”... Sample PDF
Diffusion of E-Learning as an Educational Innovation
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Chapter 149
Davood Askarany
During the past two decades, the world has witnessed a significant change in the nature of the technological and administrative practices and... Sample PDF
Diffusion of Innovations in Organisations
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Chapter 150
James Griffin
Electronic commerce has been recognised as a source of fundamental, pan-sectoral change to the conduct of business; Chan and Swatman (2000) use the... Sample PDF
Diffusion Patterns of the Internet Technology Cluster in Irish SMEs
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Chapter 151
Ramesh Subramanian
Dramatic changes have occurred on the corporate front in the last few years, as more and more businesses have started to conduct commerce on the... Sample PDF
Digital Asset Management Concepts
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Chapter 152
Patrick R. Mullen
Individual privacy is freedom from excessive intrusion by those seeking personal information about the individual. This allows the individual to... Sample PDF
Digital Government and Individual Privacy
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Chapter 153
Steven Utsi, Joost Lowyck
As an educational setting, the traditional classroom fails to meet the learner’s need for suitable skills to learn with educational software. The... Sample PDF
Digital Literacy and the Position of the End-User
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Chapter 154
Axel Schmetzke
After 20 years of digitization efforts, hardly a single type of library information resource remains that has not shifted, at least to some extent... Sample PDF
Digitization of Library Information and Its Accessibility for People with Disabilities
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Chapter 155
John A. Hoxmeier
The ultimate objective of database analysis, design, and implementation is to establish an electronic repository that faithfully represents the... Sample PDF
Dimensions of Database Quality
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Chapter 156
Graeme Richards, Beatriz de la Iglesia
In descriptive data mining, the objective is to build an understandable model that provides insight into the behaviour or characteristics of some... Sample PDF
Discovery of Classification Rules from Databases
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Chapter 157
Cathy Cavanaugh
While effective distance education has been practiced and studied for centuries, it has been in just the last decade that networked digital... Sample PDF
Distance Education Success Factors
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Chapter 158
Panayiotis Zaphiris, Andrew Laghos, Giorgos Zacharia
This article presents an empirical study of an online learning community that collaborates with the course design team under the Participatory... Sample PDF
Distributed Construction through Participatory Design
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Chapter 159
Badrul M. Sarwar, Joseph A. Konstan, John T. Riedl
Recommender systems (RSs) present an alternative information-evaluation approach based on the judgements of human beings (Resnick & Varian, 1997).... Sample PDF
Distributed Recommender Systems for Internet Commerce
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Chapter 160
Leo Tan Wee Hin, Ramesh Subramaniam
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a very significant role in the economies of all countries. They outnumber big corporations, and are... Sample PDF
Dot-Coming SMEs in Singapore for the New Economy
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Chapter 161
Sai Ho Kwok
Mobile multimedia has been promoted as a promising service and application in mobile e-commerce (m-commerce) by many mobile operators and mobile... Sample PDF
DRM Technology for Mobile Multimedia
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Chapter 162
Mirek Riedewald, Divyakant Agrawal
Rapidly improving computing and networking technology enables enterprises to collect data from virtually all its business units. The main challenge... Sample PDF
Dynamic Multidimensional Data Cubes for Interactive Analysis of Massive Datasets
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Chapter 163
Denis Trcek
Security became a topic of research with the introduction of networked information systems, or networked IS, in the early eighties. In the... Sample PDF
E-Business Systems Security for Intelligent Enterprise
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Chapter 164
V. K. Murthy, E .V. Krishnamurthy
The World Wide Web (or the “Web”) is revolutionizing the concept of service -oriented computing. It permits the integration of the local area... Sample PDF
E-Business Transaction in Web Integrated Network Environment
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Chapter 165
Nikos Karacapilidis
Removal of communication impediments and provision for techniques that systematically direct the pattern, timing, and content of cooperative... Sample PDF
E-Collaboration Support Systems: Issues to be Addressed
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Chapter 166
Arthur Tatnall, Bill Davey
To those of us involved in research and teaching in information systems (IS) it is clear that curriculum innovation and change is complex, and... Sample PDF
Ecological Models and Information Systems Curriculum
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Chapter 167
E-Commerce Curriculum  (pages 951-956)
Linda V. Knight, Susy S. Chan
This article begins by tracing the rapid development of e-commerce curricula in response to demand from employers and students, and the subsequent... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Curriculum
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Chapter 168
Mhesh S. Raisinghani, Dan S. Petty
This article is designed to give the reader a balanced perspective on some of the issues surrounding the current discussions related to state and... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Taxation Issues
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Chapter 169
Yanqing Duan
E-commerce offers companies tremendous opportunities to improve their business performance in new and innovative ways. However, its potential... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Training for SMEs
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Chapter 170
Aberdeen Leila Borders, Wesley J. Johnston
This article examines the issue of electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) in a manufacturing context. eCRM has been described as the... Sample PDF
eCRM in a Manufacturing Environment
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Chapter 171
John Mendonca
The ways in which computers have been applied to business have evolved over the past 40 years. In the commonly accepted three-era model of applied... Sample PDF
Educating the Business Information Technologist
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Chapter 172
Bishwajit Choudhary
For several years, researchers have argued that too much closeness or distance among the team members inhibits intellectual debate and lowers the... Sample PDF
Effective Learning Through Optimum Distance Among Team Members
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Chapter 173
Ljiljana D. Milic
Efficient multirate filters have been developed during the past three decades for implementation of digital filters with stringent spectral... Sample PDF
Efficient Multirate Filtering
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Chapter 174
Dirk Werth
The rise of the Internet has structurally changed not only the business area, but also governments and administrative authorities. The usage of... Sample PDF
E-Government Interoperability
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Chapter 175
Birgit Jaeger
The development of Electronic or Digital Government (E-Government) has varied throughout the world. Although we give it the same name, we know from... Sample PDF
E-Government, E-Democracy and the Politicians
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Chapter 176
Yair Levy, Michelle M. Ramim
The Greek philosopher Aristotle indicated that learning is the outcome of both teaching and practice. Clearly, learning is not confined exclusively... Sample PDF
Eight Key Elements of Successful Self-Funding E-Learning Programs
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Chapter 177
E-Learning Environment  (pages 1001-1005)
Mizue Kayama, Toshio Okamoto
Nowadays, the concept/system of e-learning (or eLearning) is widespread with the advent and prevalence of the Internet. Via the Internet, people can... Sample PDF
E-Learning Environment
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Chapter 178
Maria-Eugenia Iacob, Piet Boekhoudt, Freek Ebeling
Dutch small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are one of The Netherlands’ most important sources of wealth creation and employment. No less than 99% of... Sample PDF
Electronic Commerce Policies for Dutch SMEs
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Chapter 179
Charles C. Hinnant, Steve Sawyer
Since the mid-1990s, adoption of wide-area computer networks, such as the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW), by the public, educational... Sample PDF
Electronic Government Strategies and Research in the U.S.
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Chapter 180
Yukiko Inoue, Suzanne T. Bell
With scientific achievement and technological advancement, “American society is poised for a radical shift in the manner in which individuals learn... Sample PDF
Electronic/Digital Government Innovation, and Publishing Trends with IT
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Chapter 181
E-Mail and Communication  (pages 1024-1029)
Dianne Willis
Electronic mail is the most frequently used application of the Internet. IDC research in 2002 suggested that the daily output of e-mails will reach... Sample PDF
E-Mail and Communication
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Chapter 182
Denise Johnson McManus, Houston Hume Carr
During the past decade, strategic information technology (IT) applications, such as electronic mail (e-mail), have been used to gain competitive... Sample PDF
E-Mail as a Strategic Tool in Organizations
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Chapter 183
Jonathan Frank, Janet Toland, Karen D. Schenk
The impact of cultural diversity on group interactions through technology is an active research area. Current research has found that a student’s... Sample PDF
E-Mail Usage in South Pacific Distance Education
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Chapter 184
Chalermsak Lertwongsatien, Nitaya Wongpinunwatana
It was predicted that in 2004, e-commerce would generate worldwide revenue as high as $6.9 trillion, and the number of Internet users would grow as... Sample PDF
Empirical Study of E-Commerce Adoption in SMEs in Thailand
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Chapter 185
Conrad Shayo, Ruth A. Guthrie
End-user computing (EUC) is the optional development of computer applications and models by personnel (individuals or groups) outside the MIS... Sample PDF
End-User Computing Success Measurement
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Chapter 186
Penny Baillie-de Byl, Mark Toleman
Traditionally, philosophers have defined emotions to be interruptions to otherwise logical states of being (Smith & Kirby, 2000). The recent... Sample PDF
Engineering Emotionally Intelligent Agents
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Chapter 187
Enhanced Knowledge Warehouse  (pages 1057-1062)
Krzysztof Wecel, Witold Abramowicz, Pawel Jan Kalczynski
Enhanced knowledge warehouse (eKW) is an extension of the enhanced data warehouse (eDW) system (Abramowicz, 2002). eKW is a Web services-based... Sample PDF
Enhanced Knowledge Warehouse
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Chapter 188
Henry Aigbedo
A framework that is often used to describe the transformation of society relates to the percentage of people involved in or impacted by a given... Sample PDF
Enhancing Competitiveness of B2B and B2C E-Commerce
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Chapter 189
Jo Ann Oravec
Organizations have become more permeable— integrating more influences from the outside world— as participants engage in such online diversions as... Sample PDF
Enhancing Workplaces with Constructive Online Recreation
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Chapter 190
Karl Kurbel
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a state-of-the-art approach to running organizations with the help of comprehensive information systems... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning and Integration
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Chapter 191
Mark I. Hwang
Systems integration has been an important topic ever since businesses started using mainframes to run their back-office operations. These systems... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning and Systems Integration
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Chapter 192
Jose M. Framinan
Enterprise resource planning systems can be defined as customizable, standard application software that includes integrated business solutions for... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning for Intelligent Enterprises
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Chapter 193
Celeste See-pui Ng
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is packaged software, and the accompanying set of best practices designed to integrate and serve different... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning Maintenance Concepts
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Chapter 194
Monideepa Tarafdar
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate various functions and processes in organizations. ERP software is developed in the form of... Sample PDF
ERP Adoption in Indian Organizations
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Chapter 195
Peretz Shoval, Judith Kabeli
Many paradigms for system analysis and design have been proposed over the years. Early approaches have advocated the functional approach. Common... Sample PDF
Essentials of Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology
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Chapter 196
Monica T. Whitty
The focus on Internet relationships has escalated in recent times, with researchers investigating such areas as the development of online... Sample PDF
Ethical Implications of Investigating Internet Relationships
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Chapter 197
Ethics of New Technologies  (pages 1121-1124)
Joe Gilbert
Information processing has been done through telling stories, drawing on cave walls, writing on parchment, printing books, talking on telephones... Sample PDF
Ethics of New Technologies
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Chapter 198
John B. Nash, Cristoph Richter, Heidrun Allert
The call for the integration of program evaluation into the development of computer-supported learning environments is ever increasing. Pushed not... Sample PDF
Evaluating Computer-Supported Learning Initiatives
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Chapter 199
Carla Wilkin
An enduring question in information systems research and practice concerns evaluation of the impact of information systems (IS). It endures, as to... Sample PDF
Evaluating IS Quality as a Measure of IS Effectiveness
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Chapter 200
Geraldine Clarebout, Jan Elen, Joost Lowyck, Jeff Van den Ende, Erwin Van den Enden
Educational goals have generally shifted from knowing everything in a specific domain to knowing how to deal with complex problems. Reasoning and... Sample PDF
Evaluation of an Open Learning Environment
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Chapter 201
Evolution of ERP Systems  (pages 1138-1143)
Mohammad A. Rashid
The functional units of today’s complex business environment require more and more interfunctional data flow for decision making, timely and... Sample PDF
Evolution of ERP Systems
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Chapter 202
Olena Daly, David Taniar
Data mining is a process of discovering new, unexpected, valuable patterns from existing databases (Frawley, Piatetsky-Shapiro, & Matheus, 1991).... Sample PDF
Exception Rules in Data Mining
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Chapter 203
Valerie Baker, Tim Coltman
One of the main strategic challenges for organizations today is to effectively manage change and stay competitive in the future. Change appears to... Sample PDF
Executive Judgment in E-Business Strategy
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Chapter 204
Edilberto Casado
Business intelligence (BI) is a key topic in business today, since it is focused on strategic decision making and on the search of value from... Sample PDF
Expanding Data Mining Power with System Dynamics
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Chapter 205
V. P. Kochikar, J. K. Suresh
The last few decades have seen a growing proportion of organizational wealth being represented by intangible assets, i.e., assets with value that... Sample PDF
Experiential Perspective on Knowledge Management
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Chapter 206
Daniel Riesco, Marcela Daniele, Daniel Romero, German Montejano
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) allows to visualize, to specify, to build and to document the devices of a system that involves a great quantity... Sample PDF
Extensions to UML Using Stereotypes
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Chapter 207
Ana C. Andrés del Valle
As computers evolve towards becoming more human-oriented machines, human-computer interfaces, behavior-learning robots, and disable-adapted computer... Sample PDF
Face Expression and Motion Analysis over Monocular Images
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Chapter 208
Kostas Karpouzis, Athanasios Drosopoulos, Spiros Ioannou, Amaryllis Raouzaiou, Nicolas Tsapatsoulis, Stefanos Kollias
Emotionally-aware Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) systems are presently at the forefront of interest of the computer vision and artificial... Sample PDF
Facial and Body Feature Extraction for Emotionally-Rich HCI
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Chapter 209
Kim E. Dooley, James R. Linder, Chanda Elbert, Timothy H. Murphy, Theresa P. Murphrey
Research in the field of distance education has recognized the need for a change and modification of the faculty role in teaching at a distance... Sample PDF
Faculty Perceptions and Participation in Distance Education
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Chapter 210
Wenbing Zhao, Louise E. Moser, P. Michael Melliar-Smith
The services provided by computers and communication networks are becoming more critical to our society. Such services increase the need for... Sample PDF
Fault Tolerance for Distributed and Networked Systems
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Chapter 211
Imed Kacem
Planning and scheduling problems in various industrial environments are combinatorial and very difficult. Generally, it is extremely hard to solve... Sample PDF
Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problems
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Chapter 212
P. Kefalas, M. Holcombe, G. Eleftherakis, M. Gheorghe
Recent advances in both the testing and verification of software based on formal specifications have reached a point where the ideas can be applied... Sample PDF
Formal Development of Reactive Agent-Based Systems
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Chapter 213
Aristides Dasso, Ana Funes
As a general rule, all engineering applications use mathematics or mathematical tools as a basis for their development. However, software... Sample PDF
Formal Methods in Software Engineering
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Chapter 214
Liliana Favre, Liliana Martinez, Claudia Pereira
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has emerged as a modeling language for specifying, visualizing, constructing, and documenting software-intensive... Sample PDF
Forward Engineering of UML Static Models
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Chapter 215
Ye-Sho Chen, Bin Zhang, Bob Justis
Franchising is “a business opportunity by which the owner (producer or distributor) of a service or a trademarked product grants exclusive rights to... Sample PDF
Franchising and Information Technology
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Chapter 216
Nikhilesh Dholakia, Nir Kshetri
Despite rapidly falling costs of hardware, software, and telecommunications services, a wide gap persists between rich and poor nations in terms of... Sample PDF
From Digital Divide to Digital Dividend
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Chapter 217
Robert A. Schultz
The invention and rise of the relational database starting in the 1960s was accompanied by the remarkable development of canonical design... Sample PDF
Functional Dependency and Other Related Dependencies
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Chapter 218
Guisseppi A. Forgionne
Because of the importance to individual, group, and organizational success, information systems research has examined ways to improve support for... Sample PDF
Functional Integration of Decision Making Support
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Chapter 219
Vladimír Modrák
Efforts to separate unequivocally substantial signs of versatile tools of manufacturing management are usually marked by a narrowed view of the... Sample PDF
Functionalities and Position of Manufacturing Execution Systems
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Chapter 220
Gordana Javanovic-Dolecek
Digital signal processing (DSP) is an area of science and engineering that has been rapidly developed over the past years. This rapid development is... Sample PDF
Fundamentals of Multirate Systems
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Chapter 221
Simpson Poon
The use of the Internet for business purposes among small businesses started quite early in the e-commerce evolution. In the beginning, innovative... Sample PDF
Future of Small Business E-Commerce
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Chapter 222
Gender and Computer Anxiety  (pages 1257-1265)
Sue E. Kase, Frank E. Ritter
Because of their ability to enhance productivity, computers have become ubiquitous in the workplace. By the early 1990s the use of computers in the... Sample PDF
Gender and Computer Anxiety
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Chapter 223
Arnor Solberg, John Oldevik, Audun Jensvoll
As a result of the widespread popularity of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) (OMG, 2003-1), many companies have invested in introducing a... Sample PDF
Generic Framework for Defining Domain-Specific Models
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Chapter 224
Martin D. Crossland
Geographic information systems (GISs) as a technology have been studied and reported extensively and, not unexpectedly, in the field of geography.... Sample PDF
Geographic Information Systems as Decision Tools
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Chapter 225
Donald R. Morris-Jones, Dedric A. Carter
Organizations and teams are becoming increasingly more distributed as groups work to expand their global presence while rationalizing team members... Sample PDF
Geospatial Information Systems and Enterprise Collaboration
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Chapter 226
Fahui Wang, Wei Lou
Accessibility refers to the relative ease by which the locations of activities, such as work, shopping and healthcare, can be reached from a given... Sample PDF
GIS-Based Accessibility Measures and Application
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Chapter 227
Deborah Bunker
It is argued that Electronic Commerce (EC) platforms can be seen as artefacts—tools that are made, used, inherited and studied within a cultural... Sample PDF
Global Implications of E-Commerce Tool and Artefact Creation
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Chapter 228
Daniel Brandon Jr.
This article reviews globalization aspects of “business to consumer” (B2C) electronic commerce. According to Computerworld, “Globalization is the... Sample PDF
Globalization of Consumer E-Commerce
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Chapter 229
Erik Beulen
The literature first devoted attention to IT outsourcing partnerships in 1990 (Gantz, 1990; Rochester & Douglas, 1990). An IT outsourcing... Sample PDF
Governance in IT Outsourcing Partnerships
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Chapter 230
Reima Suomi
The pressures for the health care industry are well known and very similar in all developed countries (i.e., altering population, shortage of... Sample PDF
Governance Structures for IT in the Health Care Industry
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Chapter 231
Yangjun Chen
It is a general opinion that relational database systems are inadequate for manipulating composite objects that arise in novel applications such as... Sample PDF
Graph Encoding and Recursion Computation
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Chapter 232
Kevin Johnston
The alignment of business strategy with IT strategy has been a concern of chief information officers (CIOs) (Berkman, 2000; Croteau & Bergeron... Sample PDF
Harmonizing IT and Business Strategies
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Chapter 233
Susan E. George
Deriving—or discovering—information from data has come to be known as data mining. Within health care, the knowledge from medical mining has been... Sample PDF
Heuristics in Medical Data Mining
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Chapter 234
Elaheh Pourabbas
Hierarchies play a fundamental role in knowledge representation and reasoning. They have been considered as the structures created by abstraction... Sample PDF
Hierarchies in Multidimensional Databases
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Chapter 235
Shamik Sural, A. Vadivel, A. K. Majumdar
Digital image databases have seen an enormous growth over the last few years. However, since many image collections are poorly indexed or annotated... Sample PDF
Histogram Generation from the HSV Color Space
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Chapter 236
Ta-Tao Chuang, Wayne W. Huang, Yue Jeff Zhang
A group support system (GSS) is created with information technology (IT) and decision support techniques for assisting problem formulation and... Sample PDF
History and Future Development of Group Support Systems
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Chapter 237
Patricia L. Rogers
From filmstrips and mimeographs, to computer-based simulations and virtual reality, technology seems to dominate teachers’ lives as they master the... Sample PDF
How Teachers Use Instructional Design in Real Classrooms
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Chapter 238
Burak Ozer, Tiehan Lv, Wayne Wolf
Recent advances in camera and storage systems along with increased algorithmic and computational power of 3D graphics hardware are main factors... Sample PDF
Human Body Part Classification and Activity Recognition for Real-Time Systems
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Chapter 239
Niki Aifanti, Angel D. Sappa, Nikos Grammalidis, Sotiris Malassiotis
Tracking and recognition of human motion has become an important research area in computer vision. In real-world conditions it constitutes a... Sample PDF
Human Motion Tracking and Recognition
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Chapter 240
Mario Bochicchio, Nicola Fiore
In general, the production of hypermedia applications is a complex and expensive task, requiring both technical skills and communicative abilities... Sample PDF
Hyper Video for Distance Learning
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Chapter 241
Lei Dang, Suzanne M. Embury
In recent years, the term agile organisation has been coined to denote an organisation which is able to change its working practices quickly in... Sample PDF
Hypothetical Reasoning Over Databases
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Chapter 242
Marc Holzer, Richard Schwester
While citizen participation is central to democratic governance, there is a noticeable disconnect between elected representatives and the citizenry... Sample PDF
ICTs as Participatory Vehicles
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Chapter 243
Jan Achterbergh
Collecting and processing competitive intelligence for the purpose of strategy formulation are complex activities requiring deep insight in and... Sample PDF
ICT-Supported Gaming for Competitive Intelligence
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Chapter 244
Impacts of Intranet on PDO  (pages 1385-1390)
Khamis Al-Gharbi, Abdulwahed Mohammed Khalfan
In developing countries such as Oman, the introduction of information technologies is very recent and their use and effect have not been... Sample PDF
Impacts of Intranet on PDO
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Chapter 245
Georg Disterer
Professional service firms (PSFs), where professionals (consultants, lawyers, accountants, tax advisors, etc.) work, are interested in knowledge... Sample PDF
Impediments for Knowledge Sharing in Professional Service Firms
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Chapter 246
Joseph Sarkis, R. P. Sundarraj
The integration of enterprise systems and the supply chain to an organization is becoming more critical in an ever-changing, globally competitive... Sample PDF
Implementation Management of an E-Commerce-Enabled Enterprise Information System
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Chapter 247
William S. Lightfoot
The explosive growth of networks and the World Wide Web over the past decade has led to increased adoption of new applications by educational... Sample PDF
Implementing an Online Academic Evaluation System
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Chapter 248
Dirk Trossen, Erik Molenaar
For collaboration among users, sharing audio-visual, textual, graphical, or even interface-related information is the essence of computer-supported... Sample PDF
Implementing the Shared Event Paradigm
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Chapter 249
Gillian H. Wright, W. Andrew Taylor
Since the publication of the first knowledge management article in Harvard Business Review (Nonaka, 1991), the world has witnessed a revolution in... Sample PDF
Improving Public Sector Service Delivery through Knowledge Sharing
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Chapter 250
Teresa Torres-Coronas, Mila Gasco-Hernandez
Many studies have already shown how a team can become more creative, and therefore more efficient, but only a few researchers have focused on how a... Sample PDF
Improving Virtual Teams through Creativity
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Chapter 251
Inclusion Dependencies  (pages 1425-1430)
Laura C. Rivero
Inclusion dependencies support an essential semantics of the standard relational data model. An inclusion dependency is defined as the existence of... Sample PDF
Inclusion Dependencies
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Chapter 252
Damianos Chatziantoniou, George Doukidis
Traditional decision support systems (DSS) and executive information systems (EIS) gather and present information from several sources for business... Sample PDF
Incorporating Data Stream Analysis into Decision Support Systems
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Chapter 253
Amita Goyal Chin
Recent years have witnessed an increasing trend in the implementation of distributed database management systems (DDBMSs) for more effective access... Sample PDF
Incremental Expansion of a Distributed Database System
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Chapter 254
Kim Man Lui, Keith C.C. Chan
We dream of a way in which software can be quickly or even automatically produced. In the past, we achieved some success in some areas; however, we... Sample PDF
Inexperienced and Global Software Teams
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Chapter 255
Steve Gordon, Paul Mulligan
In recent years, two factors – an increasingly relaxed regulatory environment and the growth of the Internet — have changed the competitive... Sample PDF
Infocratic Perspective on the Delivery of Personal Financial Services
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Chapter 256
Dirk Vriens
Competitive intelligence (CI) can be described as collecting and processing information about the environment for strategic purposes (cf. Kahaner... Sample PDF
Information and Communication Technology Tools for Competitive Intelligence
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Chapter 257
Information Laws  (pages 1464-1470)
Andrew S. Targowski
Humankind progresses in proportion to its wisdom which has roots in practice, acquired skills, available data and information, concepts and... Sample PDF
Information Laws
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Chapter 258
Terry Halpin
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was adopted by the Object Management Group (OMG) in 1997 as a language for object-oriented (OO) analysis and... Sample PDF
Information Modeling in UML and ORM
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Chapter 259
Wai K. Law
Western management theory considers information the lifeblood of organization. The sharing of information lubricates the interlocking divisions... Sample PDF
Information Resources Development Challenges in a Cross-Cultural Environment
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Chapter 260
Maosheng Lai, Xin Fu, Liyang Zhang
In its several thousand years of social progress, China has put continuous efforts on cultural development, which to a certain extent contributed to... Sample PDF
Information Resources Development in China
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Chapter 261
M. Gordon Hunter
The subject area of the application of information systems to small business is a thoroughly interesting, yet relatively under-researched topic.... Sample PDF
Information Systems and Small Business
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Chapter 262
Ovsei Gelman, Manuel Mora, Guisseppi Forgionne, Francisco Cervantes
The information systems (IS) field has been recognized as a scientific discipline since the 80’s, as indicated by: (i) the existence of an... Sample PDF
Information Systems and Systems Theory
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Chapter 263
Anesh Maniraj Singh
South Africa, like most of its African neighbors, has a dual economy that sees formal and informal trading taking place side by side. Walking down... Sample PDF
Information Systems and Technology in South Africa
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Chapter 264
Fernando José Barbin Laurindo, Marly Monteiro de Carvalho, Tamio Shimizu
Information technology (IT) has assumed an important position in the strategic functioning of leading companies in competitive markets (Porter... Sample PDF
Information Technology Strategic Alignment
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Chapter 265
Isola Ajiferuke, Wole Olatokun
The term information technology (IT) came into common use in the late 1980s, supplanting earlier terms such as electronic data processing systems... Sample PDF
Information Technology Usage in Nigeria
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Chapter 266
Kovach Dragan
Information is a set of data purposefully organized into a report. In the database of an information system, only the raw material for the... Sample PDF
Informationbase - A New Information Sytem Layer
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Chapter 267
Herbert J. Mattord, Michael E. Whitman
The success of any information security program lies in policy development. The lack of success in any particular program can often be attributed to... Sample PDF
InfoSec Policy - The Basis for Effective Security Programs
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Chapter 268
Helen Mitchell
In 1959 Penrose referred to the importance of knowledge for using resources more innovatively and profitably, and in the same year Drucker indicated... Sample PDF
Innovation Link Between Organization Knowledge and Customer Knowledge
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Chapter 269
Rodney Nason, Eearl Woodruff
The field of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has been growing in a number of areas and across a number of subjects (Koschmann... Sample PDF
Innovations for Online Collaborative Learning in Mathematics
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Chapter 270
Aybüke Aurum
As we enter the third millennium, organizations have to cope with accelerating rates of change in technology and increased levels of competition on... Sample PDF
Innovative Thinking in Software Development
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Chapter 271
Ha Sung Hwang, Concetta M. Stewart
Instant messaging (IM) quickly established itself as one of the most popular modes of communication, with millions of people logging in at home, at... Sample PDF
Instant Messaging Moves from the Home to the Office
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Chapter 272
Vassilis Serafeimidis
Information systems (IS) evaluation is a complex organizational and social decision making process. IS evaluation has attracted a lot of interest... Sample PDF
Institutional Dimensions of Information Systems Evaluation
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Chapter 273
Zhonghua Yang, Yanyan Yang, Yaolin Gu, Robert Gay
The Internet has gone from near invisibility to near ubiquity and penetrated into every aspect of society in the past few years (Department of... Sample PDF
Integrated-Services Architecture for Internet Multimedia Applications
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Chapter 274
María Virginia Mauco, Daniel Riesco
Formal methods help to develop more reliable and secure software systems, and they are increasingly being accepted by industry. The RAISE1 Method... Sample PDF
Integrating Requirements Engineering Techniques and Formal Methods
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Chapter 275
Folker den Braber, Mass Soldal Lund, Kentil Stolen, Fredrik Vraalsen
Today, most business processes and communications as well as a lot of everyday life situations involve IT technology. Apart from requirements on... Sample PDF
Integrating Security in the Development Process with UML
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Chapter 276
Edward Szczerbicki
Information is seen as one of the main resources that systems analysts try to use in an optimal way. In this chapter we show how this resource can... Sample PDF
Integration Framework for Complex Systems
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Chapter 277
Len Asprey, Michael Middleton
Developments in office automation, which provided multiple end-user authoring applications at the computer desktop, heralded a rapid growth in the... Sample PDF
Integrative Document and Content Management Solutions
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Chapter 278
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, John H. Nugent
Since 1494 with the appearance of the double-entry accounting system, developed by Pacioli, those involved in business have attempted to measure... Sample PDF
Intelligent Agents for Competitive Advantage
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Chapter 279
Intelligent Business Portals  (pages 1584-1590)
Xue Li
Business Portals are now widely used in e-commerce. Intuitively Portals can be regarded as an information gateway for exchanging business... Sample PDF
Intelligent Business Portals
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Chapter 280
Intelligent Metabusiness  (pages 1591-1597)
Luiz Antonio Joia
In 1994, the Sloan School of Management at MIT inaugurated a multi-year research and education initiative called “Inventing the Organizations of the... Sample PDF
Intelligent Metabusiness
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Chapter 281
Intelligent Software Agents  (pages 1598-1602)
Alexa Heucke, Georg Peters, Roger Tagg
An agent, in traditional use of the word, is a person that acts on behalf of another person or group of persons. In software, the term agent is... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents
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Chapter 282
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Cristpoher Klassen, Lawrence L. Schkade
Agent technology is one of the most widely discussed topics in information systems and computer science literature. New software products are being... Sample PDF
Intelligent Software Agents in E-Commerce
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Chapter 283
Yuan Gao
The use of structural features such as text size, font, graphics, color, animation, video and audio has been widely explored in the traditional... Sample PDF
Interactivity and Amusement in Electronic Commerce
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Chapter 284
Susy S. Chan, Xiaowen Fang
Effective interface design for mobile handheld devices facilitates user adoption of mobile commerce (m-commerce). Current wireless technology poses... Sample PDF
Interface Design Issues for Mobile Commerce
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Chapter 285
Kirk St. Amant
As global access to the Internet increases, so does the potential for miscommunication in international online interactions (IOIs). Unfortunately... Sample PDF
International Digital Studies Approach for Examining International Online Interactions
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Chapter 286
Mark Griffiths
As with the introduction of other mass communication technologies, issues surrounding Internet use, abuse and addiction have surfaced. This article... Sample PDF
Internet Abuse and Addiction in the Workplace
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Chapter 287
Kuldeep Kumar
Data mining has emerged as one of the hottest topics in recent years. It is an extraordinarily broad area and is growing in several directions. With... Sample PDF
Internet Data Mining Using Statistical Techniques
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Chapter 288
Luiz Augusto Machado Mendes-Filho, Anatália Saraiva Martins Ramos
Tourism is the most important industry in the world in terms of the numbers of employees and its effect on the social and economical development of... Sample PDF
Internet Diffusion in the Hospitality Industry
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Chapter 289
Murray E. Jennex
Organizations are building and maintaining systems for managing organizational knowledge and memory. Users of these systems may not be at the same... Sample PDF
Internet Support for Knowledge Management Systems
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Chapter 290
Hassan A. Karimi, Ratchata Peachavanish
Geospatial information systems (GIS) are an important sector of the information industry, as well as an essential component of the information... Sample PDF
Interoperability in Geospatial Information Systems
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Chapter 291
Cristophe Nicolle, Jean-Claude Simon, Kokou Yetongnon
An information system is a multilevel system characterized by a “data” level, a “behavioral” level, and a “communication” level. The data level... Sample PDF
Interoperability of Information Systems
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Chapter 292
Emmanuelle Vaast
Communities of practice (CoPs) are key to today’s knowledge management (Schultze & Leidner, 2002; Von Krogh, 2002). Moreover, the capability of... Sample PDF
Intranet Use and the Emergence of Networks of Practice
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Chapter 293
Wendy Lucas
The object-oriented programming paradigm has gained popularity in both industry and academia, and Java is becoming the language of choice. Yet, it... Sample PDF
Introducing Java to the IT Master's Curriculum
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Chapter 294
Stuart J. Barnes
Since the mid-1980s, the UK public sector has been the subject of wide-ranging reforms involving the introduction of IS and IT. Change has been... Sample PDF
IS Implementation in the UK Health Sector
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Chapter 295
Maggie McPherson
Although project management is often said to have its roots in other traditional fields, such as construction, Morris (2002) asserts that modern... Sample PDF
IS Project Management Contemporary Research Challenges
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Chapter 296
Zhonghua Yang, Yanyan Yang, Yaolin Gu, Robert Gay
A multimedia system is characterized by the integrated computer-controlled generation, manipulation, presentation, storage, and communication of... Sample PDF
Isochronous Distributed Multimedia Synchronization
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Chapter 297
Marion Cottingham
Visualization software applications were introduced to enable the sheer volume of data produced by computers worldwide to be viewed in picture form.... Sample PDF
Isoluminance Contours for Animated Visualization
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Chapter 298
Stephen Burgess
This article examines the main issues and challenges facing small business owners and managers in the manner in which they use information... Sample PDF
Issues and Challenges for IT in Small Business
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Chapter 299
Karen S. Nantz
Web-based courses (Mesher, 1999) are defined as those where the entire course is taken on the Internet. In some courses, there may be an initial... Sample PDF
Issues in Delivering Course Material Via the Web
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Chapter 300
Shantha Fernando
Around the world, e-learning is becoming popular, especially among higher education institutes (universities). Many highly ranked universities have... Sample PDF
Issues of E-Learning in Third World Countries
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Chapter 301
Elaine R. Winston, Dorothy G. Dologite
The small business owner’s dominating role in any information technology (IT) implementation is well documented (Cragg & King, 1993; Doukidis... Sample PDF
IT Implementation in Small Business
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Chapter 302
Rebecca Watson
At the beginning of the 21st century, information and communication technologies are creating global markets for goods and services. These... Sample PDF
IT Industry Success in Finland and New Zealand
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Chapter 303
Kristina Setzekorn, Arun Rai, Arlyn J. Melcher
The fundamental questions of whether and how information technology (IT) contributes to firm performance have been answered in different ways. IT... Sample PDF
IT Productivity Impacts in Manufacturing Contexts
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Chapter 304
Jan Achterbergh
This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation.... Sample PDF
IT Supporting Strategy Formulation
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Chapter 305
Kin Choong Yow, Nadia N. Moertiyoso
For the last couple of years, the wireless industry has been experiencing tremendous growth. Wireless devices have become more intelligent and are... Sample PDF
Java 2 Micro Edition for Wireless Enterprise
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Chapter 306
Journalism Online in Peru  (pages 1742-1746)
Antonio Diaz-Andrade
Online journalism dates back to the end of the 1970s, when Knight-Ridder launched an initiative to develop a videotext service in the United States... Sample PDF
Journalism Online in Peru
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Chapter 307
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Sushil K. Sharma
The exponential increase in information—primarily due to the electronic capture of data and its storage in vast data warehouses—has created a demand... Sample PDF
Knowledge Discovery Solutions for Intelligent Enterprises
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Chapter 308
Alina Lazar
Uninformed or blind search, which processes and evaluates all nodes of a search space in the worst case, is not realistic for extracting knowledge... Sample PDF
Knowledge Discovery Using Heuristics
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Chapter 309
Robin Teigland, Molly Wasko
Communities of practice (CoPs) are regarded as essential building blocks of the knowledge economy, and organizations are promoting them as sources... Sample PDF
Knowledge Exchange in Electronic Networks of Practice
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Chapter 310
Ali Irena, Leoni Warne
There are probably as many variations of knowledge management definitions as there are practitioners and researchers in the discipline. Complete... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management and Social Learning
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Chapter 311
Ruidong Zhang
There are probably as many variations of knowledge management definitions as there are practitioners and researchers in the discipline. Complete... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management on the Web
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Chapter 312
Fredrik Ericsson, Anders Avdic
The importance of knowledge management has been recognized both in academia and in practice. In recent years, corporations have started talking... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management Systems Acceptance
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Chapter 313
Knowledge, IT, and the Firm  (pages 1783-1787)
Petros A.M. Gelepithis
Knowledge management is a set of systematic actions that organizations can take to obtain the greatest value from the knowledge available to it... Sample PDF
Knowledge, IT, and the Firm
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Chapter 314
Karen Neville, Philip Powell
No company has ever existed or will ever exist without knowledge. Still, it was only recently that knowledge started being heralded as the way... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Based Support Environment
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Chapter 315
David J. Pauleen
Organizations and universities alike depend on the collection of the data pertaining to the purpose (Curtis, 1999) of the domain in which they... Sample PDF
Leader-Facilitated Relationship Building in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 316
Leapfrogging an IT Sector  (pages 1799-1802)
Eileen M. Trauth
How do virtual team leaders assess and respond to boundary crossing issues when building relationships with virtual team members? Virtual teams are... Sample PDF
Leapfrogging an IT Sector
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Chapter 317
Learnability  (pages 1803-1806)
Philip Duchastel
Accompanying the global spread of the post-industrial society (Bell, 1973) are nations who see economic opportunity deriving from the development of... Sample PDF
Learnability
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Chapter 318
Zhen Wen, Pengyu Hong, Jilin Tu, Thomas S. Huang
A synthetic human face is useful for visualizing information related to the human face. The applications include visual telecommunication (Aizawa &... Sample PDF
Learning 3D Face-Animation Model
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Chapter 319
Katy Campbell
Many functional definitions emphasize a portal as an integrated system providing a gateway to organized data (c.f., Batson, 2000; Copeland, 2001;... Sample PDF
Learning Portals as New Academic Spaces
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Chapter 320
Learning Systems Engineering  (pages 1820-1826)
Valentina Plekhanova
Traditionally multi-agent learning is considered as the intersection of two subfields of artificial intelligence: multi-agent systems and machine... Sample PDF
Learning Systems Engineering
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Chapter 321
Jörgen S. Svensson
The term expert system comes from the world of artificial intelligence. Originally, it comprised the idea that computer programs can be devised to... Sample PDF
Legal Expert Systems in Administrative Organizations
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Chapter 322
Claudia Cevenini
In the present economic context, organizations, especially of small and medium dimensions, can draw a substantial advantage by collaborating and... Sample PDF
Legal Issues of Virtual Organizations
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Chapter 323
Robert D. Sprague
Accompanying the proliferation of computers in almost every facet of life is an underlying risk to financial well-being related to computer system... Sample PDF
Liability for System and Data Quality
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Chapter 324
Ardis Hanson, Phyllis Ruscella, Kathy Arsenault, Joan Pelland, Derrie Perez, Beverly Shattuck
As academic libraries continue to develop a virtual presence, they must cope with the rapidly evolving rate of change and respond proactively to... Sample PDF
Library Management and Organizational Change
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Chapter 325
Life Cycle of ERP Systems  (pages 1844-1849)
Cesar Alexandre de Souza, Ronaldo Zwicker
The 90’s witnessed an impressive growth of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in the market of corporate IT solutions. For instance, O´Leary... Sample PDF
Life Cycle of ERP Systems
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Chapter 326
Jo Ellen Moore, Lisa A. Burke
Limited-perspective bias is a human tendency to overestimate the completeness of what we know and to act on our own (limited) perspective of what is... Sample PDF
Limited-Perspective Bias in Technology Projects
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Chapter 327
Robert Barone
The Internet and more specifically the World Wide Web is a global communication environment. Either via a personal or commercial Web site, we seek... Sample PDF
Macromedia Flash on the Client and the Server
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Chapter 328
Norm Archer
Information systems that link businesses for the purpose of inter-organizational transfer of business transaction information (inter-organizational... Sample PDF
Management Considerations for B2B Online Exchanges
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Chapter 329
Diane H. Sonnenwald
Cognitive trust focuses on judgments of competence and reliability, and affective trust focuses on interpersonal bonds among individuals and... Sample PDF
Management of Cognitive and Affective Trust to Support Collaboration
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Chapter 330
Ido Millet
The need to maintain classification and retrieval mechanisms that rely on concept hierarchies is as old as language itself. Familiar examples... Sample PDF
Managing Hierarchies and Taxonomies in Relational Databases
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Chapter 331
Tzu-Chuan Chou, Robert G. Dyson, Philip L. Powell
IT can have a significant impact on organizational performance, but it can also be a major inhibitor of change and can be a resource-hungry... Sample PDF
Managing Strategic IT Investment Decisions
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Chapter 332
Neil F. Doherty, Malcolm King
Information technology is now a ubiquitous and increasingly critical part of the fabric of the modern organization, supporting its day-to-day... Sample PDF
Managing the Organizational Impacts of Information Systems
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Chapter 333
John C. McIntosh, Keng L. Siau
Value-creation and maintenance of a sustained revenue stream in the digital economy continue to elude most businesses. With the exception of... Sample PDF
Managing Value-Creation in the Digital Economy
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Chapter 334
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
Fast change, uncertainty, and strong competition are challenges of the actual worldwide economic context. Competitiveness is a main requirement of... Sample PDF
Market of Resources for Agile/Virtual Enterprise Integration
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Chapter 335
Hamada H. Ghenniwa, Michael N. Huhns
Businesses today must be fast and flexible, responsive to customers, and cost effective in their operations. They must collaborate more frequently... Sample PDF
Marketplace Architecture for Enterprise Integration
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Chapter 336
William K. Holstein, Jakov Crnkovic
The past decade has seen tremendous progress in systems for information support-flexible and adaptable systems to support decision makers and to... Sample PDF
Measurement Issues in Decision Support Systems
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Chapter 337
Albert L. Ingram
Collaboration has become a key concept in the workplace, in research laboratories, and in educational settings. Companies want members of different... Sample PDF
Measuring Collaboration in Online Communications
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Chapter 338
Andrew Borchers
This article introduces the concepts of data quality as described in the literature and discusses research results on how individual perceptions of... Sample PDF
Media and Personal Involvement in the Perceptions of Data Quality
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Chapter 339
Wilfried Lemahieu
Hypermedia systems represent data as a network of nodes, interconnected by links. The information embodied within the nodes can be accessed by means... Sample PDF
MESH Object-Oriented Hypermedia Framework
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Chapter 340
Till Hanisch
The Dublin Core Element Set was developed at the OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop in Dublin (Ohio), 1995 (hence the name). It is maintained by the Dublin... Sample PDF
Metadata for Electronic Documents Using the Dublin Core
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Chapter 341
Darren Dalcher
Researchers with a keen interest in information systems failures are faced with a double challenge. Not only is it difficult to obtain intimate... Sample PDF
Methods for Understanding IS Failures
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Chapter 342
Manuel Serrano, Coral Calero, Mario Piattini
It is known that organizations are very rich in data but poor in information. Today, technology has made it possible for organizations to store vast... Sample PDF
Metrics for Data Warehouse Quality
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Chapter 343
Salvatore Valenti
Most solutions to the problem of delivering course content supporting both student learning and assessment nowadays imply the use of computers... Sample PDF
Metrics for the Evaluation of Test-Delivery Systems
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Chapter 344
Lerina Aversano, Gerardo Canfora, Andrea De Lucia
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is defined as “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve significant... Sample PDF
Migrating Legacy Systems to the Web
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Chapter 345
Lynette Kvasny, Fay Cobb Payton
Information and communication technologies (ICT) such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, and computers have become an integral part of America’s... Sample PDF
Minorities and the Digital Divide
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Chapter 346
Sheng-Uei Guan
With the increasing worldwide usage of the Internet, electronic commerce (e-commerce) has been catching on fast in a lot of businesses. As... Sample PDF
Mobile Agent Authentication and Authorization in E-Commerce
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Chapter 347
Mobile Commerce Technology  (pages 1967-1972)
Chung-wei Lee, Wen-Chen Hu, Jyh-haw Yeh
With the introduction of the World Wide Web, electronic commerce has revolutionized traditional commerce and boosted sales and exchanges of... Sample PDF
Mobile Commerce Technology
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Chapter 348
Mobile Location Services  (pages 1973-1977)
George M. Giaglis
The term “mobile era” as a characterization of the 21st century can hardly be considered an exaggeration (Kalakota & Robinson, 2001). Mobile phones... Sample PDF
Mobile Location Services
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Chapter 349
Andrés Coratella, Miguel Felder, Roberto Hirsch, Eduaurdo Rodriguez
Currently, mobile technology is undergoing a high growth stage, allowing for an increasing plethora of mobile devices (handheld PCs, handsets, etc.)... Sample PDF
Mobile Transaction Models Framework
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Chapter 350
Clarence N.W. Tan, Tiok-Woo Teo
This article presents an overview of prevailing trends and developments shaping mobile commerce (m-commerce) and the wireless economy. A review of... Sample PDF
Mobile Telecommunications and M-Commerce Applications
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Chapter 351
Cynthia LeRouge, Harold Webb
Many educators and industry leaders believe industry-academic collaboration can change learning processes and improve learning outcomes by providing... Sample PDF
Modeling ERP Academic Deployment via AST
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Chapter 352
Maria Alexandra Rentroia-Bonito, Joaquim Armando Pires Jorge
Computer-based instruction is touted as an effective tool to support knowledge dissemination within predefined learning environments. Indeed, many... Sample PDF
Modeling for E-Learning Systems
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Chapter 353
Peter Rittgen
The first approaches to object-oriented modeling appeared by the second half of the 1970s, but not much happened for more than a decade, so there... Sample PDF
Modeling Information Systems in UML
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Chapter 354
Arthur Tatnall
The introduction of a new information system into a small business, or upgrading an existing system, should be seen as an innovation and considered... Sample PDF
Modeling Technological Change in Small Business
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Chapter 355
Andreas L. Opdahl
An information system (IS) is a system that communicates, transforms, and preserves information for human users. An information system comprises one... Sample PDF
Model-Supported Alignment of IS Architecture
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Chapter 356
Arthur R. Edwards
In an older version of a Dutch Internet dictionary the moderator is defined as “a person who exercises censorship on a mailing list or newsgroup.”1... Sample PDF
Moderator in Government-Initiated Online Discussions
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Chapter 357
Andrew Urbaczewski
Most large organizations that provide Internet access to employees also employ some means to monitor and/or control that usage (Reuters, 2002). This... Sample PDF
Monitoring Strategies for Internet Technologies
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Chapter 358
Donaldo de Souza Dias
Information technology implementation is an intervention we make in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of a sociotechnical system.... Sample PDF
Motivation for Using Microcomputers
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Chapter 359
D. Chakraborty, G. Chakraborty, N. Shiratori
The advancement in optical fiber and switching technologies has resulted in a new generation of high-speed networks that can achieve speeds of up to... Sample PDF
Multicast Routing Protocols, Algorithms and its QOS Extensions
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Chapter 360
Aryya Gangopadhyay, Zhensen Huang
One of the major challenges facing organizations involved in electronic commerce (e-commerce) today is to organize and summarize information in such... Sample PDF
Multilingual Electronic Commerce in a Global Economy
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Chapter 361
V. K. Murthy, E. V. Krishnamurthy
Telemedicine (in short, e-medicine) is a means of delivering medical services to any place, no matter how remote, thereby removing the limitations... Sample PDF
Multimedia Computing Environment for Telemedical Applications
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Chapter 362
David Knight, Marios C. Angelides
The previous decade has witnessed a wealth of advancements and trends in the field of communications and subsequently, multimedia access. Four main... Sample PDF
Multimedia Content Adaptation
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Chapter 363
Eshaa M. Alkhalifa
Multi-media systems waltzed into the lives of students and educators without allowing for the time required for the development of suitable... Sample PDF
Multimedia Evaluations Based on Cognitive Science Findings
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Chapter 364
Minaz J. Parmar, Marios C. Angelides
In the film Minority Report (20th Century Fox, 2002), which is set in the near future, there is a scene where a man walks into a department store... Sample PDF
Multimedia Information Filtering
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Chapter 365
Mihir A. Parikh, Neeraj Parolia
The Internet has a symbiotic relationship with academia. The Internet sprung from and is continually improved by academic research. In parallel, the... Sample PDF
Multiple Internet Technologies in In-Class Education
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Chapter 366
Music Score Watermarking  (pages 2074-2079)
P. Nesi, M. Spinu
Music publishers, authors and/or distributors have high quantity of music scores in their archives. In classical music, the original music piece is... Sample PDF
Music Score Watermarking
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Chapter 367
Natural Computing  (pages 2080-2084)
Leandro Nunes de Castro
There are several artifacts developed by taking inspiration from natural organisms and phenomena. For instance, Velcro was inspired by a plant burr... Sample PDF
Natural Computing
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Chapter 368
Lejla Vrazalic, Deborah Bunker
The adoption and diffusion of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in small businesses remains a critical area of investigation in information systems... Sample PDF
Networks and Electronic Commerce Adoption in Small Businesses
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Chapter 369
Ai Cheo Yeo
In highly competitive industries, customer retention has received much attention. Customer retention is an important issue, as loyal customers tend... Sample PDF
Neural Networks for Automobile Insurance Pricing
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Chapter 370
G. Peter Zhang
Forecasting of the future demand is central to the planning and operation of retail business at both macro and micro levels. At the organizational... Sample PDF
Neural Networks for Retail Sales Forecasting
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Chapter 371
Yu-Jin Zhang
The process of segmenting images is one of the most critical ones in automatic image analysis whose goal can be regarded as to find what objects are... Sample PDF
New Advancements in Image Segmentation for CBIR
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Chapter 372
Gee-Woo (Gilbert) Bock, Chen Way Siew, Young-Gul Kim
Of the 260 responses from a survey of European multinationals, 94% believed that knowledge management requires employees to share what they know... Sample PDF
New Perspectives on Rewards and Knowledge Sharing
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Chapter 373
Eric Pardede, J. Wenny Rahayu, David Taniar
Relational Database (RDB) is arguably the most widely used repository for database applications. Since the 1970s, we have witnessed the relational... Sample PDF
New SQL Standard in Database Modeling
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Chapter 374
Shawn D. Long, Gary F. Kohut, Gaelle Picherit-Duthler
The way we work today is being transformed. Recent technological advances, combined with more flexible job design, have helped increase the number... Sample PDF
Newcomer Assimilation in Virtual Team Socialization
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Chapter 375
Next-Generation ERP  (pages 2129-2134)
Charles Moller
“ERP is dead - long live ERP II” is the title of a path breaking research note from Gartner Group (Bond et al., 2000). In this research note Gartner... Sample PDF
Next-Generation ERP
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Chapter 376
Guadalupe Salazar-Zarate, Pere Botella
In Nuseibeh and Easterbrook (2000), an overview of the field of software and systems requirements engineering is presented. Therein is highlighted... Sample PDF
Non-Functional Requirements and UML Stereotypes
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Chapter 377
Richard Chbeir, Kokou Yetongnon
During the last decade, a lot of work has been done in information technology in order to integrate image retrieval in the standard data processing... Sample PDF
Novel Indexing Method of Relations Between Salient Objects
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Chapter 378
Object Database Benchmarks  (pages 2146-2149)
Jerômé Darmont
The need for performance measurement tools appeared soon after the emergence of the first Object-Oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMSs), and... Sample PDF
Object Database Benchmarks
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Chapter 379
Jana Polgar
Software measurement is considered to be an efficient means to monitor the quality of software projects, predict cost of maintenance, assess... Sample PDF
Object-Oriented Software Metrics
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Chapter 380
Daniel Brandon
“Reuse [software] engineering is a process where a technology asset is designed and developed following architectural principles, and with the... Sample PDF
Object-Oriented Software Reuse in Business Systems
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Chapter 381
Erick D. Slazinski
With a projected 2.26 million additional jobs to fill in various computer fields by the year 2010, there are and will continue to be ample job... Sample PDF
Observations on Implementing Specializations within an IT Program
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Chapter 382
Sushil K. Sharma, Nilmini Wickramasinghe
The e-commerce revolution has affected all organizations. Of particular interest is its effect on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), because... Sample PDF
Obstacles for SMEs for E-Adoption in the Asia Pacific Region
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Chapter 383
Stephen Hawk, Kate Kaiser
Until the global economic downturn of the new millennium, demand for information technology (IT) professionals exceeded supply mostly due to... Sample PDF
Offshore Software Development Outsourcing
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Chapter 384
E. Kapetanios
Business knowledge is considered the most valuable resource of organizations. The exchange of business knowledge within an organization as well as... Sample PDF
On the Relativity of Ontological Domains and Their Specifications
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Chapter 385
Gordana Jovanovic-Dolecek, Javier Diaz-Carmona
Fast change, uncertainty, and strong competition are challenges of the actual worldwide economic context. Competitiveness is a main requirement of... Sample PDF
One Method for Design of Narrowband Low-Pass Filters
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Chapter 386
Hock Chuan Chan, Bernard C.Y. Tan, Wei-Ping Tan
Businesses today must be fast and flexible, responsive to customers, and cost effective in their operations. They must collaborate more frequently... Sample PDF
One-to-One Video-Conferencing Education
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Chapter 387
Merilyn Burke, Bruce Lubotsky Levin, Ardis Hanson
Historically, distance learning or distance education began as little more than “correspondence courses,” which promised an education in one’s own... Sample PDF
Online Academic Libraries and Distance Learning
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Chapter 388
Martin C. Kindsmuller, Sandro Leuchter, Leon Urbas
“Online community” is one of today’s buzzwords. Even though superficially it is not hard to understand, the term has become somewhat vague while... Sample PDF
Online Communities and Community Building
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Chapter 389
Terence Cavannaugh
An estimated three billion people, representing approximately half of the planet’s population, are in some way affected by disabilities, which... Sample PDF
Online Learning as a Form of Accomodation
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Chapter 390
Sheng-Uei Guan