Handbook of Research on E-Government in Emerging Economies: Adoption, E-Participation, and Legal Frameworks (2 Volumes)

Handbook of Research on E-Government in Emerging Economies: Adoption, E-Participation, and Legal Frameworks (2 Volumes)

Kelvin Joseph Bwalya (University of Botswana, Botswana) and Saul F.C. Zulu (University of Botswana, Botswana)
Release Date: March, 2012|Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 1020
ISBN13: 9781466603240|ISBN10: 1466603240|EISBN13: 9781466603257|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0324-0


E-government applications enable interaction amongst government departments, citizens, and businesses. Benefits of e-government include encouraging social inclusion (citizens are able to participate in various socio-economic activities such as decision-making), e-participation (facilitate e-democracy/e-voting), enacting effectiveness of public service delivery by allowing seamless integration of government departments and so forth. Understanding the context in which e-government applications should be implemented is critical to e-government success.

The Handbook of Research on E-Government in Emerging Economies: Adoption, E -Participation, and Legal Frameworks is a collection of knowledge on contemporary experiences on technological, societal, and legal setups of e-government implementation in emerging economies. The book is composed of professionals and researchers working in the field of e-government and information/knowledge management in various disciplines and establishments.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Broader context of telecom and ICT policy and linkage to e-Government implementation.
  • E-Government adoption metrics
  • E-Participation (e-Democracy/e-Voting) and social inclusion in the context of e-Government
  • Empirical case studies of implementing e-Government initiatives in resource constrained economies
  • Empirical evaluation of e-Government adoption models
  • Establishment of e-Government institutional, legal and regulatory frameworks
  • Laws on access to government information and services with regards to e-Government
  • Marketing the e-Government phenomenon
  • Monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis of e-Government interventions.
  • National e-Government strategy: design and implementation
  • Seamless integration of public services
  • User identity and authentication in the e-Government environment

Reviews and Testimonials

With the aforementioned topics, the editors believe this book addresses a topical subject that should, preferably, reach all corners of the world, with a view of sharing experiences in e-Government implementation and outlining the fundamental factors that affect reliable and sustainable e-Government development in developing countries. They believe the discussions offered in this book will go a long way in informing policy and practice of e-Government development in the context of developing or emerging countries.

– Bwalya and Zulu (Editors)University of Botswana, Botswana

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Kelvin Joseph Bwalya, Saul F.C. Zulu
Kelvin Joseph Bwalya, Saul F.C. Zulu
Chapter 1
Kanishka Karunasena, Hepu Deng, Anuradha Karunasena
This chapter investigates the status of e-Government development, explores the opportunities created for citizens and government, and identifies the... Sample PDF
Developments of e-Government in Sri Lanka: Opportunities and Challenges
Chapter 2
Hisham M. Abdelsalam, Christopher G. Reddick, Hatem A. ElKadi
This chapter examines the development of e-Government in selected Egyptian local governments. A content analysis of 25 local government website... Sample PDF
Egyptian Local Government Website Portals: Examining Maturity Levels and Human Development Indicators
Chapter 3
George S. Oreku, Fredrick Japhet Mtenzi
Over the last few years, Tanzania has witnessed an increased usage and awareness of e-Government services. This is welcome news to all stakeholders... Sample PDF
A Review of e-Government Initiatives in Tanzania: Challenges and Opportunities
Chapter 4
Kelvin Joseph Bwalya, Tanya Du Plessis, Chris Rensleigh
It can arguably be stated that the digital divide, e-Inclusion, and successful e-Government development are inseparable. The concept of e-Inclusion... Sample PDF
A Snapshot Overview of the Digital Divide: e-Inclusion and e-Government in the Zambian Context
Chapter 5
Ubena John
This chapter analyses the use of e-Documents and e-Signatures in Tanzania with a view of establishing their legal status, applicability, and the... Sample PDF
E-Documents and E-Signatures in Tanzania: Their Role, Status, and the Future
Chapter 6
Tella Adeyinka, Gbolahan Olasina
This chapter examines the perception of academics regarding the suitability and adequacy of e-Voting in the Nigeria polity. A qualitative approach... Sample PDF
Voters’ Perception of the Adequacy and Suitability of e-Voting in the Nigeria Polity
Chapter 7
Taruna Ramesur
With the aim of becoming a cyber island and making Information and Communications Technology (ICT) one of the main pillars of the economy, the... Sample PDF
A Critical Assessment of the Evaluation Methods of ICT Investment: The Case of a Small Island Economy with a Large Public Sector
Chapter 8
André Andrade, Luiz Antonio Joia, Daniel Kamlot
This chapter presents an analysis of e-government being enabled by Information Technology (IT) investment in the Brazilian Judiciary System. The... Sample PDF
E-Government in the Judiciary System: Assessing the Correlation between IT Investment and the Efficiency of Courts of Justice in Brazil
Chapter 9
Kamal Atieh, Abd Ulgahfoor Mohammad, Tarek Khalil, Fadi Bagdadlian
The purpose of this chapter is to study the effect of Business Information Technology (BIT) alignment on e-Government success in developing... Sample PDF
Business/IT Alignment Framework within e-Government System Case Study: E-Government in Syria
Chapter 10
St.Wisnu Wijaya, Aris Dwiatmoko, Kridanto Surendro, Husni S Sastramihardja
This chapter presents findings of a study devoted to investigating the factors that influence successful implementation of e-Government at a local... Sample PDF
A Statistical Analysis of Priority Factors for Local e-Government in a Developing Country: Case Study of Yogyakarta Local Government, Indonesia
Chapter 11
Elias Farzali, Ghassan Kanaan, Raed Kareem Kanaan, Kamal Atieh
The information technology revolution has forced many governments to create new mechanisms for delivering services in order to reduce costs... Sample PDF
E-Government in Syria: Obstacles and Interoperability Framework
Chapter 12
Saul F.C. Zulu, Peter M. Sebina, Balulwami Grand, Stephen M. Mutula
The chapter assesses the state of e-Government projects to anchor Botswana’s drive towards attainment of the goals of the World Summit on the... Sample PDF
Benchmarking Botswana’s e-Government Initiatives with WSIS Principles: A Review of Progress and Challenges
Chapter 13
Kyu-Nahm Jun, Christopher Weare
This chapter examines the state of the field of e-Government research to assess strategically how scholars may best target future research... Sample PDF
Bridging From e-Government Practice to e-Government Research: Past Trends and Future Directions
Chapter 14
Erlane K. Ghani, Jamaliah Said, Noraini Mohd Nasir
This chapter examines the development of e-Services among Malaysian local government authorities. Using content analysis on 147 Local Government... Sample PDF
E-Government in Malaysia: A Decade After
Chapter 15
Edgar Napoleon Asiimwe, Grönlund Åke
The rapidly increased use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) has increased demand for electronic equipment such as mobile phones... Sample PDF
E-Waste Management in East African Community
Chapter 16
Ana Corojan, J. Ignacio Criado
This chapter discusses the development of e-Government in Central American countries. The study presents an analysis of the role that e-Government... Sample PDF
E-Government for Transparency, Anti-Corruption, and Accountability: Challenges and Opportunities for Central American Countries
Chapter 17
Ronan de Kervenoael, Ipek Kocoglu
Market orientation strategies are now expected to be integrated and enacted by firms and governments alike. While private services will surely... Sample PDF
E-Government Strategy in Turkey: A Case for m-Government?
Chapter 18
Charles K. Ayo, Ambrose Azeta, Aderonke Oni
In the 21st century, the ability of citizens to participate in online democracy is a key issue for governments in the developing nations because of... Sample PDF
E-Democracy: An Enabler for Improved Participatory Democracy
Chapter 19
Aaron Ciaghi, Adolfo Villafiorita
The presence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is becoming more pronounced in Public Administrations and in the context of legal... Sample PDF
Law Modeling and BPR for Public Administration Improvement
Chapter 20
Aziz Sisman
Since the end of the last century, computers have become a widespread phenomenon in most developed and developing countries. In the last decade, all... Sample PDF
The e-Government Concept and e-Government Applications
Chapter 21
Gohar Feroz Khan, Junghoon Moon
Electronic government, or e-Government, is the practice of providing public services to citizens, businesses, and other government agencies where... Sample PDF
E-Government Issues in Developing Countries: An Analysis from a Digital Divide, E-Skills, and Civil Conflict Theory Approach
Chapter 22
David Wachira
The growth of the information communication technologies (ICTs) has fostered the adoption of e-government across the globe. E-government offers many... Sample PDF
Overlooking Organizational Culture: Problems in Analyzing the Success and Failures of E-government in Developing Countries
Chapter 23
Mauricio Solar, Gonzalo Valdés, Horst von Brand, Sergio Murúa
In this chapter, a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model is proposed to be used by the agencies of the Chilean public sector when evaluating... Sample PDF
A Methodology to Evaluate ICT Platforms in the Implementation of e-Government
Chapter 24
Laban Bagui, Andrew Bytheway
E-Government can be seen as governing through the use of information technology, and a key component of e-Government is e-Participation, the use of... Sample PDF
Listening to the Ground: Key Indicators of e-Participation in Government for Africa
Chapter 25
Suha AlAwadhi, Anne Morris
E-government initiatives are in their infancy in many developing countries. The success of these initiatives is dependent on government support as... Sample PDF
Adoption of E-Government Services in Developing Countries: An Empirical Evaluation
Chapter 26
Chaudhary Imran Sarwar
This chapter focuses on technology-enabled government via robotic government and electronic government (e-Government) and compares this with the... Sample PDF
E-Government, Robotic, and Conventional Government in Developing Countries
Chapter 27
Shauneen Furlong
The purpose of this chapter is to present the e-Government’s problems attributed to project management and to introduce research to determine if... Sample PDF
Project Management: An e-Government Driver?
Chapter 28
Mehdi Sagheb-Tehrani
Some state, national, and local governments around the world have long been playing active roles in the use of Information and Communication... Sample PDF
E-Government: Some Factors for a Conceptual Model
Chapter 29
Hyun Jung Yun, Cynthia Opheim
This study examines the effects of states’ e-government efforts, more specifically the progress of e-service and e-democracy, on citizens’ general... Sample PDF
New Technology Communication in American State Governments: The Impact on Citizen Participation
Chapter 30
Kerstin Grundén
Effective implementation of e-Government demands the likelihood of appropriately incorporating all the multi-dimensional socio-technical factors in... Sample PDF
Competence Development of E-Government: A Study Circle Approach
Chapter 31
Kelvin Joseph Bwalya, Tanya Du Plessis, Chris Rensleigh
In countries where e-Government is being implemented, levels of its development and adoption show pronounced disparities. These disparities could be... Sample PDF
The “Quicksilver Initiatives” as a Framework for e-Government Strategy Design in Developing Economies
Chapter 32
Susana de Juana-Espinosa, Juan José Tarí
The aim of this chapter is to examine the stages of business process re-Engineering (BPR) and the critical success factors needed to successfully... Sample PDF
Benchmarking Local e-Government: Lessons from the Adoption Process in a Tourist Town
Chapter 33
Antonio Manuel López Hernández, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Laura Alcaide Muñoz
The research field of e-Government is a broad one, and diverse methodologies have been used to analyse this subject. However, most such research has... Sample PDF
Analyzing e-Government Research in Emerging Economies: Contextualization and Opportunities
Chapter 34
Mike Just, Karen Renaud
Government engagement of its citizens through digital channels offers the potential for efficiencies and savings, while at the same time allowing... Sample PDF
Trends in Government e-Authentication: Policy and Practice
Chapter 35
Bongani Ngwenya, Sam Lubbe, Rembrandt Klopper
In this research, the premise is that sharing data according to the guidelines for publishing open government data ensures greater transparency... Sample PDF
Institutionalisation, Framing, and Diffusion: The Logic of Openness in eGovernment and Implementation Decisions- A Lesson for Developing Countries
Chapter 36
Carlotta del Sordo, Rebecca Levy Orelli, Emanuele Padovani
To what extent and in which direction does the recent so-called “shift from e-Government to e-Governance systems” take place in European... Sample PDF
E-Government Challenges in European Countries
Chapter 37
Virgil Stoica, Andrei Ilas
In 2009, the Romanian Government engaged itself to the ambitious goal of providing most of the traditional administration services through... Sample PDF
Is Romania Ready for Nation-Wide Public e-Services?: Five Factors to Consider before Adopting an E-Government Public Policy
Chapter 38
Egle Bileviciute, Tatjana Bileviciene
E-governance projects improve the efficiency of administrative systems, lower the number of civil servants, and improve the quality of... Sample PDF
Public E-Service Conditions in Lithuania
About the Contributors


The concept of transformation of public service delivery has culminated into the revitalization of the different approaches employed in public service delivery frameworks. One of the central tenets of this pragmatic and robust government process metamorphosis lies in the efficient and appropriate usage of the different forms of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the realm of e-Government. Although arguably and seemingly not a very mature field, e-Government started way back when the computers were invented. Despite this being the case, it is only now that active research has been devoted into understanding e-Government at an appreciable extent. As the e-Government field is still in its infancy, it is important to share experiences in its design and approaches. This book, therefore, presents conceptual and empirical studies that aim to share the experience of the fundamental concepts of e-Government development in emerging countries. The relevance of the book is placed on its potential usage by both e-Government researchers and practitioners as they design their context-aware and robust e-Government implementation strategies.

The genesis of e-Government was rooted in the motivation to promote citizens’ and businesses’ access to government information through online platforms anytime and anywhere (pervasive/ubiquitous access to information resources). In addition, the idea of e-Government also emanates from the business world where issues on efficiency and effectiveness are their modus operandi. The business world has matured from Fredrick Winslow Taylor’s principles of scientific management to Total Quality Management (TQM) and 6 Sigma, and now the utilization of ICTs in processes such as Business Process Management (BPM), electronic procurement (e-Procurement and tendering processes) and Business Re-engineering (process redesign to maintain relevancy and currency owing to short technology cycles and corresponding processes’ evolution) culminating into operational effectiveness, efficiency, agility and increased productivity. With this in mind, businesses and citizens have indirectly been mounting pressure on governments to also employ ICTs with a view to improving public service delivery, accountability and social inclusiveness. On the part of the developing world, some governments have jumped onto the bandwagon of implementing e-Government projects out of a desire to keep up with the Joneses. This motivation to implement e-Government without a carefully needs analysis and strategy is always problematic and has contributed to most of the e-Government projects to fail.

It cannot be overemphasized that electronic government (e-Government), which is implemented with the goal of transforming public service delivery, has become a buzzword in contemporary public service administration circles. E-Government involves global utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the different hierarchies of the public service delivery frameworks. Effective implementation of e-Government has largely culminated into many tangible benefits such as: removal of the bureaucratic rigidities, proceduralisms and its attendant red tape, inefficiencies and ineffective public service delivery;  facilitation of interactive, horizontal, collaborative and participatory engagement of citizens, businesses and other governments agencies (e-Inclusion) - a departure from the traditional hierarchical and vertical command-and-control type of governance; provision of a framework where governments continuously re-engineer their business processes to retain currency and relevancy to best practices; and its mitigatory effect as an anti-corruption agent in the public sector (For example, the introduction of e-Procurement and e-Tendering can greatly reduce corruption in tendering processes  because these processes become open and transparent). However, e-Government must be adopted with caution as it is not a panacea for all the different problems that public administration faces. Ineffective implementation of e-Government programmes and poor interventions may render all the anticipated benefits of e-Government a mere exercise in rhetoric. 

In other circles, e-Government has ambitiously been referred to as the fons et oligo of contemporary competitive government paradigms. This is where e-Government is seen as a tool for good governance, which is characterized by its promotion of citizen inclusiveness, participation, and social responsiveness in the design and delivery of services. However, some schools of thought have posited that e-Government has the potential to further widen the gulf between government and citizens because of the digital divide that exists in society, where a significant proportion of the population is electronically excluded (e-Exclusion) due to many factors such as their lack of appropriate ICT skills, lack of access to ICTs (including issues of affordability, connectivity, etc.) to enable them to engage in e-Government activities.  Unless issues of e-Inclusion are addressed, e-Government will continue to be the preserve of the chosen few. This scenario is especially true of most developing countries, which lack readily available ICT infrastructures and appropriate and context-aware e-Government applications and solutions. . Other researchers have posited that there are a lot of disparities regarding the success and failure of e-Government when implemented in the developed versus the developing world (north versus south). Given  this scenario, a lot of theoretical models and conceptual frameworks have been proposed with a view to modeling the different factors that affect e-Government implementation in developing versus developed countries. In order to understand the factors affecting appropriate e-Government development, it is important to pay attention to this bipolar debate being advanced by the different authors from different backgrounds owing to the multi-disciplinary nature of e-Government.

Overall, the implementation of e-Government has a noble cause on the collective competitiveness of the public service delivery establishment and may culminate into public service business accountability, effectiveness, efficiency, and intelligence that enables a country to effectively participate in the knowledge economy and other global business value chains. For these benefits to be amassed, it is however, expected that there should be put in place robust design paradigms informed by the local contexts so that citizens may buy-in the e-Government initiatives. This is not to disregard the fact that there are also global characteristics of e-Government, which, fortunately or unfortunately, need to be embedded into any e-Government design paradigm. It is in this regard that this book is cardinal to addressing the knowledge gaps that may exist between the theoretical underpinnings of e-Government and its actual practice. The highlighting of the cases of e-Government implemented in different parts of the word, and their experiences thereof, will have a lasting positive impact on the overall development of the e-Government body of knowledge.

This book contains 38 well-chosen chapters fitting into the main theme of the book and written by renowned and emerging experts in e-Government dispersed all over the world. It contains strategic discussions on the sustenance of e-Government development by presenting cases and studies aimed at highlighting strategies for harnessing the potential of e-Government in developing countries. The first part of the book has two sections: The first part presents cases and surveys for the different possible applications of, and experiences garnered through the implementation of e-Government. The second section presents, mostly, exploratory studies that aim to discuss the future prospects for sustainable e-Government development in developing or emerging countries. These future projections are timely and it is anticipated that they can potentially be utilised as reference points whenever e-Government strategies are being designed in developing countries.

A snapshot of the chapters included in the first section of the book are presented below.  

The first chapter, by Karunasena et al., looks at opportunities and challenges faced by e-Government implementation in Sri Lanka. The chapter explores the opportunities created for the government, businesses and citizens from the implementation of e-Government in Sri Lanka. It is apparent that the continuous development of e-Government in Sri Lanka is troubled by the uneven access of e-Government services by citizens in the rural areas, the low e-readiness of citizens, the delay in implementing major e-Government projects, and the insufficient funding available for successfully implementing all the e-Government initiatives. The chapter posits that interventions taken in the realm of e-Government such as the online dissemination of public information, the provision of call centre services, the establishment of tele-centres in rural areas, the rapid development of the ICT infrastructure and the implementation of several capacity building programs in the public service departments have a positive impact on the growth of e-Government in Sri Lanka.

Chapter 2, by Abdelsalam et al., examines the maturity levels and Human Development Indicators (HDI) indicators of e-Government development in Egypt by analizing 25 government Web portals. The analysis of the Web portals centers on e-Management, e-Services, e-Democracy, and e-Decision making. This study revealed that e-Government maturity in Egypt is still in the information dissemination stage. Out of the 17 variables tested, there were very few human development indicators related to e-Government website maturity. The results of this chapter are significantly showing the maturity of e-Government in local governments in a developing country matched against developed nations. Also, the results showed the limited impact of HDI to predict e-Government website maturity.

Oreku and Mtenzi, in their chapter entitled ”A Review of e-Government Initiatives in Tanzania: Challenges and Opportunities,” aim to explore the experiences of implementing e-Government in Tanzania. The chapter posits that e-Government has mainly been implemented from the technical front end without due consideration to the social or managerial issues that may dictate its successful implementation considering the environmental contexts in which it is implemented. The chapter presents the challenges that e-Government in Tanzainia, and posits that since e-Government is a community project, its design and implementation should take into account the contextual, cultural, and environmental factors.

Chapter 4 presents an overview of the digital divide in the Zambian context.  Bwalya et al. emphasize the impact of e-inclusion on succesful implementation of e-Government and present the concept of e-Inclusion as an a priori phenomenon to understanding the concept of the digital divide. The chapter argues that effective e-Government development should be supported by enhanced access to e-Government applications by the general citizenry and businesses. The chapter opines that e-Government depends on multi-dimensional factors to succeed, and this entails that any robust e-Government strategy should incorporate a multivariate approach in its design.

Ubena discusses the role of a legal framework in the design and implementation of an e-Government project. The chapter particularly focuses on the legal status of e-documents and e-signatures in the development of e-Government in Tanzania. The chapter highlights the absence of the legal framework to recognise e-documents and e-signatures in Tanzania and posits that contemporary e-Government practice in developing countries should consider e-documents/signatures for effective development and engendering trust in e-Government transactions.

Chapter 6, by Adeyika and Gbola, assesses the voters’ perception of the potential e-voting in Nigeria. IT also reviews the current situation, its adequacy, and its suitability for adopting of e-voting in Nigeria as a strategy for dealing with issues of electoral malpractices. The chapter highlights the different challenges experienced by the general citizenry in their pursuit to utilize e-voting platforms and presents the recommendations thereof. Issues such as the low levels of ICT literacy amongst the citizens, poor ICT infrastructure, and the higher likelihood of systems breakdown (reliability) should be addressed before any e-voting programs are rolled out. The recommendations emanating from this chapter present lessons for other developing countries desiring to adopt and implement e-voting systems.

Ramesur, in his chapter entitled ”A Critical Assessment of the Evaluation Methods of ICT Investment: The Case of a Small Island Economy with a large Public Sector,” discusses the different approaches utilized in the evaluation of ICT investments in Mauritius. The chapter presents results from 22 ministries after analyzing the Payback Period (PB) and Accounting Rate of Return (ARR) of ICT investments in Mauritius. The chapter further proposes a framework for evaluating ICT investments in ICT projects in the public sector.

Chapter 8 by Andrade et al. assesses the correlation between Information Technology (IT) investments and the efficiency of the courts of justice in Brazil owing to their utilisation of ICTs. This exploratory chapter analyses the latest data on e-Government in Brazil, and the organizational structure and IT development of the Brazilian Judiciary System. It also assesses the legal framework for electronic lawsuits to understand the contextual ICT setting in Brazil. The study posits that although a lot has been achieved in e-Government implementation in Brazil, a lot more still needs to be put in place to counteract the inherent challenges at the organizational and individual levels.

 Atieh et al. propose the business/IT (BIT) alignment framework in the design of e-Government strategies considering the case of Syria. The chapter highlights the fact that there are generally gaps in the approaches utilized for aligning business and IT in the realm of e-Government design frameworks. In fact, most of the e-Government strategies in the developing world follow a technology-centric approach. This study contains analysis of related documents and involves 20 semi-structured interviews with senior managers, e-Government project team members, and independent experts from academia.  The chapter posits that BIT alignment is cardinal for appropriate and sustainable e-Government development.

St. Wijaya et al.’s chapter aims to present the priority factors for local e-Government development in the developing world by considering a case study of Yogyakarta Local Government in Indonesia. The chapter proposes a conceptual model for effective e-Government implementation in a developing world context. A ranking of the different factors that impact on e-Government implementation is presented, viz corporate culture and e-Governance competence, users’ willingness and competency in using ICTs, information quality and human resource competency, and system quality. These are assumed to be the core factors that have a direct impact on e-Government development.

The eleventh chapter, by Farzali et al., discusses the interoperability framework utilised in the e-Government implementation in Syria. The study analysizes how the different barriers to e-Government implementation can be synergized with the avialable e-Government development platforms. The study posits that e-Governments relies on a number of factors; these include, but are not limited to: gathering information, requirement analysis, and software designing. The e-Government framework is a list of steps and necessary works in some issues (policy, economy, society, legislation, technology, and administrative procedures), which are working together to provide e-Services to citizens using interoperability to develop interconnected relationship between organizations. The study considers enterprise integration as one of the core pillars for e-Government implementation in any environment. 

Chapter 12 by Zulu et al., assess the state of e-Government projects in Botswana benchmarked against the goals of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The methodology used in this research is essentially the survey approach coupled with desk research and interviews with cardinal stakeholders in the ICT sector in Botswana. The study opines that although a lot has been achieved towards attaining the goals of the WSIS, a lot more remains to be done to enable global adoption of ICTs and the proliferation of e-Government. The study proposes that a number of factors need to be addressed if the goals of the WSIS were to be firmly achieved. These include addressing the inadequate infrastructure; low citizen capacity in terms of skills, accessibility, and affordability of ICT systems; and absence of an enabling e-legislative and policy framework.

Chapter 13 discusses the past and future trends of bridging e-Government research and practice in developing regions of the world. This chapter examines the state of the field of e-Government research to assess strategically how scholars may best target future research initiatives. Jun and Weare, in this chapter posits that while e-Government research is characterized by a great deal of interaction between practitioners and academic researchers, most research continues to either lack sufficient rigor to produce generalizable results or in search of rigor becomes too abstract to be directly useful to guide practice. Thus, despite the explosive growth in the field (pertaining to the number of researchers actively involved in e-Government research), there remain numerous opportunities to develop research projects that can both interest and aid practitioners and generate new theoretical and empirical knowledge.

Chapter 14, by Ghani et al., discusses the development of e-Government in Malaysia after 10 years of its implementation, particularly paying attention to the e-Services delivered among the 147 local government authorities. The study concludes that effective implementation of e-Government in Malaysia has culminated into contributing to the country’s vision of attaining the developed world status by 2020. Despite this being the case, some challenges have been highlighted which need to be addressed if e-Government were to effectively contribute to this vision. These challenges may be similar to other developing world countries aiming to implement e-Government in their public service delivery frameworks.

Chapter 15 discusses the e-Waste management concept as applied to selected countries in East Africa. The concept of e-Waste includes the chemical substances that may come from ICTs and may have adverse effects on both the environment and human beings. As African countries continue embracing e-Government in their public administration domains, ICTs (in most of the cases, secondhand ICTs principally from emerging economies such as China, Taiwan and Singapore) have reached many individuals and businesses. Such ICTs have a limited lifespan and end up being disposed. The choice of the method of disposition of these ICTs may have enduring effects on the environment and human health. With this background, the chapter by Asiimwe and Grönlund discusses several ways African countries may avoid this problem in future.

Corojan and Criado, in their chapter entitled ”E-Government for Transparency, Anti-Corruption, and Accountability: Challenges and Opportunities for Central American Countries,” discuss the impact of e-Government in Central American countries during the period 2000 – 2010. With a careful look at the experiences of e-Government implementation in these countries, this exploratory chapter provides directions in both future evidence-based policy and implementation of e-Government in South America.

Chapter 17, by Keevenoael and Kocoglu, discusses the possibility of e-Government maturation in Turkey into mobile government (m-Government). It reviews the integration of e-Government into both the private and public institutions. The chapter brings out the discrepancies between policy and the actual ICTs development cycles and practices that may drive the e-Government agenda in Turkey. The chapter posits that with the introduction of interactive applications and fully transactional services via 3G smart phones, the currently untapped segment of the population (without access to computers) have the potential to gain access to government services at a lower cost. For this to be implemented, it is recommended that more research is needed regarding location-aware technologies that will unlock the intention to use m-Government services and the overall success rate for large government ICT projects.

Chapter 18, by Ayo et al., discusses e-Democracy as applied in the context of improving participatory democracy in Nigeria. Technical specifications of prototype e-Democracy applications are herewith proposed. The chapter assesses the possibility of vibrant e-Democracy platforms (accessible by both the able-bodied and the visually impaired individuals) informed by the local context in Nigeria.

The first part concludes with a chapter by Ciaghi and Villafiorita, which presents the synthesis of law modeling and Business Process Re-eingineering (BPR) for the purposes of improving public administration. The chapter considers the requirements to design a framework for BPR for public administrations by analyzing the existing systems for legal knowledge representation and interchange and the current technologies to assist modeling and change management of business processes. The ultimate goal is that of supporting the law-making process, facilitating the participation of people without a jurisprudence background to the editing of regulations, by providing effective means to comprehend the law, make changes to the law and keep track of the dependencies between the text and the models. The framework presented in this chapter integrates several different and rather mature technologies developed in Europe and in Africa, providing a set of tools applicable to virtually any legal system.

The second section of the book aims to highlight the status, issues, and challenges affecting e-Government implementation in the developing and emerging countries. The second section has two parts: The first presents the fundamental principles of e-Government and aims to draw a thin line between theory and practical aspects of e-Government implementation. The second outlines the Key Success Factors (KSFs) that are cardinal to effective e-Government strategy design. This section generally posits that appropriately designed e-Government solutions should put the local context characteristics at its core. This book, by outlining the fundamental principles of e-Government, presents a signpost to what e-Government is and acts as a battery for young researchers or practitioners who might not be cognizant of the e-Government phenomenon to engage in e-Government research. The seccond section of the book posits that e-Government is a multi-dimensional entity and therefore its effective implementation and development largely depends on the degree to which multiple approaches have been utilized in its implementation endeavors to infuse the divergent factors on which it is anchored.  The comprehensive snapshot of the second part of the book is presented below. The point to note in almost all the chapters included in this part of the book is that e-Government is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, which requires multi-dimensional approaches for it to succeed.

The twentieth (20th) chapter, by Sisman, aims to outline the fundamental concepts of e-Government and presents the motivation behind e-Government implementation by both public and private entities.  The chapter emphasizes that the concept of e-Government keeps evolving as new technologies emerge on the ICT market. With this in mind, Sisman posits that it is vitally important to frequently review the understanding of what e-Government entails. With e-Government incorporating a myriad of factors, it is important to consider both the technical and social perspectives when designing e-Government strategies and interventions.

Chapter 21, by Khan and Moon, analyses the concept of e-Government from the perspective of the digital divide, e-skills, and the conflict theory. The chapter emphasises that e-Government failures in developing countries are mainly due to the social, economical, technological, and environmental challenges. The chapter highlights the different challenges that are faced when implementing e-Government in a developing world context. 

Wachira, in his chapter entitled “Overlooking Organizational Culture: Problems in Analyzing the Success and Failures of e-Government in Developing Countries,” looks at the inherent challenges that may be met when assessing e-Government development in developing countries. The chapter posits that any e-Government assessments in developing countries should not overlook the consideration of the internal complexities, which may be unique when developing countries are compaired with their counterparts, the developed world. The study has also highlighted the need to carefully consider organizational culture before any efforts in e-Government development are considered.

Chapter 23, by Solar et al., proposes a methodology for the evaluation of ICT platforms in the implementation of e-Government by proposing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model, which has been positioned for possible adoption by the Chilean e-Government authority. The model basically compares the pros and cons of solutions that require high levels of investments and start-up and long-term operations expenditures against solutions that require lower start up investments and higher operational costs. The chapter posits that potential e-Government projects need to be evaluated on case-by-case basis taking into account the quality of the resulting service to citizens and businesses before deciding whether they are viable or not.

Chapter 24, by Bagui and Bytheway, proposes a model to encourage e-participation of the general citizenry by reviewing the public perceptions of government services in South Africa. This exploratory study highlights issues that may negatively impact on e-Government maturity in a developing world context and should therefore be addressed when designing e-Government strategies.

AlAwadhi and Morris present an empirical evaluation of e-Government adoption using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) in chapter 6. The chapter presents the results of a study that aimed to understand the attitudes and perceptions of citizens in Kuwait. Some conclusions have been drawn on what directions e-Government implementation should take, especially in the context of developing countries.

Chapter 26, by Chaudhary Imran Sarwar, discusses the role of the virtual government (e-Government) in transforming conventional and robotic government in developing countries. The chapter posits that robotic applications are finding increased usage in many different government and business processes. Using a survey approach, the chapter analyses emerging issues for e-Government development especially in a developing world context. These issues may be similar in most of the developing countries. 

Chapter 27, by Shauneen Furlong, brings out the need for understanding that e-Government research should not only be technology-centric but also inculcate in its design the social and managerial aspects of technology diffusion. Having garnered experience in Canada’s e-Government team in the Treasury Board Secretariat that initiated the Government On-Line initiative across the federal government of Canada, Shauneen (who is also an IBM doctoral fellow) delves to highlight the importance of project management as a central tenet of e-Government implementation regardless of location. The chapter presents a discussion as to why transformational e-Government has not progressed to the level anticipated and presents a leeway on how contemporary project management practices can be embedded into the design of e-Government. Specifically, the chapter brings out flaws in the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) and presents ways of how this can be applied in the design of a real e-Government strategic framework.

The twenty-eighth chapter, by Prof. Sagheb-Tehrani, aims to present the different pertinent factors that should be incorporated into the design of any e-Government conceptual model. This is done by first analyzing several e-Government websites to determine the key success factors of e-Government implementation. The chapter opines that any conceptual model for e-Government should succinctly consider the factors in the local context (analyze characteristics of the potential e-Government consumers – both citizens and businesses, and the level of development of the institutional and ICT infrastructure readiness) and determine how these can further impact e-Government implementation. This chapter is cardinal to the understanding of e-Government development because it outlines the different grassroots factors that should be considered before the actual design of any e-Government interventions.

In chapter 29, Hyung and Opheim investigate the impact of contemporary technology communications models’ on overall citizen participation in the American state government’s e-Government programs, applications, and initiatives. This chapter is important to the current discussion, because it pushes forward the agenda of the North-South bipolar debate on the levels of e-Government development. It is opined that researchers in the developing and emerging world need to reference (and not copy-and-paste) the experiences of e-Government implementation in the first world. The chapter’s focus is mainly on understanding the level of e-Services and e-Democracy in the American polity and investigates how this impacts on the e-Government agenda. The results of this robust study show that state-sponsored digital services and outreach programmes increase general political participation and have a greater effect on citizen mobilization. The chapter further opines that e-Government has the potential to ameliorate political exclusion by allowing the politically disadvantaged equal access to quality information through state governments’ electronic systems.

The thirtieth chapter, by Prof. Grundén, presents the study circle approach and investigates how this can be used for effective designs of e-Government strategies. The chapter emphasises the need to address all the different multi-dimensional socio-technical factors that may impact on e-Government uptake. The study argues that uptake of e-Government should essentially begin from the government officers before strategies for encouraging global adoptions by the general citizenry. This chapter strategically investigates the approaches used in Sweden in designing e-Government awareness campaigns and training modules amongst the government employees. Although the environmental setting may be different with most of the developing world countries, this study may be used as a reference point on what approach to take when designing e-Government awareness programs in the developing world.

The thirty-first chapter, by Bwalya et al., advances the bipolar debate on the factors affecting e-Government in a developed versus a developing world context and emphasizes how the different strategic designs and programmes employed in these contexts culminate into disparities in levels of e-Government penetration. The chapter provides guidelines on how the Quicksilver Initiatives approach used in the USA can be adapted and utilised in a developing world context to facilitate e-Government proliferation.

Chapter 32, by De Juana-Espinosa and Tarí, presents the lessons learnt from implementing e-Government in a tourist town of Spain. The chapter specifically analyzes how Business Process Modeling (BPR) can be used in the design of e-Government strategies. The study provides lessons for policy makers and other stakeholders, including project managers and implementers to increase the efficiency and efficacy of their e-Government adoption processes, especially if their economy is tourism-centered. Accordingly, the local government in many tourism-oriented emerging economies may benefit from this experience, since it will allow them to identify the relevant success factors and overcome possible barriers. This will culminate into increased efficiency of their e-Government development plans.

Chapter 33, by Hernández et al., analyzes the development of e-Government in Spain and outlines the major opportunities that can be harnessed by its effective implementation. The chapter presents a framework to help public administrators and researchers evaluate the field of e-Government research in emerging economies.

Chapter 34, by Just and Renaud, analyzes the trends in government e-Authentication by analysing the policy and practical connotations. Their study identifies proper authentication and management of identity as key factors to establishing robust security and privacy in personalized e-Government services. The chapter presents guidelines on how e-Authentication can be appropriately implemented in an emerging world context.

Chapter 35, entitled “Institutionalization, Framing, and Diffusion: The Logic of Openness in e-Government and Implementation Decisions: a lesson for developing countries,” by Bongani, Lubbe, and Klopper, highlights the importance of openness in e-Government service delivery. Using the interpretivist approach, this chapter opines that the social, political and economic context of developing countries may not readily accommodate current models of openness in e-Government. As a contribution to the body of knowledge of e-Government, these findings prompt rethinking of the classic institutional framing and diffusion model to suggest openness in an e-Government model that developing countries could adapt to suit their social and economic context.

The thirty-sixth chapter, by Del Sordo et al., outlines the different challenges that are faced in e-Government implementation in Europe. The chapter investigates how closely and critically intertwined e-Government and e-Governance are in European countries, with particular reference to the emerging ones. The chapter brings out valuable lessons that developing countries can draw on in their pursuit towards the implementation of e-Government.

Chapter 37, by Stoica and Ilas, outlines the five major factors that should be considered when drawing policies for e-Government implementation in Romania. The results of this chapter stress that the importance of considering the European Union membership and the disequilibrium between the level of Romanians e-Knowledge and that of governmental e-Services. The chapter concludes that in the case of Romania, a successful e-government policy should primarily target raising citizens’ Internet and computer-related skills.

Chapter 38, by Prof. Bileviciene and Egle Bileviciute, aims to highlight the prevailing public e-Service conditions in the case of Lithuania. The chapter discusses the established legal system of e-Services in Lithunia benchmarked against the requirements for the common European e-Services enforcement framework. 

With the aforementioned topics, the editors believe this book addresses a topical subject that should, preferably, reach all corners of the world, with a view of sharing experiences in e-Government implementation and outlining the fundamental factors that affect reliable and sustainable e-Government development in developing countries. They believe the discussions offered in this book will go a long way in informing policy and practice of e-Government development in the context of developing or emerging countries.

Bwalya and Zulu (Editors)
University of Botswana, Botswana

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Kelvin Joseph Bwalya is a final year PhD candidate at the Department of Information and Knowledge Management (University of Johannesburg). He has a Master’s in Electrical and Computer Science from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, and Bachelors Degree in Electrical Engineering from Moscow. Kelvin has over 30 peer reviewed publications and has presented at over 20 conferences worldwide. His research interests lie in information systems (e-Government, databases, business process modeling, semantic information retrieval and analysis, etc.).
Saul F.C Zulu is a Lecturer in the Department of Library and Information Studies, at the University of Botswana. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Library Studies with Sociology and Political Science from the University of Zambia, Master’s degree in Librarianship (IT Applications) obtained from the University of Wales at Aberystwyth, a Master’s degree in Archives and Records Management from the University of Denver, Colorado, U.S.A and Master’s degree in Librarianship and Information Management from the University of Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. Mr. Zulu has previously worked at the University of Zambia, where he served in various capacities, including as Head of Department of Library and Information Studies at the University of Zambia. His main research interests are in indigenous knowledge systems, legal issues of information, and emerging technologies.


Editorial Board

  • Aziz SISMAN, Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey
  • Gohar Feroz Khan, YeungNam University, Republic of Korea 
  • Moon, Junghoon, Seoul national university, Republic of Korea
  • David W. Wachira, University of North Texas, USA
  • Mauricio Solar, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Chile
  • Gonzalo Valdés, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Chile
  • Horst von Brand, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Chile
  • Sergio Murúa, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Chile
  • Laban Bagui, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
  • Andrew Bytheway, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa
  • Suha AlAwadhi, Kuwait University, Kuwait
  • Anne Morris, Loughborough University, United Kingdom
  • Chaudhary Imran Sarwar, University of the Punjab, Pakistan 
  • Shauneen Furlong, John Moores Liverpool University, United Kingdom
  • Mehdi Sagheb-Tehrani, Bemidji State University, USA
  • Hyun Jung Yun, Texas State University, USA
  • Cynthia Opheim, Texas State University, USA
  • Kerstin Grundén, University West, Sweden
  • Kelvin Joseph Bwalya, University of Botswana, Botswana
  • De Juana-Espinosa, Susana, Universidad de Alicante, Spain
  • Tarí, Juan José, Universidad de Alicante, Spain
  • Antonio Manuel López Hernández, University of Granada, Spain
  • Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, University of Granada, Spain
  • Laura Alcaide Muñoz, University of Granada, Spain
  • Mike Just, Glasgow Caledonian University, United Kingdom
  • Karen Renaud, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Bongani Ngwenya, Solusi University, Zimbabwe
  • Sam Lubbe, North-West University-Mafeking, South Africa
  • Rembrandt Klopper, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
  • Carlotta del Sordo, University of Bologna, Italy 
  • Rebecca Levy Orelli, University of Bologna, Italy
  • Emanuele Padovani, University of Bologna, Italy
  • Virgil Stoica, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania 
  • Andrei Ilas, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi , Romania 
  • Tatjana Bileviciene, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
  • Egle Bileviciute, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
  • Kanishka Karunasena, RMIT University, Australia
  • Hepu Deng, RMIT University, Australia
  • Anuradha Karunasena, RMIT University, Australia
  • Hisham Abdelsalam,  Cairo University, Egypt.
  • Christopher G. Reddick, University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
  • Hatem ElKadi, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • George S. Oreku, Tanzania Industrial Research Developments Organization, Tanzania
  • Fredrick Japhet Mtenzi, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland
  • Chris Rensleigh, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
  • Ubena John, Stockholm University, Sweden
  • Tella, Adeyinka, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Olasina, Gbola, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Taruna Ramesur, University of Mauritius, Mauritius
  • André Andrade, School of Public and Business Administration of Getulio Vargas  
  • Luiz Antonio Joia, Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration of Getulio 
  • Daniel Kamlot, Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration of Getulio 
  • Kamal Atieh, Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria 
  • Abd Ulgahfoor Mohammad, Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria
  • Tarek Khalil, Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria
  • Fadi Bagdadlian, Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria
  • St. Wisnu Wijaya, Sanata Dharma University, Indonesia
  • Aris Dwiatmoko, Sanata Dharma University, Indonesia
  • Kridanto Surendro, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia 
  • Husni S Sastramihardja, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia
  • Elias Farzali, Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria
  • Ghassan Kanaan, Petra University, Amman, Jordan
  • Raed Kareem Kanaan, Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria
  • Kamal Atieh,  Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences, Syria
  • Zulu Saul F.C, University of Botswana, Botswana
  • Sebina Peter.M., University of Botswana, Botswana
  • Kyu-Nahm Jun, Wayne State University, USA
  • Christopher Weare, University of Southern California, USA
  • Erlane K Ghani, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Jamaliah Said, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Noraini Mohd Nasir, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Edgar Napoleon Asiimwe, Örebro University, Sweden
  • Grönlund Åke, Örebro University, Sweden
  • Ana Corojan, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
  •  Ignacio Criado, J.,  Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
  • Ronan de Kervenoael, Sabanci University, Turkey
  • Ipek Kocoglu, Sa Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey
  • Charles Ayo, Covenant University, Nigeria
  • Ambrose Azeta,   Covenant University, Nigeria
  • Aderonke Oni, Covenant University, Nigeria
  • Aaron Ciaghi, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy
  • Adolfo Villafiorita, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Italy