Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures

Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures

Félix Francisco Ramos Corchado (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Guadalajara, Mexico), Héctor Rafael Orozco Aguirre (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Guadalajara, Mexico) and Luis Alfonso Razo Ruvalcaba (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Guadalajara, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-354-8.ch018
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Abstract

Emotions play an essential role in the cognitive processes of an avatar and are a crucial element for modeling its perception, learning, decision process, behavior and other cognitive functions. Intense emotions can affect significantly the behavior of an avatar in a virtual environment, for instance, driving its behavior unstable as the consequence of deep emotional influence. The response of an avatar to such influence is the development of the capacity to recognize and manage emotions. In this work we describe a new faculty called Artificial Emotional Intelligence (AEI), and we propose a model based on Emotional Intelligence (EI) to develop a new approach to the problem of mood and emotion control. This approach applies the concept of EI and provides the needed tools to make avatars have AEI. In addition, we use the Emotional Competence Framework (ECF) to define and apply the personal and social competencies of an avatar.
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Introduction

Nowadays the connection between a Human being and computer based systems is growing stronger. Many innovations appear, for instance, robot toys like Pleo, Robosapiens or Honda Robot, and even conventional computers with the ability to control complex systems, such as virtual reality worlds. This phenomenon shows that human-computer interaction (HCI) is deeper than just the delegation of work to the machine. This remark makes evident two fields of research. The first one is the physiological field, and the second one is the psychological field that proposes models that represent emotions in computer based systems. In this work we deal with the second field of research.

Today a large number of studies about emotions exist and there are several models of emotion proposed in the literature, unfortunately we cannot know for sure which models are correct. In this chapter we deal with the problem of expressing corporal emotions. The main issue is that expressing emotions is completely subjective for everyone. This fact makes very difficult the establishment of general models for emotions. An alternate approach explored in this chapter consists in designing a model based on some observations on the behavior of Human being. Psychologists traditionally single out three types of human intelligence: Abstract Intelligence that denotes the ability of Human being to understand and manipulate verbal and mathematical symbols, Concrete Intelligence which indicates the capacity of Human being to understand and manipulate objects, and Social Intelligence that allows the Human being to understand other individuals and to interact with them. The EI of Human being has its roots in the Social Intelligence (SI), which is divided in two categories: Interpersonal Intelligence as ability to understand other people and Intrapersonal Intelligence as self-consciousness.

Emotions are an important aspect in the functioning of the human mind. Nevertheless, the role that emotions play in our actions, behavior and thinking has been misapprehended and misinterpreted. The old philosophers did not consider the emotions as an important aspect of human intelligence, by the contrary they perceived the emotions as an impediment that blocks and prevents the human reasoning and thought. In the Plato’s Phaedo dialogue, Plato explained that fears, passions and desires make thinking and reasoning impossible. Later, Descartes based on the same idea his defining of emotions as passions or needs that the body imposes on the mind.

Recently, several psychologists have begun the exploration and study of emotions to explain better their functioning, which is an important component of the human intelligence and cognition. The obtained results give evidence that emotions have an important impact on thinking, judgment, reasoning, memory and decision making of Human being. Gardner (1983) introduced the term of Multiple Intelligences for describing the personal intelligence as a type of human intelligence that includes social interactions and emotions. Damasio (1994; 1995) demonstrated in neurological studies that people who lack the capacity of emotional response can take incorrect decisions and execute mistaken actions that can limit their performance in society. Basing on the fact that emotions are an important part of human intelligence, Goleman (1995) coined the concept of EI.

Many psychological models have been proposed to describe the emotional functioning of the human brain and the mental processes. Several models are centered on the effect of motivational states or on the processes by which the events trigger certain emotions. Such models are called event appraisal models. Other models examine the influence of expectations on emotions. But none of these models presents complete abstraction and shows general idea. In these models the emotions are considered to be mental states generated with the use of mapping that includes great variety of considerations, such as expectations, motivational states, events, and environmental conditions.

Inspired by the psychological models of emotion, many researchers have recognized in Artificial Intelligence (AI) the importance and utility for improving complex, dynamic and interactive virtual environments with the help of the computational models of emotions. Designed models of emotions can represent a better understanding of moods and emotions and can thus adapt to needs of program or application. However, most of designed computational models of emotion only represent specific situations and respond in predetermined way to them.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Intelligence: The global capacity of a virtual entity (avatar) to profit from experience, act and think rationally and abstractly and adapt to changes in the environment.

Conscience: The conscience in general is defined as the knowledge that the Human being has of itself and of its environment. The conscience of avatar is the notion that it has of the sensations, thoughts and feelings that are experienced in a given moment in its environment. Thus, it is the understanding of its environment and its self-knowledge. It means that the conscience of avatar is the notion that it has of the sensations, thoughts and feelings in its environment.

Mood: It is a quasi-permanent value that actives a quasi-permanent feeling in the virtual entity, affecting its behavior. Moods are less intense that emotions and are diffuse and unfocused.

Personality Trait.: A trait is an individual characteristic of avatar that describes a habitual behavior. Therefore, a personality trait is a relatively consistent characteristic of a virtual creature exhibited in various situations.

Ontology: It is a formal specification of a conceptualization; it defines a common vocabulary to share information in a domain.

Artifical Intelligence: Represents the ability of a virtual character or avatar to perceive and express emotions, assimilate emotion-related feelings, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotions in itself and other virtual entities. That is to say, it refers to the ability to recognize the meanings of emotions and their relationships.

Emotion: It is a volatile feeling that affects the behavior of an avatar. Emotions are the response to a particular stimulus perceived by the avatar. They are more specific and intense than moods, and are reactions more immediate and spontaneous than moods.

Artificial Emotional Intelligence: It implies the ability of avatar (virtual entity) to understand, distinguish and manage its emotions and those of other avatars (virtual entities). This ability includes: self-consciousness, goal understanding, intentions, reactions and behaviors, also consciousness of other avatars and their feelings.

Skill: It represents any learned capacity that allows the avatar (virtual creature) to carry out tasks or activities in its environment.

Personality: It is a set of personal characteristics that influence the cognition, motivation and behavior of avatar in different situations. Thus, it is a value set that indicates the way of a virtual entity to react according to the situation.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Craig DeLancey
Preface
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
Chapter 1
Oscar Deniz, Javier Lorenzo, Mario Hernández, Modesto Castrillón
Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions. People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of... Sample PDF
Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head
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Chapter 2
Cyril Laurier, Perfecto Herrera
Creating emotionally sensitive machines will significantly enhance the interaction between humans and machines. In this chapter we focus on enabling... Sample PDF
Automatic Detection of Emotion in Music: Interaction with Emotionally Sensitive Machines
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Chapter 3
Christoph Bartneck, Michael J. Lyons
The human face plays a central role in most forms of natural human interaction so we may expect that computational methods for analysis of facial... Sample PDF
Facial Expression Analysis, Modeling and Synthesis: Overcoming the Limitations of Artificial Intelligence with the Art of the Soluble
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Chapter 4
Sajal Chandra Banik, Keigo Watanabe, Maki K. Habib, Kiyotaka Izumi
Multi-robot team work is necessary for complex tasks which cannot be performed by a single robot. To get the required performance and reliability... Sample PDF
Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions
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Chapter 5
Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn
Effective decision-making under real-world conditions can be very difficult as purely rational methods of decision-making are often not feasible or... Sample PDF
Affective Goal and Task Selection for Social Robots
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Chapter 6
Christopher P. Lee-Johnson, Dale A. Carnegie
The hypothesis that artificial emotion-like mechanisms can improve the adaptive performance of robots and intelligent systems has gained... Sample PDF
Robotic Emotions: Navigation with Feeling
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Chapter 7
C. Gros
All self-active living beings need to solve the motivational problem—the question of what to do at any moment of their life. For humans and... Sample PDF
Emotions, Diffusive Emotional Control and the Motivational Problem for Autonomous Cognitive Systems
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Chapter 8
Bruce J. MacLennan
This chapter addresses the “Hard Problem” of consciousness in the context of robot emotions. The Hard Problem, as defined by Chalmers, refers to the... Sample PDF
Robots React, but Can They Feel?
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Chapter 9
Mercedes García-Ordaz, Rocío Carrasco-Carrasco, Francisco José Martínez-López
It is contended here that the emotional elements and features of human reasoning should be taken into account when designing the personality of... Sample PDF
Personality and Emotions in Robotics from the Gender Perspective
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Chapter 10
Antoni Gomila, Alberto Amengual
In this chapter we raise some of the moral issues involved in the current development of robotic autonomous agents. Starting from the connection... Sample PDF
Moral Emotions for Autonomous Agents
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Chapter 11
Pietro Cipresso, Jean-Marie Dembele, Marco Villamira
In this work, we present an analytical model of hyper-inflated economies and develop a computational model that permits us to consider expectations... Sample PDF
An Emotional Perspective for Agent-Based Computational Economics
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Chapter 12
Michel Aubé
The Commitment Theory of Emotions is issued from a careful scrutiny of emotional behavior in humans and animals, as reported in the literature on... Sample PDF
Unfolding Commitments Management: A Systemic View of Emotions
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Chapter 13
Sigerist J. Rodríguez, Pilar Herrero, Olinto J. Rodríguez
Today, realism and coherence are highly searched qualities in agent’s behavior; but these qualities cannot be achieved completely without... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Appraisal Based Approach for Emotional Representation
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Chapter 14
Clément Raïevsky, François Michaud
Emotion plays several important roles in the cognition of human beings and other life forms, and is therefore a legitimate inspiration for providing... Sample PDF
Emotion Generation Based on a Mismatch Theory of Emotions for Situated Agents
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Chapter 15
Artificial Surprise  (pages 267-291)
Luis Macedo, Amilcar Cardoso, Rainer Reisenzein, Emiliano Lorini
This chapter reviews research on computational models of surprise. Part 1 begins with a description of the phenomenon of surprise in humans, reviews... Sample PDF
Artificial Surprise
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Chapter 16
Tom Adi
A new theory of emotions is derived from the semantics of the language of emotions. The sound structures of 36 Old Arabic word roots that express... Sample PDF
A Theory of Emotions Based on Natural Language Semantics
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Chapter 17
Huma Shah, Kevin Warwick
The Turing Test, originally configured as a game for a human to distinguish between an unseen and unheard man and woman, through a text-based... Sample PDF
Emotion in the Turing Test: A Downward Trend for Machines in Recent Loebner Prizes
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Chapter 18
Félix Francisco Ramos Corchado, Héctor Rafael Orozco Aguirre, Luis Alfonso Razo Ruvalcaba
Emotions play an essential role in the cognitive processes of an avatar and are a crucial element for modeling its perception, learning, decision... Sample PDF
Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures
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Chapter 19
Sarantos I. Psycharis
In our study we collected data with respect to cognitive variables (learning outcome), metacognitive indicators (knowledge about cognition and... Sample PDF
Physics and Cognitive-Emotional-Metacognitive Variables: Learning Performance in the Environment of CTAT
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Chapter 20
Anthony G. Francis Jr., Manish Mehta, Ashwin Ram
Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while... Sample PDF
Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities
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Chapter 21
Dorel Gorga, Daniel K. Schneider
The purpose of this contribution is to discuss conceptual issues and challenges related to the integration of emotional agents in the design of... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Learning Environments with Emotional Agents
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Chapter 22
Emotional Ambient Media  (pages 443-459)
Artur Lugmayr, Tillmann Dorsch, Pabo Roman Humanes
The “medium is the message”: nowadays the medium as such is non-distinguishable from its presentation environment. However, what is the medium in an... Sample PDF
Emotional Ambient Media
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Chapter 23
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
During the previous stage of our research we developed a computer simulation (called ‘The Panic Room’ or, more simply, ‘TPR’) dealing with synthetic... Sample PDF
Modelling Hardwired Synthetic Emotions: TPR 2.0
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Chapter 24
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Hans-Werner Hein
A vision of future daily life is explored in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It follows the assumption that information technology should disappear into... Sample PDF
Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence
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About the Contributors