Shopping Cart | Login | Register | Language: English

Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications

Release Date: October, 2007. Copyright © 2008. 750 pages.
Select a Format:
List Price: $365.00
Current Promotions:
20% Online Bookstore Discount*
Free E-Access*
In Stock. Have it as soon as Oct. 23 with express shipping*.
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-993-9, ISBN13: 9781591409939, ISBN10: 1591409934, EISBN13: 9781591409946
Cite Book


Freire, Mario, and Manuela Pereira. "Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications." IGI Global, 2008. 1-750. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-993-9


Freire, M., & Pereira, M. (2008). Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications (pp. 1-750). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-993-9


Freire, Mario, and Manuela Pereira. "Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications." 1-750 (2008), accessed October 20, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-993-9

Export Reference

Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications
Access on Platform
Browse by Subject


The Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications discusses the extraordinary importance of Internet technologies, with a particular focus on the Web. Through 100 authoritative contributions by 181 of the world's leading experts the Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications includes comprehensive research on Web services, Semantic Web, and Web-based e-activities, among others.

This reference tool is the single source for information on the world's greatest network, and provides a wealth of information for the average Internet consumer, as well as for an expert in the field of networking and Internet technologies. This comprehensive reference provides libraries with the most thorough examination of Internet technologies and applications—an essential resource in supporting the information needs of researchers in a variety of related fields.


Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Search this Book: Reset
Chapter 1
Michele Mara de Araújo Espíndula Lima, Nelson Luís Saldanha da Fonseca
Although powerful and necessary to prevent network collapse, the congestion control mechanism of the TCP is not sufficient to avoid congestion.... Sample PDF
Active Queue Management
Chapter 2
Abdelhamid Mellouk
Networks, such as the Internet, have become the most important communication infrastructure of today’s society. It enables the worldwide users... Sample PDF
Adaptive Routing Quality of Service Algorithms for Internet's Irregular Traffic
Chapter 3
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Dimitris Primpas, Kostas Stamos
In this article, we concentrate on the architecture of an adaptive real time application that has the capability to transmit multimedia data over... Sample PDF
Adaptive Transmission of Multimedia Data over the Internet
Chapter 4
Pankaj Kamthan
The Internet, particularly the Web, has opened new vistas for businesses. The ability that anyone, using (virtually) any device could be reached... Sample PDF
Addressing the Credibility of Web Applications
Chapter 5
ADSL2+ Technology  (pages 29-35)
D. Kagklis, S. Androulidakis, G. Patikis, T. Doukoglou
This chapter presents and evaluates the ADSL2+ technology with respect to its physical layer performance, which provides the foundation for... Sample PDF
ADSL2+ Technology
Chapter 6
Elisa Bertino, Elena Ferrari, Andrea Perego, Gian Piero Zarri
In this chapter, besides discussing the current strategies for Web content filtering, outlining their advantages and drawbacks, we present an... Sample PDF
Advanced Techniques for Web Content Filtering
Chapter 7
Larbi Esmahi, Ylber Ramadani
Web services have become a significant technology in the evolution of the Web and distributed computing. Web services represent a set of related... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Web Services
Chapter 8
Andrea Bosin, Nicoletta Dessì, Maria Grazia Fugini, Diego Liberati, Barbara Pes
Scientific experiments are supported by activities that create, use, communicate and distribute information and whose organizational dynamics is... Sample PDF
ALBA Cooperative Environment for Scientific Experiments
Chapter 9
Gábor Hosszú, David Tegze
This chapter presents various congestion control schemes for transport protocols together with a number of metrics for the evaluation of these... Sample PDF
Analysis of TCP-Friendly Protocols for Media Streaming
Chapter 10
Autonomic Computing  (pages 66-71)
Kevin Curran, Maurice Mulvenna, Chris Nugent, Matthias Baumgarten
Modern networks offer end-to-end connectivity however; the increasing amount of traditional offered services may still not fulfill the requirements... Sample PDF
Autonomic Computing
Chapter 11
Autonomic Networking  (pages 72-78)
Pantelis N. Karamolegkos, Charalampos Patrikakis, Emmanuel Protonotarios
The term “autonomic networking” refers to a recently emerged communications paradigm, that uses distributed techniques (swarm intelligence based... Sample PDF
Autonomic Networking
Chapter 12
Mark Burgess
Cfengine is a policy-based configuration management system (Burgess 1995). Its pri-mary function is to provide automated configuration and... Sample PDF
Cfengine Configuration Management Agent
Chapter 13
Gábor Hosszú, Raymond Pardede
This chapter reviews the most important fact of the application-level multicast (ALM) and then describes a novel concept of modeling relative... Sample PDF
A Clustering Model of the Application-Level Multicast
Chapter 14
Wong Kok Seng, Sellappan Palaniappan, Nor Adnan Yahaya
In today’s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) era, the need for real-time collaboration over the Internet is increasing. Due to ongoing... Sample PDF
Collaborative Support for Graphical Based Design Tools Introduction
Chapter 15
Kyeongja Lee, Armand Toguyeni, Ahmed Rahmani
Congestion is derived from insufficient network resources and unbalanced traffic distribution. To treat today’s greedy applications, adding more... Sample PDF
Comparison of Multipath Schemes for Hybrid Models in MPLS
Chapter 16
Miguel Rodríguez Pérez, Cándidol López-García, Sergio Herrería-Alonso
Multicast is a transmission service that simultaneously delivers packets from a sender to a group of receivers. The set of receivers form a... Sample PDF
Congestion Control in Multicast Networks
Chapter 17
Kyungbaek Kim, Byungjip Kim, Daeyeon Park
In recent years, the technologies of the network and the computer have developed enormously and the diverse devices such as PDAs, mobile phones, TVs... Sample PDF
Content-Aware Caching for Cooperative Transcoding Proxies
Chapter 18
Huaqun Guo, Daqing Zhang, Lek-Heng Ngoh, Song Zheng, Wai-Choong Wong
The decreasing cost of networking technology and network-enabled devices is driving the large scale deployment of such networks and devices so as to... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Service Discovery in Ubiquitous Computing
Chapter 19
Vitor Santos, Henrique São Mamede
In this context, the hypothesis to appeal to the capacity of computer systems, based in knowledge or in adaptations of creativity techniques in... Sample PDF
Creative Information Systems
Chapter 20
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
Nowadays, the eCommerce business models demand increasingly higher performance of information systems that support various business processes.... Sample PDF
Data Caching in Web Applications
Chapter 21
Hadrian Peter, Charles Greenidge
Traditionally a great deal of research has been devoted to data extraction on the web (Crescenzi, et al, 2001; Embley, et al, 2005; Laender, et al... Sample PDF
Data Extraction from Deep Web Sites
Chapter 22
Sergio Herrería-Alonso, Manuel Fernández Veiga, Andrés Suárez González, Miguel Rodríguez Pérez, Cándido López-García
IP networks only offer best-effort service to all kinds of traffic. This means that IP tries to deliver each packet as quickly as possible, but... Sample PDF
The Differentiated Services Architecture
Chapter 23
Mihály Orosz, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
Despite the efficiency of the IP-multicast it has not been deployed in the whole Internet. The main reason is that the wide-area multicasting among... Sample PDF
DNS-Based Allocation of Multicast Addresses
Chapter 24
Christos Bouras, Eri Giannaka, Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos
E-Collaboration is an important research topic, with a great number of researchers contributing on many aspects. The main reason for this major... Sample PDF
E-Collaboration Concepts, Systems, and Applications
Chapter 25
Kyungbaek Kim, Daeyeon Park
The recent increase in popularity of the Web has led to a considerable increase in the amount of Internet traffic. As a result, the Web has now... Sample PDF
Efficient and Scalable Client-Clustering for Proxy Cache
Chapter 26
E-Learning  (pages 179-184)
Gregory R. Gay, Paola Salomoni, Silvia Mirri
The evolution of an Information Society has transformed many activities in our everyday lives, including how we work, communicate, entertain, teach... Sample PDF
Chapter 27
Lampros Raptis, D. Kagklis, Yiorgos Patikis
Ethernet has become the predominant technology in the Local Area Networks (LANs) due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness. It has been evolved... Sample PDF
Ethernet to the Doorstep of Metropolitan Area Networks
Chapter 28
Kin Cheong Chu
There are several different ways to connect to the remote controller, each being adapted to specific situations, such as location and availability... Sample PDF
Extend the Building Automation System through Internet
Chapter 29
Kevin Curran, Peter Breslin, Kevin McLaughlin, Gary Tracey
"Access" is defined in Section 2(1)(a) of the Information Technology Act as "gaining entry into, instructing or communicating with the logical... Sample PDF
Hackers, Hacking, and Eavesdropping
Chapter 30
Wen-Chen Hu, Lixin Fu, Hung-Jen Yang, Sheng-Chien Lee
It is widely acknowledged that mobile commerce is a field of enormous potential. However, it is also commonly admitted that the development in this... Sample PDF
Handheld Computing and Palm OS Programming for Mobile Commerce
Chapter 31
Udo Averweg, Geoff Erwin, Don Petkov
Internet portals may be seen as Web sites which provide the gateway to corporate information from a single point of access. Leveraging... Sample PDF
Impact of Portal Technologies on Executive Information Systems
Chapter 32
Alexandra George
‘Intellectual property’ (or ‘IP’) is an umbrella term that is used as shorthand to describe a variety of diverse doctrines that create... Sample PDF
Intellectual Property and the Internet
Chapter 33
Internet Gambling  (pages 228-234)
Mark Griffiths, Adrian Parke
Technology has always played a role in the development of gambling practices and continues to provide new market opportunities. One of the fastest... Sample PDF
Internet Gambling
Chapter 34
Internet Measurements  (pages 235-241)
Artur Ziviani
In the mid 90’s, the Internet has started its metamorphosis from a tool restricted to the scientific community into a crucial component of the... Sample PDF
Internet Measurements
Chapter 35
IP Multicasting  (pages 242-248)
Robert R. Chodorek
The origins of IP multicasting go back to 1986. However, multicasting in its current form was introduced only in 1989. During 20 years of IP... Sample PDF
IP Multicasting
Chapter 36
Muhammad Sher, Fabricio Carvalho de Gouveia, Thomas Magedanz
Today the traditional telecommunication technology is declining because of popularity and increasing demand of Voice over IP (VoIP) due to the... Sample PDF
IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for Emerging All-IP Networks
Chapter 37
The IPv6 Protocol  (pages 257-268)
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Dimitris Primpas
This article provides a description of the IPv6 protocol. It briefly covers the reasons that make IPv6 a necessary upgrade, describes the most... Sample PDF
The IPv6 Protocol
Chapter 38
Rachel Babiarz, Jean-Sebastien Bedo
Traffic modelling has always been the prior to numerous network engineering tasks like network planning or bandwidth yield management. It is still a... Sample PDF
Issues and Applications of Internet Traffic Modelling
Chapter 39
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
In the information systems environment, a framework is a well-defined structural and behavioral model in which applications can be organized and... Sample PDF
Java Web Application Frameworks
Chapter 40
Gábor Richly, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
This chapter presents a novel approach to search in shared audio file storages, such as P2P-based systems. The proposed method is based on the... Sample PDF
Light-Weight Content-Based Search for File Sharing Systems
Chapter 41
Malicious Software  (pages 284-290)
Thomas M. Chen, Gregg W. Tally
Malicious software (malware) allows an intruder to take over or damage a target host without the owner’s consent and often without his or her... Sample PDF
Malicious Software
Chapter 42
Mobility Protocols  (pages 291-298)
Sherali Zeadally, Farhan Siddiqui
In recent years; we have witnessed a tremendous growth of wireless networks as well as the emergence of various kinds of devices (Personal Digital... Sample PDF
Mobility Protocols
Chapter 43
Karim El Guemhioui
The information technology (IT) industry has been moving so fast that companies implementing complex distributed software solutions hardly complete... Sample PDF
Model-Driven Engineering of Distributed Applications
Chapter 44
Antóniol Nogueira, Paulo Salvador, Rui Valadas, António Pacheco
This article addresses the use of Markovian models, based on discrete time MMPPs (dMMPPs), for modeling IP traffic. In order to describe the packet... Sample PDF
Modeling IP Traffic Behavior through Markovian Models
Chapter 45
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Dimitris Primpas, Kostas Stamos
The heterogeneous network environment that Internet provides to real time applications as well as the lack of sufficient QoS (Quality of Service)... Sample PDF
Multicast of Multimedia Data
Chapter 46
Kevin Curran
Mobile communications is a continually growing sector in industry and a wide variety of visual services such as video-on-demand have been created... Sample PDF
Multimedia for Mobile Devices
Chapter 47
Nicola Scalabrino, Daniele Miorandi, Enrico Gregori, Imrich Chlamtac
The market for conventional first mile solutions (e.g., cable, fiber etc.) presents indeed high entrance barriers, and it is thus difficult for new... Sample PDF
Multimedia Internet Applications over WiMAX Networks: State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges
Chapter 48
Yezid Donoso, Ramón Fabregat
To support QoS in today’s Internet, several new architecture models have been proposed (Striegel, A., & Manimaran, G. (2002)). Traffic engineering... Sample PDF
Network Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms in Multicast Transmission
Chapter 49
Hongsik Choi, Seung S. Yang
Survivability is the ability of the network to withstand faults and attacks including equipment and link failures. The main goal of survivable... Sample PDF
Network Survivability in Optical Networks with IP Prospective
Chapter 50
Gábor Hosszú, Zoltán Czirkos
As an example of the application for non-conventional purposes a security system is presented in the article that utilizes just the network for... Sample PDF
Network-Based Intrusion Detection
Chapter 51
K. Daniel Wong, Ashutosh Dutta
The Internet is in some ways like the proverbial massive software project whose requirements keep changing, and which is never completed. When the... Sample PDF
Network-Layer Mobility Protocols for IPv6-Based Networks
Chapter 52
Madjid Merabti, Paul Fergus, Omar Abuelma’atti
The Internet has revolutionised the way we access and disseminate information and changed the way we communicate with each other. More and more... Sample PDF
Networked Appliances and Home Networking: Internetworking the Home
Chapter 53
Optical Burst Switching  (pages 375-382)
Kyriakos Vlachos
Switching in core optical networks is currently being performed using high-speed electronic or all-optical circuit switches. Switching with... Sample PDF
Optical Burst Switching
Chapter 54
N. S.C. Correia, M. C.R. Medeiros
The telecommunications world is evolving dramatically toward challenging scenarios where the fast and efficient transportation of information is... Sample PDF
Optical Network Survivability
Chapter 55
Huaqun Guo, Lek-Heng Ngoh, Wai-Choong Wong
In the age of multimedia and high-speed networks, there are many applications that involve sending information to a selective, usually large, number... Sample PDF
Optimizing Inter-Domain Internet Multicast
Chapter 56
Sherali Zeadally, Farhan Siddiqui
In mobile computing environments; the goal is to provide continuous connectivity as a mobile host moves from one network to another – often referred... Sample PDF
Performance of Mobility Protocols
Chapter 57
Shi Zhou
This chapter introduces a recently proposed Internet model, namely the positive-feedback preference (PFP) model (Zhou & Mondragón, 2004a). The model... Sample PDF
Positive-Feedback Preference Model of the Internet Topology
Chapter 58
Stefanos Gritzalis, Costas Lambrinoudakis
Recent years have witnessed a significant evolution in the way information and communication systems are utilized, transforming modern communities... Sample PDF
Privacy in the Digital World
Chapter 59
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Dimitris Primpas, Kostas Stamos
In order for advanced applications in modern computer networks to function satisfactorily, there is often the need for a guaranteed network... Sample PDF
Quality of Service and Service Level Agreements
Chapter 60
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Dimitris Primpas, Kostas Stamos
IP networks are built around the idea of best effort networking, which makes no guarantees regarding the delivery, speed, and accuracy of the... Sample PDF
Quality of Service Architectures
Chapter 61
Wayne Goodridge, Hadrian Peter, William Robertson
The pervasive use of the Internet, the world’s most extensive public communication system, for services ranging from academic research and e-mail to... Sample PDF
Quality of Service by Way of Path Selection Policy
Chapter 62
Winston K.G. Seah, Hwee-Xian Tan
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) form a class of multi-hop wireless networks that can easily be deployed on-the-fly. These are autonomous systems... Sample PDF
Quality of Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Chapter 63
Marília Curado
Traditionally, Internet routing is achieved through shortest path protocols that base their decision on the number of hops or administrative... Sample PDF
Quality of Service Routing
Chapter 64
Charalampos Patrikakis, P. Fafali, Pantelis N. Karamolegkos, Y. Despotopoulos, N. Minogiannis
During the last decade, multimedia streaming has experienced explosive growth. Adaptive video has become a necessity for meeting stringent QoS... Sample PDF
Rate Adaptation Mechanisms for Multimedia Streaming
Chapter 65
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, Dimitris Primpas, Kostas Stamos
Real-time protocols cover specific needs by applications with real-time characteristics. Real-time applications, such as voice over IP (VoIP)... Sample PDF
Real-Time Protocols (RTP/RTCP)
Chapter 66
Shi Zhou
This chapter introduces a recently discovered structure of the Internet, namely the rich-club phenomenon (Zhou & Mondragón, 2004a). The significance... Sample PDF
Rich-Club Phenomenon of the Internet Topology
Chapter 67
Rui Prior, Susana Sargento
Having its roots in the military ARPANET, conceived as a data transport network with a focus on resilience, the Internet supports only a best-effort... Sample PDF
Scalable Reservation-Based QoS Architecture (SRBQ)
Chapter 68
David Rincón, Sebastià Sallent
The availability of good stochastic models of network traffic is the key to developing protocols and services. A precise statistical... Sample PDF
Scaling Properties of Network Traffic
Chapter 69
Tonghong Li
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are becoming popular due to the abundance of mobile devices, the speed and the convenience of deployment, and the... Sample PDF
Seamless Multi-Hop Handover in IPv6-Based Hybrid Wireless Networks
Chapter 70
Kevin Curran, Elaine Smyth
On the surface, WLANs act the same as their wired counterparts, transporting data between network devices. However, there is one fundamental, and... Sample PDF
Security Issues with Wi-Fi Networks
Chapter 71
The Semantic Web  (pages 505-511)
Kevin Curran, Gary Gumbleton
Tim Berners-Lee, director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), states that, “The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the... Sample PDF
The Semantic Web
Chapter 72
Livia Predoiu, Anna V. Zhdanova
On the current World Wide Web, most of the information is stored syntactically, i.e., only as data. The information that lies within the data can... Sample PDF
Semantic Web Languages and Ontologies
Chapter 73
Dumitru Roman, Ioan Toma, Dieter Fensel
Service-oriented computing (SOC) is the new emerging paradigm for distributed computing, especially in the area of e-business and e-work processing... Sample PDF
Semantic Web Services: A Technology for Service-Oriented Computing
Chapter 74
Adetola Oredope, Antonio Liotta
The IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) specifies a service centric framework for converged, all-IP networks. This promises to provide the long awaited... Sample PDF
Service Provisioning in the IP Multimedia Subsystem
Chapter 75
Ilija Basicevic, Miroslav Popovic
With the appearance of the Internet as an important communications medium for widespread everyday use, which can be dated to the mid 90s, a need to... Sample PDF
Session Initiation Protocol
Chapter 76
Sylvia Encheva, Sharil Tumin
Role-based access control (RBAC) is a security mechanism that can lower the cost and complexity of security administration for large networked... Sample PDF
Sharing Protected Web Resources
Chapter 77
Milica Stojmenovic
This article studies social networks on the Internet created by popular applications such as e-mails, Web, chat, file sharing via peer-to-peer... Sample PDF
Social and P2P Networks on the Internet
Chapter 78
Chia-Chu Chiang
Software maintenance is an inevitable process due to program evolution (Lehman & Belady, 1985). Adaptive maintenance (Schenidewind, 1987) is an... Sample PDF
Software Modernization of Legacy Systems for Web Services Interoperability
Chapter 79
The Speech-Enabled Web  (pages 558-567)
L. E. Moser, P. M. Melliar-Smith
Speech recognition and synthesis technology has advanced to the point where the use of voice input and output is now feasible for Web-based... Sample PDF
The Speech-Enabled Web
Chapter 80
Sergio Gutiérrez, Abelardo Pardo, Carlos Delgado Kloos
E-learning has evolved very rapidly in recent years, from a first stage in which a set of documents were simply made available to the students in an... Sample PDF
Standards in Asynchronous E-Learning Systems
Chapter 81
Farhan Siddiqui, Sherali Zeadally
The proliferation of wired and wireless technologies has given rise to the possibility of multi-access options for mobile, multi-homed hosts.... Sample PDF
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
Chapter 82
Jairo A. Gutiérrez
One of the keys for the success of ubiquitous network services is the issue of assigning prices to those services. Furthermore, ubiquitous services... Sample PDF
Survey: Pricing Ubiquitous Network Services
Chapter 83
M. C.R. Medeiros, N. S.C. Correia
Internet protocol (IP) over optical (IP-over-optical) networks is the widely accepted solution to meet the ever increasing demands of IP traffic. In... Sample PDF
Survivability Mechanisms of Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching
Chapter 84
Sergio Gutiérrez, Abelardo Pardo, Carlos Delgado Kloos
A swarm may be defined as a population of interacting elements that is able to optimize some global objective through collaborative search of a... Sample PDF
Swarm Intelligence Applications for the Internet
Chapter 85
Kuen Park, Heejo Lee
People enjoy playing games for simple pleasure. Recently, since the emergence and advance of the computer technologies, especially in terms of... Sample PDF
A Taxonomy of Online Game Security
Chapter 86
Agnieszka Chodorek
One of the most popular transport protocols—Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)—has a long history. The first document describing TCP protocol in... Sample PDF
TCP and TCP-Friendly Protocols
Chapter 87
Bhaskar Sardar, Debashis Saha
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the most popular transport layer communication protocol for the Internet, was originally designed for wired... Sample PDF
TCP Enhancements for Mobile Internet
Chapter 88
Nelson Luís Saldanha da Fonseca, Neila Fernanda Michel
In response to a series of collapses due to congestion on the Internet in the mid-’80s, congestion control was added to the transmission control... Sample PDF
TCP for High-Speed Networks
Chapter 89
Stamatis Karnouskos
As we move towards service-oriented complex infrastructures, what is needed, security, robustness, and intelligence distributed within the network.... Sample PDF
Towards Autonomic Infrastructures via Mobile Agents and Active Networks
Chapter 90
Pankaj Kamthan
The last decade has seen remarkable changes in the way Web applications are developed and the services that are expected from them. The desire to... Sample PDF
Towards Formulation of Principles for Engineering Web Applications
Chapter 91
Traffic Control  (pages 647-652)
Thomas M. Chen
Networks are designed to handle a certain amount of traffic with an acceptable level of network performance. Network performance will deteriorate if... Sample PDF
Traffic Control
Chapter 92
Viet Hung Nguyen, Tülin Atmaca
Today’s telecommunication world is seeing dramatic changes in network infrastructures and services. These changes are mainly driven by the... Sample PDF
Transporting TDM Service on Metropolitan Bus-Based Optical Packet Switching Networks
Chapter 93
Indranil Bose, Fong Man Chun
One of the hottest technologies these days is voice communication over packet-switched data networks. This is known as voice over Internet protocol... Sample PDF
Voice Over Internet Protocol: A New Paradigm in Voice Communication
Chapter 94
Waking Up Sensor Networks  (pages 670-677)
Yew-Fai Wong, Trina Kok, Lek-Heng Ngoh, Wai-Choong Wong, Winston K.G. Seah
Our natural world is an environment that is highly changes may impact lives on a large scale, such as those caused by a Tsunami, global warming, or... Sample PDF
Waking Up Sensor Networks
Chapter 95
Web Accessibility  (pages 678-683)
Gregory R. Gay, Paola Salomoni, Silvia Mirri
Technologies have been developed to make personal computers accessible to people with disabilities, important for promoting inclusion in everyday... Sample PDF
Web Accessibility
Chapter 96
Henrik Hanke, Alf Neumann
The scale and scope of information on the Internet has been extended enormously over the past decade. The growth of more and more intelligent... Sample PDF
Web Mining: A Conceptual Overview on Intelligent Information Retrieval Systems
Chapter 97
Web Services  (pages 690-695)
Kevin Curran, Padraig O’Kane
The term “Web services” was initially employed by Bill Gates, chairman of Microsoft, at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference in Orlando... Sample PDF
Web Services
Chapter 98
Chad Lin, Helen Cripps, Yu-An Huang
The transaction of business via the Web is becoming an imperative for organizations aiming at improving their competitiveness. The Web-based... Sample PDF
Web-Based Commerce Applications: Adoption and Evaluation
Chapter 99
Alaa Abdou, John Lewis, Moh’d A. Radaideh, Sameera Al Zarooni
This paper describes the development and construction of a Web-based system for the appraisal stage of public healthcare construction projects in... Sample PDF
Web-Based Information Systems in Construction Industry: A Case Study for Healthcare Projects
Chapter 100
Wi-Fi Technology  (pages 711-716)
Antonios Alexiou, Dimitrios Antonellis, Christos Bouras
Wi-Fi, short for “wireless fidelity,” is a term for certain types of wireless local area network (WLAN) that use specifications in the 802.11... Sample PDF
Wi-Fi Technology

Reviews and Testimonials

"Both the average Internet consumer and the expert in the field of networking and Internet technologies can use this resource. This reference guide explores Web services, the semantic Web, Web-based electronic activities, and more."

– Computers in Libraries, November/December 2007, Vol. 27 No. 10

Topics Covered

  • Agent-based Web Services
  • Autonomic Networking
  • Context-aware Service Discovery
  • Creative Information Systems
  • Data Caching
  • DNS-based Allocation of Multicast Addresses
  • E-Collaboration
  • E-Learning
  • Efficient and Scalable Client-clustering
  • Graphical Based Design Tools
  • Hackers, Hacking and Eavesdropping
  • Handheld Computing and Palm OS Programming
  • Intellectual Property and the Internet
  • Internet Gambling
  • Internet Measurements
  • Internet Traffic Modeling
  • IP Multicasting
  • IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)
  • Java Web Application Frameworks
  • Malicious Software
  • Multimedia for Mobile Devices
  • Network-based Intrusion Detection
  • Network-layer Mobility Protocols
  • Networked Appliances and Home Networking
  • Optical Network Survivability
  • Positive-feedback Preference Model
  • Privacy in the Digital World
  • Quality of Service
  • Real-time Protocols – RTP/RTCP
  • Scalable Reservation-Based GOS Architecture (SRBQ)
  • Scaling Properties of Network Traffic
  • Security Issues with Wi-Fi Networks
  • Semantic Web services
  • Social and P2P Networks on the Internet
  • Standards in Asynchronous e-Learning Systems
  • Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
  • TCP and TCP-friendly Protocols
  • Voice Over Internet Protocol
  • Web Content Filtering
  • Wi-fi Technology


Before the invention of the World Wide Web, computer communications were mainly associated with the data transmission and reception among computers. The invention of the Web by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, led to a deep change of this paradigm, imposing the share of information over the data transmission. After the invention of the Web, Internet refers to the global information system that is logically linked through a global unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) and is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) architecture and/or other IP-compatible protocols, and provides, uses or makes accessible information and communication services world wide.

The World Wide Web, also known as WWW, Web or W3, represents the greatest networked repository of human knowledge accessible worldwide. The Web contains billions of objects and documents, which may be accessed by hundreds of million of users around the world and it became indispensable for people, institutions or organizations. The search of information in the current Web is based on the use of robust and practical applications known as search engines and directories. However, the fast and unorganized growth of the Web is making difficult to locate, share, access, present or maintain on-line trustful contents for an increasing number of users. Difficulties in the search of web contents are associated to the use of non-structured, sometimes heterogeneous information, and to the ambiguity of Web content. Thus, one of the limitations of the current Web is the lack of structure of its documents and the information contained in them. Besides, information overload and poor aggregation of contents make the current Web inadequate for automatic transfers of information. As a consequence, the current Web may evolve for a new generation Web called Semantic Web, in which data and services are understandable and usable not only by humans but also by computers. Moreover, in the future, the Semantic Web may further evolve to a Sentient Web, which is a further new generation of Web with capabilities for sentience.

If, by one hand, the invention of the Web led to the fact that the TCP/IP architecture, which is the support of Internet, is being used in applications for which it was not designed for, by other hand, a large number of new applications have been developed, which led to the rise of new communication protocols that have been incorporated into the TCP/IP architecture. Besides scientific and technological challenges in the development of Web and its evolution, in the framework of W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), in order to explore all its potential, research and development activities have also been observed towards the development of new multimedia applications over the Internet and towards the ubiquity and autonomic systems. The development of these new applications and systems, by their side, require the research of new protocols and technologies, or the integration of existing technologies used in other fields. A strong research effort is also observed in the transport and network layers in order to cope with mobility, guarantee the quality of service or security and privacy for networked applications, and new forms of group communications in the scenario of the exhaustion of the address space at network layer. Besides, intense research activities also have been observed for the discovery of new solutions that led to an increase of the link bandwidth and the throughput of routers and switches.

The functioning principle of Internet is based on the client-server paradigm, in which the client has an active role and the server has a passive role answering to the queries made by the client. Besides the research activities that are being carried out in each layer of the TCP/IP architecture, it may be also observed intense research activities towards a new kind of networks, called peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The term P2P refers to a class of systems and applications that use distributed resources to execute some function in a decentralized way, in which each machine may act as a client or a server. Although P2P networks present some problems regarding security and legality, they represent the most advanced stage, in terms of scalability and fault tolerance, in the evolution of distribution multimedia services.

The purpose of the Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications is to provide a written compendium for the dissemination of knowledge and to improve our understanding in the area of Internet technologies and applications. The encyclopedia presents carefully selected articles from 232 submission proposals, after a double blind review process. It also provides a compendium of terms, definitions and explanation of concepts, technologies, applications, issues and trends in the area of Internet technologies and applications.

The projected audience is broad, ranging from simple Internet users (Internet consumers), which would like to learn more about Internet, to experts working in the areas of networking and Internet technologies and applications. This encyclopedia will be of particular interest to teachers, researchers, scholars and professionals working in these areas, who may require access to the most current information, about concepts, technologies, applications, issues and trends in these areas. The encyclopedia also serves as a reference for engineers, consultants, IT professionals, managers, and others interested in the latest knowledge on Internet technologies and applications.

Mário Freire and Manuela Pereira


Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Mário M. Freire received the 5-year B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering and the M. Sc. degree in Systems and Automation in 1992 and 1994, respectively, from the University of Coimbra, Portugal. He received the Ph. D. degree in electrical engineering and the aggregated title in computer science in 2000 and 2007, respectively, both from the University of Beira Interior, Portugal. He is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at the University of Beira Interior. Presently, he is head of the Department of Computer Science of University of Beira Interior. He was the co-editor of 3 books in the LNCS book series of Springer, co-editor of 3 proceedings in IEEE Computer Society Press, and has authored or co-authored 4 interatinonal patents and around 100 papers in international refereed journals and conferences. His main research interests include: medical image processing, telemedicine, high-performance networking, network security, and peer-to-peer networks.
Manuela Pereira received the 5-year B.S. degree in Mathetmatics and Computer Science in 1994 and the M. Sc. degree in Computational Mathematics in 1999, both from the University of Minho, Portugal. She received the Ph.D. degree in Signal and Image Processing in 2004 from the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France. She is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Beira Interior, Portugal. Her main research interests include: multiple description coding, joint source/channel coding, image and video coding, wavelet analysis, information theory, image segmentation and real-time video streaming.

Editorial Board

  • Abbas Jamailipour, University of Sydney, Australia
  • Hussein Mouftah, University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Marc Antonini, CNRS, France
  • Michel Diaz, CNRS, France
  • Pascal Lorenz, University of Haute Alsace, France
  • Petre Dini, Cisco Systems, USA
  • Prosper Chemouil, France Telecom, France
  • Wolfgang Gentzsch, MCNC, USA