Buffer Control Techniques for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Networks

Buffer Control Techniques for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Networks

Michael M. Markou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus) and Christos G. Panayiotou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-820-8.ch006
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Abstract

This chapter introduces the network buffer control techniques as a mean to provide QoS. This problem has been extensively studied in the context of wirelined networks; however, the proliferation of wireless networks and the introduction of multimedia applications has significantly changed the characteristics of the traffic mix that flows on the network. The objective of this chapter is to create a new methodology for automatically adapting the various buffer thresholds such that the network exhibits optimal or near optimal performance even as network conditions change. The behavior of the network (generally a discrete event system—DES) is approximated by that of a stochastic fluid model (SFM); then using infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) we obtain sensitivity estimators of the performance measure(s) of interest with respect to the control parameter. These estimators are easy to compute using data observed from the DES’s sample path. Finally, the computed estimators are used in stochastic approximation algorithms to adjust the thresholds.
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Introduction

The emergence of advanced multimedia and other real-time applications has increased the demand for better than best effort services thus increasing the pressure on network providers to provide quality of service (QoS) guarantees. As a result, providers need to find ways to configure the parameters of their networks such that the application requirements are met. Over the past few years, QoS provisioning has been an active area of research resulting in the standardization of several architectures and protocols. Most of the past research assumed wirelined networks and that the dominant network traffic is based on the TCP (transport control protocol). However, the situation with current networks is changing. Wireless networks are becoming more popular and there is an increase of the UDP (user datagram protocol) based traffic (e.g., real-time protocol (RTP) for voice over IP). Thus, there is a need for new protocols and architectures that adopt the characteristics of the wireless channels and of the new traffic mix to provide the required QoS guarantees.

Management of different types of services such as video, voice, file transfer and email while provisioning at the same time the QoS level that each service demands is a challenging task; the analysis of large scale networks is excessively difficult and queuing theory is largely based in the Poisson assumption that does not capture the bursty nature of the realistic traffic. Furthermore, any proposed solution has to be scalable and easy to implement, adding the least possible overhead to the system’s operation.

Integrated services (IntServ) is a proposed architecture for delivering QoS guarantees. In IntServ every application that requires some level of QoS guarantees has to make a resource reservation at each intermediate node along the path of the flow. The underlying protocol used for signaling to dynamically allocate resources in IntServ is the resource reservation protocol (RSVP), described by Braden et al. (1997). In this architecture, communication between a sender and a receiver is established only when every node (router) in the intermediate path between them has the necessary resources to support the QoS requirements of the new flow without affecting the QoS delivered to existing flows. A major drawback of this approach is that each router that supports a flow has to maintain information about it, making it difficult to keep track of all flows when the network scales up. Furthermore, the overhead caused due to RSVP signaling reduces the utilization efficiency.

Differentiated services architecture (DiffServ) solves the problem by providing a framework for classification of the traffic and differentiation between the levels of service that each class will receive. In DiffServ each data packet is classified as belonging to one of a finite number of traffic classes (Blake et al., 1998). Routers in the network treat each incoming packet according to its class, enabling the protection of higher priority traffic against the lower priority, providing a more efficient and scalable traffic management mechanism. The treatment of each packet is achieved by mapping its traffic class to a per-hop behavior (PHB), which defines how a packet will be forwarded. The four available standard PHBs are: default, class-selector (Nichols et al., 1998), assured forwarding (Heinanen, Baker et al. 1999), and expedited forwarding (Jacobson et al., 1999). However, DiffServ architecture has also some disadvantages. DiffServ mechanism cannot provide individual connection QoS guarantees. Moreover, there are no clear incentives for applications to voluntarily mark their packets with a priority other than the highest. Policing mechanisms that downgrade an application’s packets if it exceeds its allocated bandwidth exist however, for example, see (Heinanen & Guérin 1999; Heinanen & Guérin 1999).

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Abbas Jamalipour
Preface
Nicola Cranley , Liam Murphy
Chapter 1
Ronan Skehill, William Kent, Dorel Picovici, Michael Barry, Sean McGrath
This chapter introduces quality of service in multi-access wireless networks. Specifically it demonstrates how QoS is implemented in IEEE 802.11 and... Sample PDF
Evaluating QoS in a Multi-Access Wireless Network
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Chapter 2
Dirk Staehle, Andreas Mäder
This chapter gives an overview of the background and functionality of the high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA), and provides insights into the... Sample PDF
Radio Resource Management Strategies for HSDPA-Enhanced UMTS Networks
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Chapter 3
Nidal Nasser, Tarek Bejaoui
Major research challenges in the next generation of wireless networks include the provisioning of worldwide seamless mobility across heterogeneous... Sample PDF
Handoff Management in Next Generation Wireless Networks
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Chapter 4
Ming Li, Roberto Riggio, Francesco De Pellegrini, Imrich Chlamtac
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the architectures, algorithms, and protocols in the topic of resource management in IEEE... Sample PDF
Resource Management in IEEE 802.11 Based Wireless Networks
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Chapter 5
Anna Sfairopoulou, Carlos Macián, Boris Bellalta
Network Technologies and Strategies (NeTS) Research Group, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, SpainThis chapter introduces the problems caused to voice over... Sample PDF
Adaptive Codec Selection for VoIP in Multi-Rate WLANs
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Chapter 6
Michael M. Markou, Christos G. Panayiotou
This chapter introduces the network buffer control techniques as a mean to provide QoS. This problem has been extensively studied in the context of... Sample PDF
Buffer Control Techniques for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Networks
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Chapter 7
Gabriel-Miro Muntean, Janet Adams
Wireless networks are becoming a part of everyday life for many people. When a mobile device has wireless LAN capability, multimedia content can be... Sample PDF
Power Saving in Wireless Multimedia Streaming to Mobile Devices
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Chapter 8
Jose Luis Jodra, Fidel Liberal, Begoña Blanco Jauregi
This chapter introduces the principal characteristics of MANETs and shows how these particularities may affect both QoS conditions and QoS... Sample PDF
Multimedia Services Provision in MANETs
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Chapter 9
Andrej Kos, Mojca Volk, Janez Bester
Commonly understood as the next generation networks (NGN), a composite environment of proven telecommunications and Internet-oriented mechanisms has... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance in the IMS-Based NGN Environment
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Chapter 10
Marcio Nieblas Zapater, Graça Bressan
This chapter discusses the quality assurance of multimedia services over IP networks from the end user standpoint and introduces the concept of... Sample PDF
Quality of Experience for Video Services
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Chapter 11
Dorel Picovici, John Nelson
Perceptual voice quality measurement can be defined as an objective quantification of an overall impression of the perceived stimulus. An... Sample PDF
Perceptual Voice Quality Measurements for Wireless Networks
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Chapter 12
Tacha Serif, Gheorghita Ghinea
This chapter describes an investigation exploring user experiences of accessing streamed multimedia content, when that content is tailored according... Sample PDF
Enhancing the Multimedia Tour Guide Experience: Transmission Tailoring Based on Content, Location, and Device Type
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Chapter 13
Harilaos Koumaras, Fidel Liberal, Lingfen Sun
The concept of PQoS, although in general it deals with the user satisfaction with a specific delivered/ requested service, is in practice... Sample PDF
PQoS Assessment Methods for Multimedia Services
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Chapter 14
Peifang Zhang, Scott Jordan
Emerging wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) data services will likely require resource allocation to ensure that throughput targets are... Sample PDF
Scheduling and Access Control for Wireless Connections with Throughput Guarantees
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Chapter 15
Paolo Chini, Giovanni Giambene, Snezana Hadzic
Nowadays there is an increasing need of broadband communication anytime, anywhere for users that expect to receive multimedia services with support... Sample PDF
Broadband Satellite Multimedia Networks
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Chapter 16
Panagiotis Papadimitriou, Vassilis Tsaoussidis
An increasing demand for multimedia data delivery coupled with reliance in best-effort networks, such as the Internet, has spurred interest on... Sample PDF
End-to-End Support for Multimedia QoS in the Internet
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Chapter 17
Tarek Bejaoui, Nidal Nasser
This chapter introduces the cross layer design for resource allocation over multimedia wireless networks. Conventional layered packet scheduling and... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Radio Resource Management Protocols for QoS Provisioning in Multimedia Wireless Networks
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Chapter 18
Gürkan Gür, Suzan Bayhan, Fatih Alagöz
This chapter introduces the QoS issues and support in transport protocols for wireless multimedia transmission. After an overview of the transport... Sample PDF
Transport Protocols and QoS for Wireless Multimedia
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