Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric

Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric

Guangjie Liu (Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China), Shiguo Lian (France Telecom R&D (Orange Labs) Beijing, China), Yuewei Dai (Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China) and Zhiquan Wang (Nanjing University of Science and Technology,)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch024
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Abstract

Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion imperceptible. How to balance the trade-off between the capacity and imperceptibility has become a very important issue in the researches of steganography. In this chapter, we discuss one kind of the solution for disposing the trade-off, named adaptive image steganography. After a brief review, we present two methods based on structural similarity metric. The first one is based on the generalized LSB, in which the substitution depth vector is obtained via the dynamic programming under the constraint of an allowable distortion. The second method is proposed to use adaptive quantization-embedder to carry message bits. Different from the first method, the distortion index is constructed by contrast-correlation distortion. The other difference is that the parameters of the adaptive quantization embedder are embedded into the image containing message bits by the reversible da a hiding method. Beside that, we also bring forward some attractive directions worthy of being studied in the future. Furthermore, we find that the existing methods do not have a good way to control the amount of information and the distortion as an extract manner, and most schemes are designed just according to the experiences and experiments.
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Introduction

Steganography is the art of covered or hidden writing. The practice of steganography has quite a history. The earliest example can be dated to the Greek historian Herodotus, who describes how one of his cunning countrymen sent a secret message warning of an invasion by scrawling it on the wood underneath a wax table. To casual observers, the tablet appeared blank. Roman empires would hide secret message in ordinary message that only a certain formula when applied could reveal the real message. This was of course to prevent the real message from falling into the wrong hands. Both Axis and Allied spies during World War II used such measure as invisible inks as tiny punctures above key characters in a document that form a message when combined or ‘invisible inks ’ that could only be read when heat was applied.

The earliest study concerning modern steganography was present by G. J. Simmons (Simmons, 1983). In (Simmons, 1983), the famous story of Prisoners’ problem explains what capabilities and merits steganography has to offer when public communication channel is insecure. The story is about two prisoners Alice and Bob who are put to different cells in a jail and what to plan to escape form the prison together as Figure 1 illustrates. However, any communications between them have to pass though the warden Eve, so only plaintext (i.e. content that have clear meanings) can be handed on by Eve, while anything in the form of ciphertext(i.e. contents that seems meaningless) will not be allowed. Bob and Alice want to conspire to escape, but they can not send a clear message to each other showing the intention of escaping, and neither can they encrypt the secret message about their plan of escape into a cipher text in an attempt to hide their intention before the message comes to Eve. To solve this problem, Alice can use a picture (like illustrated in Figure 1) as the cover to conceal the very existence of the secret message from Eve.

Figure 1.

Prisoners’ problem

It is worthy to be noticed that often dictionaries have defined steganography the same as cryptography, however there is a clear difference between the two. The purpose of steganography is covert communication to hide the existence of a message from a third party, which differs from cryptography, the art of secret writing, which is intended to make a message unreadable by a third party but does not hide the existence of the secret communication. The steganographic process generally involves placing a hidden message in some transport medium, called the carrier or the cover medium. The secret message is embedded in the cover medium to form the stego medium. The use of a stego key may be employed for encryption of the hidden message or for randomization of the embedding locations in the steganographic scheme. The whole process to embedding message bits into images can be depicted by Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Steganographic process

Nowadays, digital steganography has been a specialized field to research the art and science of how to conceal a secret message in various kinds of media, such as image, audio, video and so on. Steganography essentially is a multidisciplinary field combining use of image and signal processing techniques with cryptography, communication theory, coding theory, signal compression theory of visual perception, etc(Fridrich, 1999).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Adaptive Steganography: In the chapter, the adaptive steganography is defined as the mechanism to choose the amount of the bits for hiding according to the HVS characteristics of the target pixel of a group of pixels.

Structural Similarity Metric: The structural similarity metric is the image quality index proposed by Wang and Bovik at about 2000, which models any distortion as a combination of the loss of correlation, mean distortion and variance distortion. The Q index and SSIM are two realization of the structural similarity metric.

Steganography: The technique to hide the secret message into the cover object to realized the covert communication without being found by the third part, which can conceal the existence of the communication itself.

SDV (Substitution Depth Vector): The SDV is defined in the part of generalized-LSB-based adaptive steganography in the chapter, which denotes the substitution depths assigned for all image blocks. Under the given allowance distortion, SDV can be calculated according to the proposed algorithm in the chapter.

AQE (Adaptive Quantization Embedder): The AQE is the embedding function that can be used to make adaptive steganography. With the changes of the sizes of the quantizers of AQE, the amount of message bits that can be embedded changes.

Contrast-Correlation Distortion: The constrast-correlation distortion is defined as the combination of the constrast distortion and correlation distortion, which are both borrowed from the structural similarity metrics.

Imperceptibility: The imperceptibility is defined as the perceptual quality distortion between the cover media and the stego one. For image, the PSNR, wPSNR, Waston Metric and SSIM are usually used to depict the distortion cause by the steganography.

Capactity: The capacity denotes the amount of the message bits that can be embedded into the cover object under the given constraints such as imperceptibility, security and robustness etc.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Borko Furht
Preface
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Acknowledgment
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
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Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
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Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
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Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
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Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
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Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
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Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
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Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
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Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
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Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
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Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
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Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
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Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
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Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
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Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
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Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
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Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
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Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
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Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
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Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
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Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
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Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
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Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
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Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
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Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
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Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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