Cyber Crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights and Regulations

Cyber Crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights and Regulations

Debarati Halder (Centre for Cyber Victim Counselling (CCVC), India) and K. Jaishankar (Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, India)
Release Date: July, 2011|Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 264
ISBN13: 9781609608309|ISBN10: 1609608305|EISBN13: 9781609608316|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-830-9
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While women benefit from using new digital and Internet technologies for self-expression, networking, and professional activities, cyber victimization remains an underexplored barrier to their participation. Women often outnumber men in surveys on cyber victimization.

Cyber Crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights and Regulations is a unique and important contribution to the literature on cyber crime. It explores gendered dimensions of cyber crimes like adult bullying, cyber stalking, hacking, defamation, morphed pornographic images, and electronic blackmailing. These and other tactics designed to inflict intimidation, control, and other harms are frequently committed by perpetrators who, for many reasons, are unlikely to be identified or punished. Scholars, researchers, law makers, and ordinary women and their supporters will gain a better understanding of cyber victimization and discover how to improve responses to cyber crimes against women.

Topics Covered

  • Adult Bullying
  • Cyber Crime Law
  • Cyber Crime Law and Women
  • Cyber Stalking
  • Cyber Victimization
  • Electronic Defamation
  • Online Abuse
  • Victimization of Women in Cyber Space
  • Women and Cyber Rights
  • Women and Cyber Victimization

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Search this Book:
Table of Contents
Susan W. Brenner
Debarati Halder, K. Jaishankar
Chapter 1
Introduction  (pages 1-11)
This introductory chapter gives a detailed overview of the book. This chapter explores the historical aspect of victimization of women users in the... Sample PDF
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Chapter 2
In this chapter, an attempt is made to operationally define cyber crimes against women, as we have found that the definitions of cyber crimes have... Sample PDF
Definition, Typology and Patterns of Victimization
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Chapter 3
This chapter describes on the various aspects that surround victimization of women in the cyberspace and goes in depth to analyze the reasons for... Sample PDF
Etiology, Motives, and Crime Hubs
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Chapter 4
Rights of women in cyber space are as important as rights of women in physical space. In this chapter, both rights of women in cyber space and their... Sample PDF
Women’s Rights in the Cyber Space and the Related Duties
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Chapter 5
US, is one country, which started the evolution of the Internet and also the first to be affected and the first to retaliate to the ugly side of the... Sample PDF
Legal Treatment of Cyber Crimes Against Women in USA
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Chapter 6
This chapter gives an overview of laws related to cyber crimes against in general and women in particular. Though there are no specific laws that... Sample PDF
Cyber Laws for Preventing Cyber Crimes Against Women in Canada
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Chapter 7
This chapter describes various features of regulation of cyber space by the UK. The regulations for unauthorized access and related activities... Sample PDF
Cyber Space Regulations for Protecting Women in UK
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Chapter 8
This chapter deals with the legal regulations that protect Australian women in cyber space. Various issues that are discussed in this chapter are... Sample PDF
Cyber Crime Against Women and Regulations in Australia
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Chapter 9
This chapter provides a situational analysis of cyber crimes against women in India and laws that prevent cyber victimization in general and women... Sample PDF
Cyber Victimization of Women and Cyber Laws in India
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Chapter 10
This chapter provides a model charter and a conclusion to the book. The contents of the Model charter to prevent online victimization of women are... Sample PDF
Model Charter and Conclusion
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Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Appendix 3
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Appendix 6
Appendix 7
Appendix 8
Appendix 9
Appendix 10
About the Authors


Telecommunications worldwide have experienced rapid change since the accessibility to emails and e-commerce facilities were made easily and readily available to the common citizens starting in the early 1990s. Such e-communication got legalized with the European conventions on Information Technology, which was followed by some developed and less developed nations. E-communication gained popularity among men and women in a short span of time. Along with the emails  came the electronic ways to express and expose oneself in front of a large global audience through their personal blogs, personal and professional websites, digital albums, electronic banking, and shopping  facilities, which became hugely popular with homemakers; and then electronic socialization, which literally turned human beings to e-living.

Human relations have considerably improved since the beginning of the public usage of emails, chat rooms, public forums, popular websites, and social networking websites. Seeing from the perspective of third wave feminism and usage of the electronic media to practice third wave feminism,  adult women of post millennium era are more benefited than their predecessors belonging to the second and first wave feminism, in many ways. The digital media created a huge platform for women of Web 2.0 era to expand their world to build new relationships, renew old friendships, and practice and profess own ideologies about various issues including   feminism. The digital era witnessed new phase  of feminism whereby women who belonged to more orthodox patriarchal societies were now enabled to practice self dependence norms through  electronic shopping, “digital awareness camps”  for  healthcare and baby care, higher education, modes to transform  leisurely passions  into profitable professions, et cetera. Ironically, this digital freedom also made women unknowingly/knowingly open Pandora’s Box and explore the evil side of the Internet. Indeed, the “box” was opened long back, but it successfully hid its whiff of inside-danger for a long time. Media reports on morphed pornographic images of female movie stars, cyber stalking female celebrities, blackmailing female celebrities through email or mobile phones, et cetera, provide us some good examples of victimization of women in the cyber space. However, until recently, common Internet users, including adult men and women (especially) never realised that such mischief can happen to them.

The topic of “cyber crime against women” was largely ignored until most recently, and therefore, not truly addressed until the first cyber crime convention, which took place in 2000/01. International conventions, as well as domestic laws of many countries, may have developed legislatures to protect society as a whole from the clutches of the “dark side” of cyber technology. Academics, researchers, as well as lawmakers kept themselves occupied with discussing and analyzing problems of cyber crime targeting the economic front and children. But full attention was not given to several cyber crimes like adult bullying, stalking, defamations, et cetera, from women victim’s perspective even though women often outnumber men in almost all surveys on cyber victimization.  There is an undeniable need to highlight this important issue by bringing attention, as far as the role women play in cyber victimization, to scholars. This book is one small effort in that direction. This book was largely motivated by the personal experiences of the lead author who works as counselor for cyber crime victims and takes keen interests in the legal issues involving victimization of women in the cyber space and several painful stories retold by female friends and relatives who had gone through the trauma of being victimized in cyber space. The goal of this book is to identify and explain the mostly unexplored crimes of the Internet targeting adult women in particular.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Debarati Halder is an advocate and legal scholar. She is the managing director of the Centre for Cyber Victim Counselling ( She is also the Vice President of WHOA, USA (Working for Halting Online Abuse) Kids-Teen Division and Internet Safety Advocate. She is the current Secretary of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV). She received her LLB from the University of Calcutta and LLM in international and constitutional law from the University of Madras. She is currently working toward her PhD at the National Law School of India University, Bangalore, India. She has published many articles in peer- reviewed journals and chapters in peer-reviewed books. Her work has appeared in scholarly journals, including the Journal of Law and Religion, Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, ERCES Online Quarterly Review, TMC Academic Journal (Singapore), and Indian Journal of Criminology & Criminalistics and edited volumes, Crimes of the Internet (Prentice Hall, 2008, Trends and Issues of Victimology (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK, 2008), International Perspectives on Crime and Justice (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK, 2009), et cetera. Her research interests include constitutional law, international law, victim rights, and cyber crimes and laws.
K. Jaishankar, PhD, is a senior Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Manonmaniam Sundaranar University in Tirunelveli, India. During November 2009 - April 2010, he was a Commonwealth Fellow at the Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, School of Law, University of Leeds, UK. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Cyber Criminology ( and editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences ( He is the founding president of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology ( and founding executive director of the Centre for Cyber Victim Counselling ( He was awarded the prestigious Commonwealth Academic Staff Fellowship, 2009–2010 tenable, from the University of Leeds. He was a member of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime core group of experts (15-member group) on identity-related crime (2007–2008) and a member of the International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council of the United Nations working group on cyber crime during the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme in Milan, Italy. He was recently appointed as a fellow of the African Centre for Cyberlaw and Cybercrime Prevention. He was a co-investigator of an international grant funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada to develop a profile of cyber bullying, inform the current policy vacuum, and develop guidelines to help schools address cyber bullying. Among the recent books he has written and/or edited are: Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA, in press); Cyber Bullying: Profile and Policy Guidelines (DOCCJ, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, India, 2009); International Perspectives on Crime and Justice (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK, 2009); Trends and Issues of Victimology (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, UK, 2008); and Crime Victims and Justice: An Introduction to Restorative Principles (Serial Publications, New Delhi, 2008). He pioneered the development of the new field of cyber criminology and is the proponent of the space transition theory of cyber crimes. His areas of academic competence include cyber criminology, victimology, crime mapping, Geographic Information Systems, communal violence, theoretical criminology, policing, and crime prevention.


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