Web Accessibility

Web Accessibility

Carlos García Moreno (Indra, Spain)
Copyright: © 2008 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-847-5.ch010
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Abstract

This chapter faces the Web accessibility issue from the perspective of Web Information Systems Quality, which is the main topic of the handbook. The closed relation between both issues (and also standard Web technologies) will be explained. It will be proven that Web accessibility does not imply any extra effort; it is a consequence of good development and design practices. In order to achieve this objective the basic topics related to Web accessibility will be defined and necessary introductory information will be exposed, in order to set the basis for the understanding of the points of discussion, which form the main content of the chapter. Also, some benefits of Web accessibility will be proven and the myths related to Web accessibility will be refuted. By the end of the chapter, the future trends and the newest standard Web technologies that have been designed, taking into account Web accessibility needs, will be introduced.

Key Terms in this Chapter

XFrames: XFrames is an XML application for composing documents together, replacing HTML Frames. By being a separate application from XHTML, it allows content negotiation to determine if the user agent accepts frames; by encoding the “population” of frames in the URI, it allows framesets to be bookmarked. XFrames allows similar functionality to HTML Frames, with fewer usability problems, principally by making the content of the frameset visible in its URI.

W3C: The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium where Member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop Web standards. W3C’s mission is to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web.

XForms: XForms is W3C’s name for a specification of Web forms that can be used with a wide variety of platforms including desktop computers, hand-helds, information appliances, and even paper. XForms started life as a subgroup of the HTML Working Group, but has now been spun off as an independent Activity.

Assistive Technologies: Technologies that provides greater independence for people with disabilities by enabling them to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to or changed methods of interacting with the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. The most relevant assistive technologies are: screen magnifiers, screen readers, voice recognition software, alternative keyboards and alternative pointing devices.

WCAG: The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are general principles of accessible design. The current version is WCAG 1.0, which has 14 guidelines; each one has one or more checkpoints that explain how the guideline applies in a specific area. WCAG 2.0 is nowadays being developed to apply to different Web technologies, be easier to use and understand, and be more precisely testable.

XHTML 2.0: XHTML 2 is a general purpose markup language designed for representing documents for a wide range of purposes across the World Wide Web. To this end, it does not attempt to be all things to all people, supplying every possible markup idiom, but to supply a generally useful set of elements, with the possibility of extension using the class and role attributes on the span and div elements in combination with style sheets, and attributes from the metadata attributes collection.

Section 508: Section of the Rehabilitation Act focused in “Electronic and Information Technology.” Section 508 requires Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities. It was enacted to eliminate barriers in information technology, to make available new opportunities for people with disabilities, and to encourage development of technologies that will help achieve these goals. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology.

WAI: The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) is the section of W3C that works with organizations around the world to develop strategies, guidelines, and resources to help make the Web accessible to people with disabilities. All these products are possible thanks to the participation of volunteers from around the world that are included in the different working groups.

Disability: Physical or mental impairment which has an adverse effect on the ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities. The term is often used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment or mental health issue.

Web Accessibility: Web accessibility means that everybody can access and use (perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with) the Web, regardless of disability.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment
Coral Calero, M. Angeles Moraga, Mario Piattini
Chapter 1
Emilia Mendes
Surveying and classifying previous work on a particular field brings several benefits, which are: 1) to help organise a given body of knowledge; 2)... Sample PDF
Sizing Web Applications for Web Effort Estimation
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Chapter 2
Emilia Mendes, Silvia Abrahão
Effort models and effort estimates help project managers allocate resources, control costs and schedule, and improve current practices, leading to... Sample PDF
Web Development Effort Estimation: An Empirical Analysis
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Chapter 3
Pankaj Kamthan
The significance of approaching Web information systems (WIS) from an engineering viewpoint is emphasized. A methodology for deploying patterns as... Sample PDF
Patterns for Improving the Pragmatic Quality of Web Information Systems
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Chapter 4
Rosemary Stockdale, Chad Lin
Many small and medium sized businesses (SMEs) have set up their own Web sites, as part of their business strategies, to improve their... Sample PDF
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Small and Medium Sized Businesses Web Sites in a Business to Business Context
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Chapter 5
May Haydar, Ghazwa Malak, Houari Sahraoui, Alexandre Petrenko, Sergiy Boroday
This chapter addresses the problem of Web application quality assessment from two perspectives. First, it shows the use of model checking of... Sample PDF
Anomaly Detection and Quality Evaluation of Web Applications
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Chapter 6
Thomas Mandl
Automatic quality assessment of Web pages needs to complement human information work in the current situation of an information overload. Several... Sample PDF
Automatic Quality Assessment for Internet Pages
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Chapter 7
Mª Ángeles Moraga, Julio Córdoba, Coral Calero, Cristina Cachero
The success of Web portals has increased over time, in such a way that a portal user can choose among a wide variety of portals. Therefore, the... Sample PDF
A General View of Quality Models for Web Portals and a Particularization to E-Banking Domain
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Chapter 8
Angélica Caro, Coral Calero, Mario Piattini
Web portals are Internet-based applications that provide a big amount of data. The data consumer who uses the data given by these applications needs... Sample PDF
A Data Quality Model for Web Portals
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Chapter 9
Marta Fernández de Arriba, Eugenia Díaz, Jesús Rodríguez Pérez
This chapter presents the structure of an index which serves as support so allowing the development team to create the specification of the context... Sample PDF
Specification of the Context of Use for the Development of Web-Based Applications
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Chapter 10
Web Accessibility  (pages 163-180)
Carlos García Moreno
This chapter faces the Web accessibility issue from the perspective of Web Information Systems Quality, which is the main topic of the handbook. The... Sample PDF
Web Accessibility
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Chapter 11
Adriana Martín, Alejandra Cechich, Gustavo Rossi
Web accessibility is one facet of Web quality in use, and one of the main actors upon which the success of a Web site depends. In spite of these... Sample PDF
Comparing Approaches to Web Accessibility Assessment
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Chapter 12
Soonhwa Seok
Digital inclusion and Web accessibility are integral parts of modern culture and, as such, have implications for social accountability. The World... Sample PDF
Maximizing Web Accessibility Through User-Centered Interface Design
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Chapter 13
Francisco Montero, María Dolores Lozano, Pascual González
World Wide Web software development is a challenge. The need to provide appealing and attractive user interfaces is combined with the fact that the... Sample PDF
Usability-Oriented Quality Model Based on Ergonomic Criteria
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Chapter 14
Maristella Matera, Francesca Rizzo, Rebeca Cortázar, Asier Perallos
Given the emergent need for usability, during last year’s traditional development processes have been extended for enabling the fulfillment of... Sample PDF
The Usability Dimension in the Development of Web Applications
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Chapter 15
Fernando Bellas, Iñaki Paz, Alberto Pan, Óscar Díaz
Portlets are interactive Web mini-applications that can be plugged into a portal. This chapter focuses on “portletizing” existing Web applications... Sample PDF
New Approaches to Portletization of Web Applications
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Chapter 16
Victoria Torres, Joan Fons, Vicente Pelechano
Users consider usability aspects as a key factor when using Web applications. For this reason, in this work we take a special care in this very... Sample PDF
Handling Usability Aspects for the Construction of Business Process Driven Web Applications
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Chapter 17
Nicolas Guelfi, Cédric Pruski, Chantal Reynaud
The evolution of Web information is of utmost importance in the design of good Web Information Systems applications. New emerging paradigms, like... Sample PDF
Towards the Adaptive Web Using Metadata Evolution
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Chapter 18
Carmen Martínez-Cruz, Ignacio José Blanco, M. Amparo Vila
The Semantic Web has resulted in a wide range of information (e.g., HML, XML, DOC, PDF documents, ontologies, interfaces, forms, etc.) being made... Sample PDF
Looking for Information in Fuzzy Relational Databases Accessible Via Web
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Chapter 19
Ricardo Barros, Geraldo Xexéo, Wallace A. Pinheiro, Jano de Souza
Currently, in the Web environment, users have to deal with an enormous amount of information. In a Web search, they often receive useless... Sample PDF
A Web Metadata Based-Model for Information Quality Prediction
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Chapter 20
Fernando Molina, Francisco J. Lucas, Ambrosio Toval Alvarez, Juan M. Vara, Paloma Cáceres, Esperanza Marcos
Recent years have seen the arrival of the Internet as the platform that supports most areas within organizations, a fact which has led to the... Sample PDF
Towards Quality Web Information Systems Through Precise Model-Driven Development
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Chapter 21
M.J. Escalona, G. Aragón
The increasing complexity and the many different aspects that should be treated at the same time require flexible but powerful methodologies to... Sample PDF
The Use of Metamodels in Web Requirements to Assure the Consistence
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Chapter 22
Cristina Cachero Castro, Coral Calero, Yolanda Marhuenda García
This chapter introduces the necessity to consider quality management activities as part of the Web engineering (WE) process to improve the final... Sample PDF
A Quality-Aware Engineering Process for Web Applications
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Chapter 23
Sergej Sizov, Stefan Siersdorfer
This chapter addresses the problem of automatically organizing heterogeneous collections of Web documents for the generation of thematically-focused... Sample PDF
Restrictive Methods and Meta Methods for Thematically Focused Web Exploration
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Chapter 24
Mª Ángeles Moraga, Ignacio García-Rodríguez de Guzmán, Coral Calero, Mario Piattini
The use of Web portals continues to rise, showing their importance in the current information society. Specifically, this chapter focuses on... Sample PDF
WSRP-O: An Ontology to Model WSRP Compliant Portlets
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Chapter 25
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
This article defines a comprehensive set of guiding principles, called philosophy of architecture design (PAD), as a means of coping with the... Sample PDF
Philosophy of Architecture Design in Web Information Systems
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Chapter 26
Mohamed Salah Hamdi
Conventional Web search engines return long lists of ranked documents that users are forced to sift through to find relevant documents. The... Sample PDF
Improving the Quality of Web Search
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Chapter 27
Jengchung V. Chen, Wen-Hsiang Lu, Kuan-Yu He, Yao-Sheng Chang
With the fast growth of the Web, users often suffer from the problem of information overload, since many existing search engines respond to queries... Sample PDF
The Perspectives of Improving Web Search Engine Quality
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Chapter 28
Xiannong Meng
This chapter surveys various technologies involved in a Web search engine with an emphasis on performance analysis issues. The aspects of a... Sample PDF
Web Search Engine Architectures and their Performance Analysis
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Chapter 29
Fotis Lazarinis
As the Web population continues to grow, more non-English users will be amassed online. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the methods and... Sample PDF
Towards a Model for Evaluating Web Retrieval Systems in Non-English Queries
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Chapter 30
John D. D’Ambra, Nina Mistillis
This chapter considers the change in information seeking behaviour of tourists as a result of the increased use of the World Wide Web as an... Sample PDF
Web Information Resources Vis-à-Vis Traditional Information Services
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