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Encyclopedia of Digital Government (3 Volumes)

Release Date: July, 2006. Copyright © 2007. 1916 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-789-8, ISBN13: 9781591407898, ISBN10: 1591407893, EISBN13: 9781591407904
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Anttiroiko, Ari-Veikko and Matti Malkia. "Encyclopedia of Digital Government (3 Volumes)." IGI Global, 2007. 1-1916. Web. 14 Jul. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-789-8


Anttiroiko, A., & Malkia, M. (2007). Encyclopedia of Digital Government (3 Volumes) (pp. 1-1916). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-789-8


Anttiroiko, Ari-Veikko and Matti Malkia. "Encyclopedia of Digital Government (3 Volumes)." 1-1916 (2007), accessed July 14, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-789-8

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The Encyclopedia of Digital Government offers the most comprehensive coverage of the issues, concepts, trends, and technologies of digital government (or electronic government). The challenges and future prospects faced by governments at different institutional levels and in different parts of the world are described in explicit detail in this commanding encyclopedia. With over 250 detailed articles, this three-volume set provides a broad basis for understanding the issues, theories, and applications faced by public administrations and public organizations as they strive for more effective government through the use of emerging technologies. This comprehensive, research-based publication is an essential reference tool for academic, public, and private libraries.


Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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Chapter 1
Philip Leith
Public information presumes that the information is somehow public and, presumably, that this can be utilized by members of the public.... Sample PDF
Access to and Use fo Publicly Available Information
Chapter 2
C. J. Huang
The Internet has emerged as one of the most prevalent forms of communication. The gathering and sharing of electronic information are becoming... Sample PDF
Accessibility of E-Government Web Sites
Chapter 3
U. Peter
The accessible design of e-government ensures that these offers can also be used by people with disabilities (accessibility). Moreover, experience... Sample PDF
Accessible E-Government through Universal Design
Chapter 4
A. C. i Martinez
Information in the hands of public administrations plays a fundamental role in developing democracies and carrying out daily tasks—not only the... Sample PDF
Accessing Administration's Information via Internet in Spain
Chapter 5
P. A. Jennett, E. R. Smith
Canada spans 9,976,140 square kilometers and has an approximate population of 32 million people (Statistics Canada, 2001). More than 90% of Canada’s... Sample PDF
Adopting and Implementing Telehealth in Canada
Chapter 6
J. Kaaya
New developments in information and communication technologies (ICTs) over the past few decades, especially the establishment of the World Wide Web... Sample PDF
African Regional Case of E-Government
Chapter 7
M. A. Lassila
The advent of new technologies in organizations has created unprecedented challenges for professionals and managers alike to explore several... Sample PDF
Alive and Interactive through Streaming Media
Chapter 8
D. Evans
Citizens routinely use technology to increase the efficiency of their transactions in every area of their lives. It is, therefore, logical that... Sample PDF
American E-Government Service Sectors and Applications
Chapter 9
T. Mullner
E-government forms an essential part of the tendency toward administrative modernization as it embraces the optimization of intra-authority... Sample PDF
Application for Comprehensive E-Government
Chapter 10
L. Walsh
The following article provides an introductory overview of Extensible Markup Language (XML) and how it may be applied to certain processes of... Sample PDF
The Application of Single-Source Publishing to E-Government
Chapter 11
G. N.L. Stowers
Electronic commerce, or e-commerce, is simply business that is conducted over the Internet. Government e-commerce applications are those e-commerce... Sample PDF
Applications of E-Commerce in Government
Chapter 12
Y. Yongling
Geographical information system (GIS) is one kind of information system that handles spatial data. It is difficult to give one definitive definition... Sample PDF
Applications of Geographical Information System in E-Government
Chapter 13
M. Groothuis
Electronic government is developing throughout Europe. Increasingly, central, regional, and local governments use ICT applications to perform their... Sample PDF
Applying ICTs in Juridicial Decision Making by Government Agencies
Chapter 14
L. Ariunaa
The open government Web site was initiated and developed under the direct guidance and support of the prime minister of Mongolia in 2002. The... Sample PDF
An Assessment of the Open Government Web Site in Mongolia
Chapter 15
J. Moon
There has been an explosion in the number of different types of portals in the last decade, and at the same time there has been a lot of confusion... Sample PDF
Assisting Users Seeking Medical Information through Government Portals
Chapter 16
N. C. Rowe
The World Wide Web quickly evolved as a valuable resource for organizations to provide information and services to users. Much initial development... Sample PDF
Automatedc Content-Management Systems
Chapter 17
N. V. Findler
Coordination is defined as the process of managing dependencies between activities. Its fundamental components are the allocation of scarce... Sample PDF
Automatic Generation of Theories of Coordination in Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 18
H. Kubicek, J. Millard, H. Westholm
The issue of back-office integration has gained increasing importance within the political e-government debate and e-government research, after the... Sample PDF
Back-Office Integration for Online Services between Organizations
Chapter 19
C. Oberle
Since the late 1990s, commercial use of the Internet has increased. Many schools have started to use this new technology for presentations and have... Sample PDF
Bavarian Secondary Modern Schools
Chapter 20
F. Amoretti
Electronic democracy refers to the use of information technology (IT) to expedite or transform the idea and practice of democracy. (Street, 2001, p.... Sample PDF
Benchmarking Electonic Democracy
Chapter 21
H. Druke
The pressure of modernization does not stop at national boundaries—in this respect it is universal and secular. In some regions of the world the... Sample PDF
Best Practices in E-Government
Chapter 22
M. Hughes
Competitive pressures and improvements in information technology constantly force organisations to re-evaluate their business strategies (Porter... Sample PDF
Business Process Redesign in Implementing E-Governement in Ireland
Chapter 23
V. Ambriola
Public administration is undergoing a radical transformation. Citizens, rather than administrative documents, will be the primary and active... Sample PDF
Call Centre Evolution in the Digital Government
Chapter 24
M. Holzer, R. W. Schwester
Cynicism toward government is largely a function of trust and social capital (Berman 1997; Putnam 2000). The relationship between government and its... Sample PDF
Citizen Consultaions via Government Web Sites
Chapter 25
D. P. Moynihan
If part of the promise of digital government is to enable citizens and businesses to enjoy greater convenience in their interaction with government... Sample PDF
Citizen Participation and Digital Town Hall Meeting
Chapter 26
A. Schellong
Citizen relationship management (CiRM) refers to a cluster of management practices, channel, and IT solutions that seek to use private sector... Sample PDF
Citizen Relationship Management
Chapter 27
N. K. Kakabadse, A. Kakabadse, A. Kouzmin
In 1819, Benjamin Constant gave a speech at the Athenee Royal in Paris on how conceptions of liberty changed from the time of the Athenian polis to... Sample PDF
The Civic within the Democratic Project in the Digital Era
Chapter 28
M. Gasco
As the new UNPAN E-Government Readiness Report (2004) stated, during the last years, governments worldwide have made rapid progress in embracing... Sample PDF
Civil Servants' Resistance towards E-Gopvernment Development
Chapter 29
Community Networks  (pages 196-200)
R. A. Cropf
Since the emergence of community networks in the 1980s, several authors have put forth a number of different definitions of the concept. The... Sample PDF
Community Networks
Chapter 30
H. Rahman
The information era refers to a period in this globalized world when economies, social dimensions, and demography are largely dominated and driven... Sample PDF
Community-Based Information Networking in Developing Countries
Chapter 31
E. Downey
E-government implementation requires public administrators to respond to stakeholder value. While there are many concepts of value in the field of... Sample PDF
A Conceptual Framework for Considering the Value of E-Government
Chapter 32
S. Soeparman, P Wagenaar
In The Netherlands, police ICT has always mirrored the organization of the police system. Until 1993, the Netherlands had 144 local police forces at... Sample PDF
Concern-Wide Information Management with the Dutch Police
Chapter 33
J. Becker
For the last couple of years public administrations increasingly face a modernization and performance gap which they try to close by reorganizing... Sample PDF
Configurable Reference Process Models for Public Administration
Chapter 34
A. Salminen, R. Nurmeksela
The terms electronic government (e-government) and digital government are used to refer to the utilization of the Internet and other information and... Sample PDF
Content Production Strategies for E-Government
Chapter 35
R. E. Petersen
Continuity of operations (COOP) planning, sometimes referred to as disaster recovery planning, business continuity planning, or business resumption... Sample PDF
Continuity of Operations Planning and E-Government
Chapter 36
J. Gortmaker
A big challenge for governments from all over the world is to improve the service provisioning to their clients, citizens, and businesses. This is... Sample PDF
Coordinating Cross-Agency Business Processes
Chapter 37
A. Syvajarvi
Public healthcare is facing huge future challenges in order to deal with rising costs, growing demands of customers, information flow, demographic... Sample PDF
The Core Governmental Perspectives of E-Health
Chapter 38
H. Ostermann
Regarded from a historical perspective, the appearance of corruption is not a new phenomenon at all. It can be traced back to the ancient... Sample PDF
Corruption, Transparency, and E-Government
Chapter 39
A. Trochev
When the Internet reached Russia in the mid-1990s, Russian judicial chiefs actively embraced the idea of having a solid presence of national... Sample PDF
Courts on the Web in Russia
Chapter 40
M. E. Chen, C. K. Davis
The U.S. government is making strides to provide electronic access to government agencies and services. A variety of issues are involved when... Sample PDF
Current Approaches to Federal E-Government
Chapter 41
Cyber Attacks  (pages 271-276)
N. C. Rowe
Information systems (computers and networks) are increasingly the targets of attacks ranging from vandalism to serious crimes (Richardson, 2003).... Sample PDF
Cyber Attacks
Chapter 42
J. W. Seifert
A significant amount of attention appears to be focusing on how to better collect, analyze, and disseminate information. In doing so, technology is... Sample PDF
Data Mining and Homeland Security
Chapter 43
S. Moodley
The post-apartheid South African government has placed ICTs at the centre of the national agenda for social and economic development (Mbeki, 1996... Sample PDF
Deconstructing the South African Government's ICT for Development Discourse
Chapter 44
M. Ally
As the world becomes mobile, the ability to access information on demand will give individuals a competitive advantage and make them more productive... Sample PDF
Design of Government Information for Access by Wireless Mobile Technology
Chapter 45
C. Scavo
San Carlos, California ( claims to have developed one of the earliest local government Web sites in the world, posted on May... Sample PDF
Development and Use of the World Wide Web by U.S. Local Governments
Chapter 46
J. Kaaya
In recent years, a number of authors have reported studies on the emergence and development of digital government or e-government using various... Sample PDF
Development Stages of Digital Government
Chapter 47
A. Huhtinen
Information warfare (IW) has recently become of increasing importance to the military, the intelligence community, and the business world. The... Sample PDF
Different Types of Information Warfare
Chapter 48
The Digital Citizen  (pages 315-320)
Z. Papacharissi
The objective of this article is to sketch out the profile of the digital citizen. The premise for this article rests upon utopian views that... Sample PDF
The Digital Citizen
Chapter 49
F. Hossain
Once properly managed, e-governance can add tremendous dynamism in reforming public administration and can change the mode of interaction between... Sample PDF
Digital Divides and Grassroots-Based E-Government in Developing Countries
Chapter 50
D. Wheeler
Making the choice to be an Internet society is not a process governed simply by a state’s attitudes towards computers and the data that flows... Sample PDF
Digital Governance and Democratization in the Arab World
Chapter 51
P. M. Shane
The current flush of worldwide interest in digital government coincides with considerable anxiety, even discontent, with the performance of... Sample PDF
Digital Government and Democratic Legitimacy
Chapter 52
J. Toland, F. Purcell
All governments face difficulties in trying to ensure the full participation of every citizen. The further a citizen is located from the centre of... Sample PDF
Digital Government in Remote Locations
Chapter 53
S. Song
Recently, digital government is a prevailing concept in public sectors around the world. Regarding digital governments’ contributions to the... Sample PDF
Digital Government in the USA
Chapter 54
M. Holzer
The opportunities that arise from the practice of digital government continue to increase. Public managers responsible for adopting and implementing... Sample PDF
Digital Government Online Education for Public Managers
Chapter 55
A. Y. Ni, A. T. Ho
The word “kiosk” is derived from the Turkish word “kösk,” meaning an open summerhouse or pavilion. Before the arrival of computer technologies, a... Sample PDF
Digital Information Kiosks
Chapter 56
F. Amoretti
Up to 1980, development, which had been defined as nationally managed economic growth, was redefined as “successful participation in the world... Sample PDF
Digital International Governance
Chapter 57
P. Cooke
For the first time in history, practically all the information required to navigate the oceans of a globalising knowledge economy are embodied in... Sample PDF
Digital Knowledge Flow Platforms for Regional Innovation Systems
Chapter 58
P. Danielson
While “digital morality” and “digital ethics” may sound strange, the technologies that drive digital government and democracy operate as well in... Sample PDF
Digital Morality and Ethics
Chapter 59
Digital Multimedia  (pages 382-386)
N. C. Rowe
Multimedia data can be important assets of government computer systems. Multimedia data can be documents, statistics, photographs and graphics... Sample PDF
Digital Multimedia
Chapter 60
C. Cunha, G. Voerman
American politics has been at the forefront of World Wide Web use. In the early 1990s political parties and candidates started to employ Web sites... Sample PDF
The Digitalization of the West European Party Systems
Chapter 61
P. M.A. Baker
The use and deployment of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the public and private sectors has opened an array of options, best... Sample PDF
Disabilities and the E-Clusive Workspace
Chapter 62
J. Piecowye
Ranked 26th worldwide and second in the Middle East for its e-government initiative, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Dubai, in particular, is an... Sample PDF
The Dubai E-Government Project
Chapter 63
X. Dai
As a relatively new feature of the digital revolution in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), e-ASEAN was initiated by the ASEAN... Sample PDF
e-ASEAN and Regional Integration in South East Asia
Chapter 64
T. R. Roycroft
Market economies rest on a foundation of the private ownership of resources. Certain resources, however, have been managed outside of the market... Sample PDF
E-Auctioning by The U. S. Federal Communications Commission
Chapter 65
Ecology of E-Governance  (pages 431-436)
S. Sharma
The concept of e-governance in the modern times refocuses on the fundamental role of government as the institution of transformation of society. To... Sample PDF
Ecology of E-Governance
Chapter 66
S. R. Mena
Countries in Latin America, nongovernmental organisms, private corporations, and international organisms are working on a preliminary phase to... Sample PDF
Ecuador's Experience in E-Governance
Chapter 67
S. K. Hellsten
A new world governance and economy characterised by globalisation has an increasing emphasis on knowledge and knowledge-transfer as the primary... Sample PDF
E-Democracy and E-Economy in Africa
Chapter 68
P. J. Smith
This article examines the impact of information and communications technologies (ICTs) on electronic democracy at the local government level. It... Sample PDF
E-Democracy and Local Government - Dashed Expectations
Chapter 69
M. Henderson, F. Hogarth
The term e-democracy has tended to be used interchangeably in the literature with e-governance or e-government, and these terms have been described... Sample PDF
E-Democracy Policy in Queensland
Chapter 70
M. J. Sarwar
Numerous factors, like political stability, physical infrastructure, basic healthcare, and so forth influence the extent and speed of social and... Sample PDF
E-Development in Bangladesh
Chapter 71
H. D. Bruijn
In recent years, there has been a significant rise in “e-enforcement.” E-enforcement is the use of electronic tools in law enforcement. In this... Sample PDF
E-Enforcement in Digital Government
Chapter 72
J. W. Seifert
The United States is frequently ranked among the most advanced e-government countries in the world (Accenture, 2004; United Nations, 2003; West... Sample PDF
E-Government Act of 2002 in the United States
Chapter 73
J. Christiansen
This article will introduce the concept of e-government, provide a model and background, and discuss emerging issues. Canadian examples will be... Sample PDF
E-Government and Political Communication in the North American Context
Chapter 74
M. Blakemore
The modern “risk society” does not necessarily focus on an increase in overall risk to citizens. It is more focused on trying to predict and reduce... Sample PDF
E-Government and the Risk Society
Chapter 75
K. Culver
E-government has the potential to change fundamentally the organization of governments, and the governance practices used in relations with citizens... Sample PDF
E-Government as a New Frontier for Legal Theory
Chapter 76
F. Amoretti
The term “e-government” became part of the political vocabulary toward the end of the 1990s. Previously, with the onset of new technologies, it... Sample PDF
E-Government at Supranational Level in the European Union
Chapter 77
R. Chuanshen
E-government has become a part of our society gradually as a derivative of the current information society. To adapt to international affairs, the... Sample PDF
E-Government Construction and China's Administrative Litigation Act
Chapter 78
Y. Yongling
Nanhai is a small city which belongs to Foshan City (a district can also be called a city in some cities of China) and lies in the central part of... Sample PDF
E-Government Development in Nanhai City, China
Chapter 79
B. Ubaldi
While in theory, the benefits of e-government are numerous, global experience to date indicates that in reality they remain much more elusive. Given... Sample PDF
E-Government Development in the Caribbean
Chapter 80
M. Zuccarini
Information technology is changing the role of government, its functions, and its power. The long process of transformation of public sector... Sample PDF
E-Government Development Trends
Chapter 81
S. Park
New information and communication technologies (ICTs) enable rapid information flows, which reduce the necessity for face-to-face contacts as well... Sample PDF
E-Government for Building the Knowledge Infrastructure in South Korea
Chapter 82
E-Government in Shanghai  (pages 536-541)
Y. Chen
Chinese e-government was launched at the beginning of 1990s. It is necessary to develop e-government not only for the appeal of information... Sample PDF
E-Government in Shanghai
Chapter 83
L. W. Zacher
The information society (IS), which nowadays is the emerging form of the organization of advanced societies (see e.g., Castells, 1996; May, 2002;... Sample PDF
E-Government in the Information Society
Chapter 84
E-Government in the UK  (pages 548-553)
J. Hudson
Like many of its western counterparts, the United Kingdom (UK) government has a long history of using IT in the administration and delivery of... Sample PDF
E-Government in the UK
Chapter 85
R. Gatautis
In December of 2002, the Lithuanian government approved the concept of e-government. The objective of the e-government concept is to develop... Sample PDF
E-Government in Transition Economics
Chapter 86
J. Chappelet
This short article gives an overview of e-government in Switzerland about 10 years after its introduction at the municipal, cantonal and federal... Sample PDF
E-Government Issues in Switzerland
Chapter 87
F. Robben
The Belgian social security consists on the one hand of three insurance systems (workers, self-employed workers, and civil servants), that cover a... Sample PDF
E-Government Program of the Belgian Social Security
Chapter 88
s. M. Mutula
Governments in East and Southern Africa, like their counterparts in developing and developed world, are under increasing pressure from donor... Sample PDF
E-Government Readiness in East and Southern Africa
Chapter 89
E-Government Regimes  (pages 580-587)
F. Amoretti
The internationalization of the reform movement is changing the ways in which governments operate throughout the world (Kettl, 2000). The ICT... Sample PDF
E-Government Regimes
Chapter 90
K. M.B. Islam
The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) launched the African Information Society Initiative (AISI) in May 1996, which serves as a... Sample PDF
E-Government Strategies for Poverty Reduction in Africa
Chapter 91
J. Langford
New organizational arrangements are required to underpin emerging public sector service transformation initiatives with a substantial electronic... Sample PDF
E-Government, Service Transformation, and Procurement Reform in Canada
Chapter 92
D. Casacuberta
When talking about excluded people and how to develop programs towards digital and social inclusion, there has been little research to individuate... Sample PDF
E-Learning as Social Inclusion
Chapter 93
E-Learning through HCI  (pages 607-614)
C. Ghaoui
E-government is using electronic technology to streamline and/or to improve the business of government and, as a result, to improve its citizens’... Sample PDF
E-Learning through HCI
Chapter 94
E. Loukis
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) provide an alternative model for producing and delivering public services, both the traditional public services... Sample PDF
Electronic Business Models Design for Public-Private Partnerships
Chapter 95
R. McNeal, M. Schmeida
With every new election cycle in the United States, there is a call for campaign finance reform. These regulations have come in a variety of forms... Sample PDF
Electronic Campaign Finance Reform in the American States
Chapter 96
Electronic Governance  (pages 629-633)
M. Finger
Two parallel evolutions are currently challenging the functioning and the legitimation of the traditional nation-state: globalization and the rapid... Sample PDF
Electronic Governance
Chapter 97
Electronic Government  (pages 634-642)
A. Gronlund
Digital government, electronic government, online government, wired government, virtual government—there are many terms used to refer to the... Sample PDF
Electronic Government
Chapter 98
D. F. Norris
During the past 10 years or so, governments in the United States have rushed to adopt and implement electronic government or e-government (defined... Sample PDF
Electronic Government at the American Grassroots
Chapter 99
E. Loukis
Most of the effort of e-government researchers and practitioners today is focused on G2C (government-to-citizen) and G2B (government-to-business)... Sample PDF
Electronic Government-to-Government Collaboration
Chapter 100
V. Venkatakrishnan
New public management (NPM) conceptualised public administration as a business, to be managed with business-like techniques. Since services had to... Sample PDF
Electronic Service Delivery in the Local Indian Community of Visakhapatnam
Chapter 101
P. Delwit
Does representative democracy imply that there is … representation? What does one mean by representation? Looked at very generally, it means that... Sample PDF
Electronic Voting in Belgium
Chapter 102
Electronic Voting Machine  (pages 680-683)
P. R. Santhias, R. Cabral
Electronic voting, as well as Internet voting, is in the process of being incorporated into most democracies in the world. The literature on the... Sample PDF
Electronic Voting Machine
Chapter 103
L. Carson
Very little has been written about the crucial role of the moderator in public discussion forums or discursive communities. Group theory tends to... Sample PDF
E-Moderation in Public Discussion Forums
Chapter 104
T. Candia, P. Madsen
Today’s administrative and business environment calls for information sharing on an unprecedented scale, from government to business to citizen.... Sample PDF
Enabling Federated Identity for E-Government
Chapter 105
M. Francoli
During the last decade, the public policies of many countries have emphasized the need for greater citizen participation in decision-making, and... Sample PDF
E-Participation and Canadian Parliamentarians
Chapter 106
E-Planning  (pages 703-707)
C. N. Silva
E-planning is the e-government concept applied to urban and regional planning. It is the widespread use of information and communication... Sample PDF
Chapter 107
M. Gregor
In November 1998, a Czech e-pressure group, Internet proti Monopolu (“Internet Against Monopoly,” or IPM), was founded in order to protest planned... Sample PDF
E-Pressure through Internet against Monopoly
Chapter 108
E-Rulemaking  (pages 713-717)
C. Coglianese
Throughout the world, governments use regulation to combat monopoly power, protect consumers, and reduce health, safety, and environmental risks.... Sample PDF
Chapter 109
J. Paynter
Historically, information and services can only be obtained through narrow, one to one, phones, and agency-specific shop fronts (Caffrey, 1998).... Sample PDF
E-Service Provision by New Zealand Local Government
Chapter 110
R. Melville
E-social policy is an important aspect of the information society development and e-governance agenda (Fitzpatrick, 2000, 2003; Loader, 1998). To... Sample PDF
E-Social Policy and E-Social Service Delivery
Chapter 111
R. Melville
Online research raises unique ethical concerns (Ess & AoIR, 2002), including the treatment and recruitment of participants, gaining consent... Sample PDF
Ethical Dilemmas in Online Research
Chapter 112
G. Dodig-Crnkovic
The electronic networking of physical space promises wide-ranging advances in science, medicine, delivery of services, environmental monitoring and... Sample PDF
Ethics and Privacy of Communications in the E-Polis
Chapter 113
N. Kapucu
The Internet is at once a new communications medium and a new locus for social organization on a global basis. A digital government will allow... Sample PDF
Ethics of Digital Government
Chapter 114
D. Buhalis
The recent developments in information communication technologies (ICTs) and the emergence of the Internet, in particular, as a mainstream... Sample PDF
E-Tourism and Digital Government
Chapter 115
L. W. Zacher
Not all transformations of societies are caused by technology or are technology-driven. However, it is evident that technology is an important... Sample PDF
E-Transformation of Societies
Chapter 116
C. Hunold
According to the European Commission (2003), increased networking of local, regional, and national administrations across the European Union (EU) is... Sample PDF
The European Commission's E-Government Initiatives and Public Participation
Chapter 117
X. Dai
The European politics of digital convergence has been an important topic for public debate since the early 1990s, when the forces of the digital... Sample PDF
European Politics of Regulating Digital Convergence
Chapter 118
J. Shahin
The European Union (EU) has been one of the leading lights concerning Internet use in dealing with other public administrations and citizens. This... Sample PDF
The EU's Use of the Internet
Chapter 119
E. Eyob
The purpose of this article is to survey the financial cost and benefit of e-government and the evaluation methods utilized in the implementation of... Sample PDF
Evaluating Methodologies of Financial Cost and Benefit Aspects of E-Government
Chapter 120
M. Henderson, F. Hogarth
E-democracy, defined in this chapter as “the use of information and communication technologies in democratic processes,” covers a range of methods... Sample PDF
Evaluation Framework for Assessing E-Democracy Policy
Chapter 121
D. P. Moynihan
Many aspects of government have seen improvements in reliability, customer interface, speed, and cost as a result of digital innovations. In some... Sample PDF
E-Voting in the United States
Chapter 122
J. R. Gil-Garcia
Over the last decade, information technologies (IT) have been considered one of the most influential ways to change organizations (Davenport, 1993;... Sample PDF
Exploring E-Government Benefits and Success Factors
Chapter 123
L. Walsh
This article seeks to provide a brief overview of the current development of digital democracy in Australia, with emphasis on the use of the... Sample PDF
Extending E-Government and Citizen Participation in Australia through the Internet
Chapter 124
I. Albors
During the 2001-2004 period the main pursuit by the AOC (Administració Oberta de Catalunya or Open Administration of Catalonia) was to create a well... Sample PDF
Facing the E-Government Challenges within Catalonia
Chapter 125
G. Kebede
Information is a key ingredient in everyday life of the individual and the society at large. Information has become increasingly more important with... Sample PDF
Factors Affecting Access to Electronic Informaitn and Their Implications
Chapter 126
A. Keskinen, T. Kuosa
The present knowledge era needs new democratic practices. The use of information and communications technology (ICT) has been considered the... Sample PDF
Foundation for Citizen-Oriented E-Governance Models
Chapter 127
J. Gallo
Surveillance is the act or process of observing, tracking, or recording personal details for the purpose of exercising control over the individual... Sample PDF
From CCTV to Biometrics through Mobile Surveillance
Chapter 128
L. Lan
Endowed with 5,000 years of ancient tradition and heritage, China is reputed as the single oldest uninterrupted civilization in the world. Ancient... Sample PDF
From E-Government to E-Democracy in China
Chapter 129
N. Costake
The purpose of the present article is twofold: (a) to support the definitions of e-government (eGvt) and e-governance (eG) based on content (and not... Sample PDF
From E-Government to E-Governance
Chapter 130
N. Costake
“Digital government” (DG), “online government,” “e-government (eGvt),” and “e-governance (eG)” are widely used terms. They suggest the use of modern... Sample PDF
General Requirements for Digital Government
Chapter 131
H. Ostermann
Metaphorically, the term benchmarking traces back to land surveying, where a benchmark is referred to as “a mark on a permanent object indicating... Sample PDF
Global Benchmarking of E-Governments
Chapter 132
K. Geiselhart
The recent advent of Internet technologies has greatly intensified existing globalization processes. The development of full multimedia... Sample PDF
Global Governance as a Complex Adaptive System
Chapter 133
M. Janssen
In the current economic climate, public administrations are looking for ways to improve their service provision and to increase their efficiency. A... Sample PDF
Governance and Design Issues of Shared Service Centers
Chapter 134
J. Y. Lee
Korea launched a national e-procurement system on September 30, 2002. The adoption of the e-procurement system in the government of Korea has been... Sample PDF
The Government E-Procurement System in Korea
Chapter 135
C. G. Reddick
Electronic procurement (e-procurement) is one business-to-government e-commerce venture that can benefit from the Internet. Government e-procurement... Sample PDF
Government E-Procurement through the Internet
Chapter 136
D. Samuel
Governments provide a wide range of services, and the digital economy provides both threats and opportunities in this sector. The Transport Accident... Sample PDF
A Government Insurer Enters the Brave New World
Chapter 137
T. Flew
Citizenship has long been connected to communication media. Popular media have been both the relay points between the governing and the governed for... Sample PDF
Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Media and Citizenship
Chapter 138
G. P. Patil, R. Modarres
Geoinformatic surveillance for spatial and temporal hot-spot detection and prioritization is crucial in the 21st century. A hot spot may be any... Sample PDF
Hot-Spot Geoinformatics for Digital Governance
Chapter 139
J. V.D. Heijden
EzGov is a leading company providing online solutions for governments. Ed Trimble, EzGov CEO, states, “He’s doing something that’s changing... Sample PDF
How Business Changes Government in the Information Age
Chapter 140
B. J. Jansen, A. Spink
People are now confronted with the task of locating electronic information needed to address the issues of their daily lives. The Web is presently... Sample PDF
How People Search for Governmental Information on the Web
Chapter 141
K. W. Sandberg, Y. Pan
News reports do not frequently mention many problems or accidents caused by human error. The specialty of human factors seeks to avoid human error... Sample PDF
Human Factors in Public Information Systems
Chapter 142
M. Falch
A substantial part of the economic growth that has taken place within the past 2 decades is related to information and communication technology... Sample PDF
ICT as an Example of Industrial Policy in EU
Chapter 143
U. Averweg, S. Manyanga
The availability of publicly accessible Internet networks and services are the first prerequisite in ensuring that all citizens and nations can... Sample PDF
ICT Considerations for a Municipality in South Africa
Chapter 144
ICT in the Islamic World  (pages 962-968)
F. M. Mohamed-Saleck
A priori, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania was not prepared for the information and communication technology (ICT) revolution. This vast West... Sample PDF
ICT in the Islamic World
Chapter 145
G. Bradley
The present fourth period, the network period, is characterised by a convergence of three main technologies (computer technology, telecommunication... Sample PDF
ICT, Work Organisations, and Society
Chapter 146
W. M. Olatokun
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) comprise a range of technology products and activities that enable the recording, storage... Sample PDF
ICTs and Governance in Africa
Chapter 147
H. Leitold, R. Posch
Official procedures usually require that the citizen is unmistakably identified. This may be needed to ensure that the person approaching the... Sample PDF
Identification in E-Government
Chapter 148
C. E. Passaris
The information age of the 21st century has transformed the economic, social, and political landscape in a profound and indelible manner. It also... Sample PDF
Immigration and Digital Government
Chapter 149
R. De’
The introduction of e-government systems in India started out in the late 60s and early 70s with an emphasis on computerising applications for... Sample PDF
Implementation of E-Government Systems in Developing Countrie
Chapter 150
C. Gurau
In the last 20 years, the explosive development of telecommunication and computer technology has transformed information in the most important... Sample PDF
Implementing E-Government Systems in Transition Economics
Chapter 151
M. L. Ehrenhard
Modernizing public administration requires a new approach to technology. You can no longer rely on rigid, monolithic service systems. You need... Sample PDF
Implementing Enterprise Systems in the Public Sector
Chapter 152
S. Koch
In the last years, free and open source software (also sometimes termed libre software) has gathered increasing interest, both from the business and... Sample PDF
Implications of FLOSS for Public Organizations
Chapter 153
J. B.D. Joshi
E-government systems aim to transition traditional paper-based systems to “paperless” digital information systems to automate and streamline... Sample PDF
Identity Management and Citizen Privacy
Chapter 154
G. Onu
The 20th and 21st centuries have witnessed major paradigm shifts in the conceptualization of development and governance. These phenomena are aided... Sample PDF
Information and Communication Technology and Good Governance in Africa
Chapter 155
M. Corsi
Information and communications technology (ICT) is radically changing productive processes in both the private and public sectors. Institutions that... Sample PDF
Information in Electronic Government
Chapter 156
B. Sen
The term digital governance refers to governance processes in which information and communication technologies (ICT) play a significant role.... Sample PDF
Information Management in Kutch Earthquake
Chapter 157
J. B.D. Joshi
An electronic government (e-government) can be viewed as a large distributed information system consisting of interconnected heterogeneous... Sample PDF
Information Security Issues and Challenges
Chapter 158
H. Shih, C. Li
Ensuring security for its information systems, including computers and networks, is a fundamental prerequisite for a digital government to function... Sample PDF
Information Security Management in Digital Government
Chapter 159
T. B. Riley
This section begins by looking at ways in which governments can facilitate better access to information in both the public and private sector. This... Sample PDF
Information Sharing as a Democratic Tool
Chapter 160
A. Henten
In order to discuss e-government in the context of industrial policy, it is necessary to examine the industrial policy concept as such. Industrial... Sample PDF
Information Society Industrial Policy
Chapter 161
W. Lam
Through e-government, an increasing number of nations are making major commitments to modernize and reform government in an effort to achieve... Sample PDF
Information Systems Integration in E-Government
Chapter 162
A. Mana, M. Yague, S. Karnouskos
Within the process of globalization and the permeation of all areas of life by technology, electronic government (e-government) is becoming a... Sample PDF
Information Use-Control in E-Government Applications
Chapter 163
Informational Literacy  (pages 1083-1088)
D. Casacuberta
Digital divide is a metaphorical division which separates those citizens who can use new technologies to their own benefit from those who cannot.... Sample PDF
Informational Literacy
Chapter 164
R. De Vivo
PEOPLE, one of the most important e-government projects in Italy, was created in 2002, when it was ranked first among almost 400 projects submitted... Sample PDF
Innovative Local E-Government through the PEOPLE Project
Chapter 165
A. J. Rosenblatt
Advocacy campaigns are considered by many to be the second cornerstone of a pluralistic, democratic society. While many may focus on the first... Sample PDF
Integrated Online and Offline Advocacy Campaign Strategy
Chapter 166
Intelligent Cities  (pages 1100-1104)
N. Komninos
In the dawn of the 21st century, information and communication technologies have radically altered the construction of our physical environment.... Sample PDF
Intelligent Cities
Chapter 167
G. A. Gimenez-Lugo, C. A. Tacla, J.F. Hubner
One of the main reasons for lower levels of participation in the political arena by the common citizen is the apprehended distance from actions such... Sample PDF
Intelligent Citizenship Assistants for Distributed Governance
Chapter 168
S. S. Dawes
Increasing governmental complexity is a global phenomenon marked by the need for multiple organizations to interconnect their policies, business... Sample PDF
Intergovernmental Digital Governance through G2G Relationships and Applications
Chapter 169
R. Kelso
Australia is a nation of 20 million citizens occupying approximately the same land mass as the continental U.S. More than 80% of the population... Sample PDF
Inter-Governmental Relations in the Provision of Local E-Services
Chapter 170
Internet Voting  (pages 1125-1129)
J. B.I. Esteve, J. Domingo-Ferrer
Internet voting denotes electronic voting (e-voting) systems that allow votes to be cast using the Internet. There are, however, other types of... Sample PDF
Internet Voting
Chapter 171
R. J. Freeman
A common thread among municipal governments is that they harbor a variety of enterprises under one roof. For example, police, fire, public works... Sample PDF
IT Management Issues in Digital Government
Chapter 172
P. Partow-Navid
Today, information security is one of the highest priorities on the IT agenda. In 2003, Luftman and McLean (2004) conducted a survey of Society for... Sample PDF
IT Security Policy in Public Organizations
Chapter 173
C. R. Brunschwig
Today, most e-government Web sites are limited to providing and disseminating legal or legally relevant information (hereafter legal information;... Sample PDF
Legal E-Learning and E-Government
Chapter 174
S. Basu
The development of government online should be seen as an evolutionary process (Morison, 2003). The rate of evolution depends on complex factors... Sample PDF
Legal Issues for E-Government in Developing Countries
Chapter 175
Legal Knowledge Systems  (pages 1161-1166)
T. F. Gordon
There are many conceptions of e-governance (Malkia, Anttiroiko, & Savolainen, 2004; Reinermann & Lucke, 2002). Our view is that e-governance is... Sample PDF
Legal Knowledge Systems
Chapter 176
P. Markellou
As the Web is growing exponentially, the way of provision governmental information and services has been changed by the newly supplied technological... Sample PDF
Level-Based Development of E-Government Services
Chapter 177
C. Vassilakis
Electronic government can be defined as the use of information and communication technologies in government for at least three purposes: providing... Sample PDF
The Lifecycle of Transactional Services
Chapter 178
H. Si
Traditional government structures are sometimes regarded as overly bulky. However, with the rapid expansion of interconnected computer networks and... Sample PDF
Maintaining Information Security in E-Government through Steganology
Chapter 179
V. Homburg
In the literature on e-government, the focus is predominantly on the organization of the front office and on the interaction among governmental... Sample PDF
Managing Information Exchange in E-Government Initiatives
Chapter 180
Y. Chen
IT outsourcing has become an increasingly important strategy in meeting the demand for digital government services in many developed countries. In... Sample PDF
Managing IT Outsourcing for Digital Government
Chapter 181
L. Janczewski
An Internet search (Google) on government + security clearances + policy indicates that at present, establishment of individual security clearances... Sample PDF
Managing Security Clearances within Government Institutions
Chapter 182
Y. Kaneko
According to the report submitted by the Evaluation Committee of Experts, Government ICT Strategy Headquarters in December 2005 (ECE, 2005), Japan... Sample PDF
Mechanism of E-Government Undertaking in Japan
Chapter 183
T. Tadesse, D. A. Wilhite
Drought is a natural disaster that influences many aspects of society. Since the demand for water is increasing along with the population in many... Sample PDF
Modern Drought Monitoring Tool for Decision Support System
Chapter 184
P. Danielson
Digital government is a technological adventure. It applies new technologies—in particular, computer-mediated communication—to the ongoing... Sample PDF
Monitoring Technologies and Digital Governance
Chapter 185
L. Redlich
Spatial information management (SIM), which includes utilization of geographical information systems (GIS), is used in a wide variety of information... Sample PDF
Natural Resource Information Management at State GovernmentLevel
Chapter 186
J. A.R. Blanco
Our current democratic institutions stem from times in which transportation and communications were difficult and time consuming. With the time... Sample PDF
Negotiation Strategies Based on Decision Conferencing
Chapter 187
Net Diplomacy  (pages 1240-1245)
P. Yannas
Looking back to the not-so-distant past, one is struck to learn how much the world has changed in the last 30 to 35 years. New developments in major... Sample PDF
Net Diplomacy
Chapter 188
A. S. Nava
Looking back to the not-so-distant past, one is struck to learn how much the world has changed in the last 30 to 35 years. New developments in major... Sample PDF
New Governance Strategies for a Government IT Policy
Chapter 189
B. W. Hardy, D. A. Scheufele
The issue of the civic potential of the Internet has been at the forefront of much scholarly discussion over the last 10 to 15 years. Before... Sample PDF
New Media and Democratic Citizenship
Chapter 190
A. Oostveen, P. V.D. Besselaar
A few years ago, remote electronic voting seemed like a good idea for the near future. Globally, voting turnout figures are dropping dramatically... Sample PDF
Non-Technical Risks of Remote Electronic Voting
Chapter 191
G. Longford, C. Hurrell
Like other western liberal democracies, Canada has witnessed the erosion of political participation and civic engagement on the part of its... Sample PDF
Online Citizen Consultation and Engagement in Canada
Chapter 192
Online Dispute Resolution  (pages 1268-1274)
M. H.C. Tyler
Every community—whether physical or virtual—will inevitably experience conflict. New ways of interacting through information and communication... Sample PDF
Online Dispute Resolution
Chapter 193
K. Sullivan
Three factors have accelerated the need for continuous learning for public administration employees: (1) improvements in information technologies... Sample PDF
Online Learning for Public Institutions
Chapter 194
M. Henderson, F. Hogarth
The right of a citizen to petition Parliament is arguably one of the fundamental ways individuals can engage in democratic processes, by providing... Sample PDF
Online Petitions to Queensland Parliament
Chapter 195
Open Source in Government  (pages 1287-1290)
D. Berry
Open source software (OSS) is computer software that has its underlying source code made available under a licence. This can allow developers and... Sample PDF
Open Source in Government
Chapter 196
A. Masouras
Free open/source software (FOSS) is a new software development paradigm that emerged in the last decade and relies directly on the volunteer efforts... Sample PDF
Open-Source and Public Sector Environmental Information Services
Chapter 197
C. A. Ardagna
Nowadays, a global information infrastructure connects remote parties through the use of large scale networks, and many companies focus on... Sample PDF
Open-Source Solution to Secure E-Government Services
Chapter 198
C. G. Green, S. K. Murrmann
Following the events of September 11, 2001 (9-11), the Civic Alliance to Rebuild Downtown New York established a forum for the purposes of gathering... Sample PDF
An Opportunity for E-Democracy in Rebuilding Lower Manhattan
Chapter 199
P. Tiihonen
The Standing Committee for the Future in the Finnish Parliament has a motto: It is the duty of parliament to observe the changing world, analyse it... Sample PDF
Parliament and E-Governance in Finland
Chapter 200
T. L. Nyerges, P. Jankowski
A majority of governmental problems are geographical in character and are becoming more complex as citizens/residents expect more for less.... Sample PDF
Participatory Geographic Information Science
Chapter 201
P. Jaaskelainen
The societal task of e-government services is to support the achievement of the aims of citizenship (i.e., participation in society and personal... Sample PDF
Pension Portal where Users are the Focus
Chapter 202
P. R. Mullen
Starting in the 1980s, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom faced serious economic problems, such as economies dominated by... Sample PDF
Performance Reporting on United States Digital Government
Chapter 203
J. V. Lucke
The term “portal” is traditionally associated with doors and gates. Room and front doors are used as simple entrances into a building or a room.... Sample PDF
Portals for the Public Sector
Chapter 204
Y. Kaneko
Postal service organization has a long history of exploiting ICTs in its business operation as a government ministry, then as a public corporation... Sample PDF
Postal services and ICTs in Japan
Chapter 205
S. Simonovic
Various aspects of the Eastern European transition have been extensively researched over the past 15 years. Only recently, studies of... Sample PDF
Problems of Offline Government in E-Serbia
Chapter 206
C. W. Phang
The advent of digital government unveils new opportunities in how government can address citizens’ needs and requirements in innovative ways. One of... Sample PDF
Promoting Citizen Participation via Digital Government
Chapter 207
R R. Arnesen
Protecting the privacy of citizens is a critical issue in digital government services. The right to privacy is widely recognized as a fundamental... Sample PDF
Protecting Citizen Privacy in Digital Government
Chapter 208
G. T. Lau
The making of government regulations represents an important communication between the government and citizens. During the process of rulemaking... Sample PDF
A Prototype Study on Electronic Rulemaking
Chapter 209
T. Inkinen, J. S. Jauhiainen
This article focuses on the role of public authorities in the creation of local information societies (LIS). The analysis is conducted with... Sample PDF
Public Authorities and the Local Information Society
Chapter 210
Public Network Access Points  (pages 1377-1382)
A. M. Haseloff
The Internet is changing dramatically the way people live, work, communicate, recreate, and participate in public life. But the growth and... Sample PDF
Public Network Access Points
Chapter 211
Public Sector E-Commerce  (pages 1383-1387)
C. G. Reddick
Electronic commerce or e-commerce has the potential to streamline existing functions and services in the public sector by reducing transaction costs... Sample PDF
Public Sector E-Commerce
Chapter 212
J. Kajava, J. Anttila
New technology has continuously changed the face of computing, and each change has involved an improvement in computer architecture and information... Sample PDF
Radio Frequency Identification as a Challenge to Informaiotn Security and Privacy
Chapter 213
L. Pang
Following technical strides in radio and radar in the 1930s and 1940s, the 1950s were a period of exploration for radio frequency identity (RFID)... Sample PDF
Radio Frequency IdentificationTechnology in Digital Government
Chapter 214
J. Sounderpandian
A challenge in electronic commerce is to keep proper records of business contracts made over the Internet. A common type of contract is a purchase... Sample PDF
Record Keeping for Digital Contracts
Chapter 215
s. A. Chun, V. Atluri
The government services needed by citizens or businesses often require horizontal integration across autonomous government agencies. The information... Sample PDF
Regulatory Ontology-Based Interagency Informatin and Service Customization
Chapter 216
G. Lepouras
Reusability in the everyday life is the capacity of using existing objects or even concepts again in the same or other contexts. When applied to... Sample PDF
Reusability in Governmental Electronic Services
Chapter 217
R. B. Jain
There is a talk of e-governance all over the world. India has also not remained oblivious of these developments. E-governance implies a smoother... Sample PDF
Revampting the Administrative Structure and Processes in India for Online Diplomacy
Chapter 218
M. Handzic
The world is currently experiencing a period of major change. The emerging new world is variously referred to as the third wave, the information... Sample PDF
The Role of E-Government in Rebuilding Bosnia-Herzegovina
Chapter 219
E. Kerteszne-Gerecz
The supreme legislative power of the Republic of Hungary is the unicameral National Assembly, which has 386 members. The 1990 political changeover... Sample PDF
The Role of E-Parliament in Hungary
Chapter 220
H. Rahman
Information and communications technologies (ICTs) are playing an increasingly vital role in the daily lives of all communities by revolutionizing... Sample PDF
Role of ICT in Establishing E-Government System for Disadvantaged Communities
Chapter 221
B. King, Y. Desmedt
Today a significant amount of research has focused on trying to apply the advances in information technology to governmental services. One endeavor... Sample PDF
Securing an Electronic Legislature Using Threshold Signatures
Chapter 222
Skilling for E-Government  (pages 1451-1459)
H. Druke
Implementing e-government in local, regional, or central administration represents a far-reaching modernisation of governing the public affairs.... Sample PDF
Skilling for E-Government
Chapter 223
A. O’ Baoill
The use of computers in the electoral process—to count punch-card ballots, or to maintain a register of voters—has been in place in many countries... Sample PDF
Social Critiques of Electronic Voting
Chapter 224
S. Marsh, A. S. Patrick
Building any online system or service that people will trust is a significant challenge. For example, consumers sometimes avoid e-commerce services... Sample PDF
Social Issues of Trust and Digital Government
Chapter 225
A. D. Smith
Even before September 11, 2001, security and privacy was a concern to nearly 80% of the current and potential Internet users around the globe... Sample PDF
Strategic Importance of Security Standards
Chapter 226
P. Delwit
The question of electoral participation has today become a major issue for the future of democratic systems. In the USA and Europe, voter turnout... Sample PDF
Stumbling Blocks of Electronic Voting Revealed by U.S. and European Experiences
Chapter 227
G. Rondeaux
Challenged to multiple pressures, the administration developed many initiatives aimed at modernizing its practices and offering the citizen customer... Sample PDF
Successful Implementation of an E-Government Project
Chapter 228
H. Z. Henriksen, K. V. Anderson
Business transactions require involvement from both customers and suppliers. This is the case whether the transaction takes place on-line or... Sample PDF
Suppliers' E-Maturity for Public E-Procurement
Chapter 229
J. B.D. Joshi, S. M. Chandran
An electronic government (e-government) is essentially an amalgam of interconnected heterogeneous information systems belonging to both government... Sample PDF
Survivability Issues and Challenges
Chapter 230
R. Suomi
Taxation is one of the key functions of any state. Without a working tax collection system, any state would have big difficulties in fulfilling its... Sample PDF
Tax Proposal Service of th Finnish Tax Authority
Chapter 231
C. C. Hinnant, S. B. Sawyer
The rapid adoption of computer networks, such as the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW), within various segments of society has spurred an... Sample PDF
Technological Innovation in Public Organizations through Digital Government
Chapter 232
Teledemocracy  (pages 1519-1523)
T. Becker
Up until very recent times in Western political philosophy, theory, science, and discourse, the words predominantly used to describe the democratic... Sample PDF
Chapter 233
The Telehealth Divide  (pages 1524-1528)
M. Schmeida, R. McNeal
In the United States, the public is accessing the Internet to provide information and deliver services, and to interact with citizens, business, and... Sample PDF
The Telehealth Divide
Chapter 234
G. Giacomello
Computers have always caused psychological uneasiness in the human brain. That a computer is the closet thing to a thinking machine can be... Sample PDF
The Information Society and the Danger of Cyberterrorism
Chapter 235
C. P. Orgeron
Too often, citizens view government as hopelessly ineffective and lacking in skill to deliver services in the same way that a bottom-line-focused... Sample PDF
Theory-Based Models of E-Government Adoption
Chapter 236
D. Sinha
It could be one of the great paradoxes of history that the third world continues to urbanize itself at a faster pace than the developed world. At... Sample PDF
Third World City in the Information Age
Chapter 237
B. Grabow
Local e-government reflects an ongoing process of modernization. Like all processes of innovation and modernization, the development of e-government... Sample PDF
Third-Generation Local E-Government
Chapter 238
Toward U-Government in Japan  (pages 1554-1561)
T. Obi
Japan is set to move forward to developing a broadband and ubiquitous network society as envisioned under the concept of an advanced information... Sample PDF
Toward U-Government in Japan
Chapter 239
M. Zuccarini
Information technologies (IT) and the new (virtual) space of dominion that they create can alter the order of the powers of the democratic states.... Sample PDF
Transformation of Government Roles toward a Digital State
Chapter 240
D. Zinnbaur
The advent of new information and communication technologies (ICTs), in particular the Internet, has inspired bold scenarios about a new era of... Sample PDF
Transparency and Information Disclosure in E-Government
Chapter 241
Trust in Digital Government  (pages 1572-1576)
N. C. Rowe
The concept of trust in organizations has been an important area of recent research in sociology and management science (Sztompka, 1999). Trust is... Sample PDF
Trust in Digital Government
Chapter 242
Y. Theng, A. Khoo, M. Chan
Designers often design for themselves unless they are trained to realise that people are diverse, and that users are unlikely to be like them. The... Sample PDF
Understanding Usability Issues in a Public Digital Library
Chapter 243
A. P.G. can Meeteren
There is hardly any interest in Usenet in governmental circles at the moment. That is not surprising, given that the government’s task is to... Sample PDF
Usenet and the Proactive Ombudsman
Chapter 244
K. Gareis
In the context of e-government strategies, governments typically claim that they utilize Internet technology to improve service provision and to... Sample PDF
User Orientation in the Provision of Online Public Services
Chapter 245
P. F. Saddler
Throughout the world, people are just as concerned about corruption as they are about unemployment, poverty, and physical security. Governments can... Sample PDF
Using Digital Hotlines in an Anti-Corruption Campaign
Chapter 246
N. Komninos
Major new trends of our era emerge from the spread of information society and the increasing role of innovation as source of competitive advantage... Sample PDF
Virtual Innovation Environment
Chapter 247
Virtual Policy Networks  (pages 1606-1610)
K. McNutt
As information cascades across the Internet and human communication patterns are transposed into computer-mediated environments, governments around... Sample PDF
Virtual Policy Networks
Chapter 248
The Virtual Town Hall  (pages 1611-1616)
R. A. Cropf
A key part of the appeal of interactive communications technology (ICT) has been its huge potential to facilitate citizen access to and... Sample PDF
The Virtual Town Hall
Chapter 249
M. J. Headd
Spurred by the development of new Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based telephony markup languages and the adoption of requirements for universal... Sample PDF
Voice Technologies in the Public Sector for E-Government Services
Chapter 250
Voter Information Web Sites  (pages 1623-1628)
A. Edwards
Several election studies observe that considerations regarding issues and policies have been gaining weight in voting decisions in Western... Sample PDF
Voter Information Web Sites
Chapter 251
P. Markellou
Over the last decade, we have witnessed an explosive growth in the information available on the Web. Today, Web browsers provide easy access to... Sample PDF
Web Mining for Public E-Services Personalization
Chapter 252
G. Taddeo
In the information era, the main source of productivity lies in the technology of knowledge generation, information processing, and symbolic... Sample PDF
Web Sites for Senior Citizens
Chapter 253
A. T. Trevisani, R. Zwicker
The current standard of global economic growth incorporates a disposition to undertake investments in information technology that will provide... Sample PDF
Web-Based Information System at the Brazilian Ministry of Finance

Reviews and Testimonials

"The individual contributions are well-written and provide a wealth of information to individuals concerned with digital and electronic government. It is a must have for university libraries and courses in government and public policy."

– Dr. Roger W. Caves, San Diego State University, USA

The Encyclopaedia of Digital Government clearly shows the high degree of maturity that E-government has reached around the world, even though there is still a long way to walk. I am sure that its contents will be extremely useful for those traveling that road.

– Prof. Antonio Alabau, Jean Monnet Chair of the European Union, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain

[…] this encyclopedia is truly unique in its content and approach. Divided into 12 sections and over 50 categories, the 3-volume work provides the handiest access to current information about various aspects of information and communication technologies impacting all levels of government.

– American Reference Books Annual , Vol. 38 (2007)

With over 300 experts from around the globe contributing 250 articles, this encyclopedia is truly unique in its content and approach.

– American Reference Books Annual , Vol. 39

...this reference offers the most comprehensive coverage of the issues, concepts, trends, and technologies in digital government. It is the essential reference for academics and public libraries, as well as major public agencies.

– APADE (2007)

Topics Covered

  • Development stages
  • E-administration
  • E-Democracy
  • E-government strategies and policies
  • E-management and e-administration
  • E-Politics
  • Emerging Trends
  • Global view to e-government
  • History of digital transformation
  • Managing electronic surveys
  • Models of digital government
  • Pioneering cases of digital government
  • Public sectors in information society
  • Social issues
  • Technological issues


The information technology revolution that has swept across the world has changed the way the governments work and interact with their stakeholders. This explains why digital government or electronic government (e-government) has become one of the most important topics in the public sector reform agenda. Such an e-transformation in government and public governance has its roots in the 1950s when some few professionals and academics started to speak about the computerization of public organizations. For several decades the discussion was meek, concerning mainly the use of computers in internal operations of public administrations, such as accounting and recordkeeping. Wider perspectives started to gain ground as late as 1980s in the wake of the introduction of personal computers and the merge of computers and telecommunications. Yet, the most fundamental recent turn in the information technology revolution was the Great Internet Explosion of 1993-1994 and the increased popularity of World Wide Web (WWW) in particular. Since then the transformative power of e-government has been generally recognized. The Encyclopedia of Digital Government discusses topics that are at the core of this ongoing transformation.

When Dr. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour of Idea Group Inc. in late 2003 invited us to edit a new encyclopedia on electronic government or digital government, we were eager to grab the opportunity. We had, together with our colleague Professor Reijo Savolainen, just edited a book titled eTransformation in Governance: New Directions in Government and Politics (IGP, 2004) and were keen to continue our ongoing intellectual journey towards the better understanding of e-transformation in government. With the continuously increasing interest in this topic all over the world, we felt that the time was ripe for such an endeavor. This is how the project got started.

Let us remind here that in spite of the slight differences in their connotations, we use the terms “digital government” and “electronic government” (e-government) synonymously. Our starting point has been to avoid one-dimensional or too narrow conceptions of digital government. This has allowed us to provide an open forum for academics and experts to present their views of digital government and related topics, which in turn has made it possible to create a collection of articles that reflects the richness of topics, concepts, approaches, and contexts in this new interdisciplinary research field.

Another reason for applying fairly broad conception of digital government was the paradigm shift in the political and administrative sciences themselves, sometimes expressed by the phrase “from government to governance.” This refers to a general transition from hierarchical, command-and-control-oriented government toward citizen- and stakeholder-oriented, initiate-and-coordinate practices of public organizations. Such new orientations and practices have had their direct implications to digital government discourse. Thus, digital government is used here as a flexible umbrella concept that depicts the dynamic relationship between new trends in public governance and constant technological development.

The concept of digital government may be further divided into various subcategories, including such internally-oriented categories as e-administration, e-management, and e-organization and more externally-oriented areas such as e-service, e-governance, and e-democracy. It includes also more recent technology-driven conceptions, like u-government (ubiquitous government), m-government (mobile government), and g-government (GIS and GPS applications in government). E-government-related terminology is strongly interrelated, which has led to blurring of conceptual boundaries and caused occasional conceptual confusion. A good example is an occasional confusion between concepts of e-government and e-governance. In order to bring clarity to this field and to provide a coherent structure of the publication, we have paid special attention to the systemization of the conceptual field of digital government. The list of contents of this encyclopedia reflects this endeavor. It is our conceptual roadmap of the field in question and serves in placing articles in the most appropriate sections within a comprehensive structure. It goes without saying that many of the topics are closely interrelated, and similarly, many contributions fall into several categories. However, we believe that the structure we have used here— as seen in Contents by Section and Category—serves this publication well enough and possibly also contributes to a better understanding of the conceptual field of and discourses on digital government.

This encyclopedia is divided into 12 sections and over 50 categories. Key topics include: The concept of digital government; e-transformation in government and public governance; e-government policy and regulation; international e-government; state and local e-government; public e-management; IT management and planning in public organizations; e-administration; office systems; work processes; e-human resource management; knowledge and information management; e-government project management; e-commerce in government; evaluation of e-government; electronic service delivery; management of e-services; access solutions; user interfaces; various types of e-services (e-health, e-social welfare, e-school and e-learning, e-law, etc.); e-citizenship; public e-governance; e-democracy; e-participation; e-politics; e-rulemaking; e-voting; technological solutions in digital government; and social issues and dilemmas of digital government (e.g., digital divide, e-inclusion, e-development, access to information, digital rights management, privacy, cyber warfare and terrorism, and ethics of digital government). This is not an exhaustive list, but serves our purposes well enough. Having digital government in focus, generic aspects of information and communication technologies were given a minor role, not least because there are a range of encyclopedias and handbooks available on this topic, such as Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Vol. I-V (Idea Group Reference, 2005), edited by Mehdi Khosrow-Pour.

To ensure that this publication provides the best possible coverage and in-depth knowledge of digital government, we invited experts, practitioners, and scholars from all over the world to contribute to the encyclopedia. They represent various academic disciplines (e.g., information science, computer science, management science, administrative science, political science, sociology, economics, communications studies, and business studies), national and regional cultures, and scholarly and practical traditions and approaches. Of hundreds of proposals some 250 articles, written by more than 400 authors, were finally accepted to be published in the encyclopedia. The quality control followed conventional academic review procedure, in which each submission was forwarded to two to four reviewers on a double-blind, peer review basis. Most of the authors of this encyclopedia as well as most of the members of our International Advisory Board contributed to the review process. In addition, more than 100 external reviewers were involved.

All entries are written by knowledgeable, distinguished scholars from many prominent universities, research institutions and expert organizations around the world. What we particularly strived for was a wide geographical coverage of the global scientific and practitioner community involved in the project. We did this to show what are both the development phases and the current understandings of digital government in different parts of the world. This has made it possible to paint an authentic picture of the cultural differences in understanding and approaching digital government and in dealing with the current and emerging context-specific issues of digital government. This also widens the topics discussed in the Encyclopedia, thus making the Encyclopedia a useful publication that will appeal to a wide international readership. What our editorial policy implies is that the final selection of articles reflects not only the most up-to-date academic and practical knowledge in the field, but also the ways in which the various topics are currently discussed and understood around the world.

The Encyclopedia of Digital Government is presently the most comprehensive academic publication available in the field of digital government. With more than 500 people involved, the encyclopedia project has been, if not the biggest, at least one of the biggest international collaborative projects ever in the field of digital government.

The Encyclopedia of Digital Government offers a broad picture of the issues, concepts, trends, and technologies of digital government. The challenges and future prospects faced by governments at different institutional levels and in different parts of the world are also described in many articles. With some 250 articles, this three-volume set provides a broad basis for understanding the challenges and issues faced by public organizations as they strive for more efficient, responsive and transparent government through the use of emerging technologies. In all, we believe that the Encyclopedia of Digital Government contributes to a better understanding of theory and practice of the e-transformation in government and public governance. It is our hope that this publication and its vast amount of information will assist academics, students, experts, developers, managers, decision-makers, and civic actors all over the world in enhancing their understanding of digital government and even in making the world better place for us all.

Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
University of Tampere, Finland

Matti Mälkiä
Senior Lecurer
The Police College of Finland, Finland

February, 2006


Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko is Professor in the Department of Local Government Studies, University of Tampere, Finland. He holds a PhD (Administrative Sciences) and an MPhil (Philosophy), both from the University of Tampere, and has also received a licentiate degree in social sciences from the University of Jyväskylä. In addition, he is a Docent in local governance (post-doctoral honorary title in the Nordic academic systems). Dr. Anttiroiko is a member of the Board of Directors of the Information Society Institute of the University of Tampere. He has conducted and directed several research projects, including the Local Governance in the Information Society project financed by the Academy of Finland. He has worked as an expert for several local, regional, national and international institutions in Europe and collaborated with local government experts all over the world. His academic contributions include almost 30 monographs and a large number of articles and conference papers
Matti Mälkiä is working as a senior lecturer (Administrative Science and Leadership) at The Police College of Finland, situated in Espoo, Finland. Before moving to the College he has worked about 12 years at the University of Tampere, Department of Administrative Science, in different research and teaching positions. Mälkiä has about 90 publications, including 10 monographs, 3 edited books and 34 research articles. Most of these have been published in the Finnish language, covering various aspect and themes of public administration, public organizations and public management. From 1993-1998 Mälkiä served first as a co-chair and then as a chair for International Social Science Council, Committee on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis (ISSC/COCTA) - an international and interdisciplinary research program focusing on conceptual and terminological analysis and social science communication. Mälkiä has organized several national and international scholarly conferences, including CIPA'99 - "Citizens and Public Administration in the Information Age: Constructing Citizen-Oriented Society for the Future." Mälkiä is currently concentrating his research on police administration and police management, including an application of ICTs in this field.

Editorial Board

Kim Viborg Andersen
Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

Antonio Alabau
Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain

Ted Becker
Auburn University, USA

Subhash Bhatnagar
Indian Institute of Management, India

Lyn Carson
University of Sydney, Australia

Roger Caves
San Diego State University, USA

Yu-Che Chen
Iowa State University, USA

Stephen Coleman
Oxford University, UK

Matthias Finger
EPFL, Switzerland

Patricia Fletcher
University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA

Shunichi Furukawa
University of Tsukuba, Japan

Thomas F. Gordon
Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany

Åke Grönlund
Örebro University, Sweden

Nicos Komninos
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Kenneth Kraemer
University of California, Irvine, USA

Jae-Kyu Lee
KAIST, South Korea

Ann Macintosh
Napier University, UK

Toshio Obi
Waseda University, Japan

John Taylor
Glasgow Caledonian University, UK