Surprising to many is the knowledge that audience response systems have been in use since the 1960s. Reviewing the history of their use from the early hardwired systems to today’s computer-integrated systems provides the necessary scope to reflect on how they can best be used. Research shows that the systems have had consistent effects on motivation, and varying effects on student achievement over the years. The intent of this chapter is to consider lessons learned, consider the relation of technology and pedagogy, and to highlight elements of effective use. This chapter emphasizes the crucial role of pedagogy in determining whether audience response systems can lead to greater student achievement.