Context Modelling Approaches for Mobile Systems

Context Modelling Approaches for Mobile Systems

Danilo Avola (Istituto di Ricerca sulla Popolazione e le Politiche Sociali, Italy)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-046-2.ch026
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

The actual mobile technology and the increasing need to obtain rich multimedia content about each and every aspect of the human life are changing the approach of the users to the World Wide Web. Indeed, the pervasive use of mobile devices and the heterogeneity of the provided services and information make the accessibility and usability of the Web resources a hard assignment. In particular two main tasks have been identified as focal issues, the first one regards the choose of a suitable model to express the complex activities of the Web (context modeling approaches), and the second one regards the translation of the different schemas, representing these Web activities, in a more suitable, manageable and standardizing schema. In this chapter we will present the problems related to the modeling of context data, and we will describe the actual and future approaches of Context Modeling according to the mobile devices world.
Chapter Preview
Top

Context Modeling Motivations

The increasing spread of mobile devices (such as PDAs, smart phones, etc.) is inspiring new kinds of applications that are more and more dynamics, distributed and highly customizable. These applications represents an interesting challenge to the developer, because they must be independent from the context’s features such as location, time, user’s preferences or used device.

In Web adaptive systems, for example, the management of context information represents an important requirement to analyze the available resources of a mobile devices, to select relevant data for the users, to improve interoperability with other systems and, in general, to make the interaction with the system more simple and natural. This scenario changes the role of context information especially if compared with traditional information systems (Kaschek, Schewe, Thalheim & Zhang, 2003; Motschnig-Pitrik, 1995). Another key element of these applications is the interoperability, in which metadata play a fundamental role.

The reliance on the context is one of the most important results in the area of ubiquitous computing systems (UCS) that represent a specialization of mobile and distributed systems as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Systems evolution chain

Top

Context Modeling Approaches: Classification And Evaluation

In the field of context representation there are different modeling approaches, most of them present only simple changes from the others. In this section we present a classification of these approaches and then we discuss and compare them. In particular we distinguish: (i) Graphical Models; (ii) Key-Value Models; (iii) Markup Schema Models; (iv) Object-Oriented Models; (v) Ontology Based Models; (vi) Logic Based Models.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Context-Awareness: This term refers to the idea that computers can both sense, and react based on their environment. Devices may have information about the circumstances under which they are able to operate and based on rules, or an intelligent stimulus, react accordingly. One goal of context-aware computing is to acquire and utilize information about the context of a device to provide services that are appropriate to the particular people, place, time, events, and so forth. Context-awareness is fine in theory. The research issue is figuring out how to get it to work in practice. The problems for human-computer interaction, in particular, are significant ones. Context-aware computing completely redefines the basic notions of interface and interaction. Actually, context-awareness is used to design innovative user interfaces, and is often used as a part of ubiquitous and wearable computing. It is also beginning to be felt in the internet with the advent of hybrid search engines

Unified Modeling Language: UML is a standardized specification language for object modeling. UML is a general-purpose modeling language that includes a graphical notation used to create an abstract model of a system, referred to as a UML model. UML is officially defined at the Object Management Group (OMG) by the UML metamodel, a Meta-Object Facility metamodel (MOF). Like other MOF-based specifications, the UML metamodel and UML models may be serialized in XML Metadata Interchange (XMI). UML was designed to specify, visualize, construct, and document software-intensive systems

Object-Role Modeling: ORM simplifies the design process by using natural language, as well as intuitive diagrams which can be populated with examples, and by examining the information in terms of simple or elementary facts. By expressing the model in terms of natural concepts, like objects and roles, it provides a conceptual approach to modeling. Its attribute-free approach promotes semantic stability. ORM’s rich graphic notation is capable of capturing many business rules that are typically unsupported as graphic primitives in other popular data modeling notations

Context: Context is a powerful, and longstanding, concept in human-computer interaction. Interaction with computation is by explicit acts of communication (e.g., pointing to a menu item), and the context is implicit (e.g., default settings). Context can be used to interpret explicit acts, making communication much more efficient. Thus, by carefully embedding computing into the context of our lived activities, it can serve us with minimal effort on our part. Context refers to the physical and social situation in which computational devices are embedded

Ubiquitous Computing Systems: UCS represents new paradigms with a goal to provide computing and communication services all the time and everywhere. Automatic service composition in ubiquitous and pervasive environments requires dealing with several research issues such as service matching and selection, coordination and management, scalability, fault tolerance, and adaptiveness to users’ contexts and network conditions

Ontology: An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. The term is borrowed from philosophy, where ontology is a systematic account of Existence. For knowledge-based systems, what “exists” is exactly that which can be represented. When the knowledge of a domain is represented in a declarative formalism, the set of objects that can be represented is called the universe of discourse. This set of objects, and the describable relationships among them, are reflected in the representational vocabulary with which a knowledge-based program represents knowledge. Thus, we can describe the ontology of a program by defining a set of representational terms. In such an ontology, definitions associate the names of entities in the universe of discourse (e.g., classes, relations, functions, or other objects) with human-readable text describing what the names are meant to denote, and formal axioms that constrain the interpretation and well-formed use of these terms

Ubiquitous Computing: UC is a model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. As opposed to the desktop paradigm, in which a single user consciously engages a single device for a specialized purpose, someone “using” ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, in the course of ordinary activities, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so. Ubiquitous computing encompasses a wide range of research topics, including distributed computing, mobile computing, sensor networks, human-computer interaction, and artificial intelligence

Mobile Computing: The term is evolved in modern usage such that it requires that the mobile computing activity be connected wirelessly to and through the internet or to and through a private network. This connection ties the mobile device to centrally located information and/or application software through the use of battery powered, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices. This includes devices like smart mobile phones, wearable computers, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), and so forth

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Gabriele Kotsis
Acknowledgment
Ismail Khalil
Chapter 1
Elhadi Shakshuki, Xinyu Xing, Haroon Malik
Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) are a new and emerging type of sensor networks that contain sensor nodes equipped with cameras... Sample PDF
An Introduction to Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
$37.50
Chapter 2
Jing Wang
Wireless sensor networks have seen a wealth of research efforts and practical implementations in recent years. With the advance of CMOS cameras and... Sample PDF
Enabling Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
$37.50
Chapter 3
Julio Aráuz
On the stage of today’s communications world, broadband mobile technologies are a continuously flourishing trend. In this context, WiMAX, a... Sample PDF
Research Challenges in Multimedia WiMAX
$37.50
Chapter 4
Reinhard Kronsteiner
This chapter is about mobile multimedia and its usage in group decisions. With respect to the complexity of mobile decision scenarios, this paper... Sample PDF
Engineering Mobile Group Decision Support
$37.50
Chapter 5
The Ubiquitous Grid  (pages 66-75)
Patricia Sedlar
The strength of grid computing, namely being able to aggregate distributed computing and data storage capacities for solving larger, more complex... Sample PDF
The Ubiquitous Grid
$37.50
Chapter 6
Paul Fergus
The number of consumer devices that are being equipped with networking capabilities is increasing rapidly. This is seen as a fundamental strategy... Sample PDF
Next Generation Mobile Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 7
Reinhard Kronsteiner, Bettina Thurnher
This chapter considers the mobility of persons while they are changing between different working environments and the influence of increasing... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Risks for Mobile Decision Support
$37.50
Chapter 8
Volker Derballa
Mobile technology enables enterprises to invent new business models by applying new forms of organization or offering new products and services. In... Sample PDF
Business Model Typology for Mobile Commerce
$37.50
Chapter 9
Edgar R. Weippl
While security in general is increasingly well addressed, both mobile security and multimedia security are still areas of research undergoing major... Sample PDF
Security, Trust, and Privacy on Mobile Devices and Multimedia Applications
$37.50
Chapter 10
Goran Gvozden, Mislav Grgic, Sonja Grgic, Miran Gosta
This chapter gives description and comparison of video coding standards currently used in bandwidth limited mobile communications emphasizing at the... Sample PDF
Comparison of Video Coding Standards Used in Mobile Applications
$37.50
Chapter 11
Saad Harous
In this chapter, we will introduce mobile ad hoc networks and issues related to routing data in such networks. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are... Sample PDF
Routing Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
$37.50
Chapter 12
Mamun I. Abu-Tair
Recently there have been considerable interests focusing on the performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11e Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, which... Sample PDF
Performance Analysis and Evaluation of IEEE 802.11E MAC in WLANs with Hidden Stations and Multimedia Applications
$37.50
Chapter 13
High Speed Packet Access  (pages 175-190)
Mario Cvitkovic
Data services and multimedia are expected to have significant growth over the next few years and will likely become the dominant source of 3G... Sample PDF
High Speed Packet Access
$37.50
Chapter 14
Sami Habib
The evolutionary search approach has demonstrated its effectiveness in many real world applications, such as the coverage problem in wireless sensor... Sample PDF
Exploring Coverage within Wireless Sensor Networks through Evolutionary Computations
$37.50
Chapter 15
René Rosenbaum
Imagery must be adequately processed and adapted to be used in mobile environments. This contribution shows that this can be reached by a rigorous... Sample PDF
Mobile Image Communication: New Concepts Using JPEG2000
$37.50
Chapter 16
Ulf Wehling
In this chapter we propose a platform-independent concept for the transparent replication of digital assets in hybrid wireless networks. The concept... Sample PDF
Topic-Based Transparent Replication of Digital Assets
$37.50
Chapter 17
Abdulhussain E. Mahdi
Speech quality is the most visible and important aspect of quality of service (QoS) for telecommunication networks. Hence, the ability to monitor... Sample PDF
Perception-Based Speech Quality Measurement in Modern Telecommunications
$37.50
Chapter 18
Árpád Huszák
In this chapter we present a novel selective retransmission scheme, based on congestion control algorithm. Our method is efficient in narrowband... Sample PDF
Adaptive Retransmission Scheme for Video Streaming Applications
$37.50
Chapter 19
Gregor Rozinaj
In this chapter we describe a proposal of a metropolitan information system (MIS) for providing various information for inhabitants of the city, as... Sample PDF
Terminals for the Smart Information Retrieval
$37.50
Chapter 20
Oredope Adetola
The concept of multimedia streaming gives the end-users the ability to playback various multimedia contents while they are still being downloaded... Sample PDF
Streaming Multimedia via Peer-to-Peer Systems
$37.50
Chapter 21
Hamidah Ibrahim
An important problem for a database system is to guarantee database consistency. Difficulty arises in devising an efficient algorithm for checking... Sample PDF
Event-Condition-Action (ECA) Rules for Maintaining the Integrity Constraints of Mobile Databases
$37.50
Chapter 22
Janne Lahti
Video management research has been neglecting the increased attractiveness of using camera-equipped mobile phones for the production of short... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Capture and Sharing of Mobile Videos
$37.50
Chapter 23
Panayotis Fouliras
Data dissemination has already been identified as one of the most important aspects for mobile environments and particularly so for large volumes of... Sample PDF
Video and Data Dissemination in Mobile Broadcasting Environments
$37.50
Chapter 24
Wanji Mai, Chris Tweed, Peter Hung, Seán McLoone, Ronan Farrell
In this chapter, the idea of identification of outdoor buildings using mobile devices is presented. The prototype system involves integration of... Sample PDF
A Practical Perspective on Building Identification from Low-Resolution Mobile Images
$37.50
Chapter 25
Chris Stary
Although mobile interactivity is becoming quite common, for content-rich applications, such as educational hypermedia systems, user-centered design... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Access to Adaptive Hypermedia
$37.50
Chapter 26
Danilo Avola
The actual mobile technology and the increasing need to obtain rich multimedia content about each and every aspect of the human life are changing... Sample PDF
Context Modelling Approaches for Mobile Systems
$37.50
Chapter 27
Eduardo Antonio Viruete Navarro
In the last years, much work has been done to create a complete solution in m-Health environments. The problem can be summarized as follows: any... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in 4G Heterogeneous Networks for Interoperable M-Health Devices
$37.50
Chapter 28
László Bokor
The support of broadcasting and multicasting as an efficient L3-based service poses rigorous requirements to the next generation mobile... Sample PDF
Novel Results on MBMS Service Provisioning in UMTS/WLAN Heterogeneous Architectures
$37.50
Chapter 29
Paolo Barsocchi, Alan A. Bertossi, M. Cristina Pinotti, Francesco Potortì
Broadcasting is an efficient and scalable way of transmitting data over wireless channels to an unlimited number of clients. In this chapter the... Sample PDF
Quality of Service of Data Broadcasting Algorithms on Erroneous Wireless Channels
$37.50
Chapter 30
Shiguo Lian
Digital fingerprinting is reported and used in copy tracing. It embeds different information, for example, Customer ID, into multimedia content... Sample PDF
Traitor Tracing in Mobile Multimedia Communication
$37.50
Chapter 31
Do van Thanh, Ivar Jørstad
Although promised for some time now, advanced multimedia services for mobile devices were not yet a reality. With IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), the... Sample PDF
Advanced Mobile Multimedia Services with IMS
$37.50
Chapter 32
Tania Das
Movement prediction oriented adaptive location management provides a major role in personal communication service (PCS) system. Generally the GSM... Sample PDF
Movement Prediction Oriented Adaptive Location Management
$37.50
Chapter 33
Yoshio Nakajima, Alireza Goudarzi Nemati, Tomoya Enokido, Makoto Takizawa
In a peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network, a peer process (peer) communicates with other peers and manipulates objects like databases in the peers.... Sample PDF
Subjective and Objective Trustworthiness of Acquaintance Peers
$37.50
Chapter 34
Hui Zhu
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a newly appeared technique for evolutionary computation. It was originated as a simulation for a simplified... Sample PDF
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization for Indoor Positioning
$37.50
Chapter 35
Ben Abdallah Abderazek, Arquimedes Canedo, Kenichi Kuroda
Mobile processors are used in numerous embedded systems, including laptops, personal digital organizers, wearable computers, cellular phones, mobile... Sample PDF
Processor for Mobile Applications
$37.50
Chapter 36
Kashinath Basu
A significant proportion of the traffic on the 4th generation of mobile networks (4G) will be interactive multimedia traffic. This chapter presents... Sample PDF
A Model for Providing Mobile Multimedia Services Over 4G Networks
$37.50
Chapter 37
Wieland Schwinger, Christoph Grün, Birgit Pröll, Werner Retschitzegger
Today’s tourists expect to get personalized access to tourism information at anytime, from anywhere with any media. Mobile tourist guides provide... Sample PDF
Context-Awareness in Mobile Tourist Guides
$37.50
Chapter 38
Daniel C. Doolan, Sabin Tabirca, Laurence T. Yang
Today in the beginning of the 21st century, mobile devices are now ubiquitous. No matter where we go or what we do, we are touched by this new... Sample PDF
Unlocking the Hidden Power of the Mobile
$37.50
Chapter 39
Daniel C. Doolan, Sabin Tabirca, Laurence T. Yang
The Message Passing Interface (MPI) was published as a standard in 1992. Since then, many implementations have been developed. The MPICH library is... Sample PDF
Parallel Computing on a Mobile Device
$37.50
Chapter 40
Daniel C. Doolan, Kevin Duggan, Sabin Tabirca, Laurence T. Yang
The growth of mobile phone sales is phenomenal, with estimated sales for 2007/2008 expected to be approximately $1 billion. The majority of these... Sample PDF
From Single to Multiplayer Mobile Bluetooth Gaming
$37.50
Chapter 41
Christos K. Georgiadis
Discovering and redirecting multimedia services in a personalized manner is achieving increasing importance for mobile users. It is a powerful... Sample PDF
Mobile Agents and Personalized Multimedia Services
$37.50
Chapter 42
Hongbo Ni, Xingshe Zhou, Zhiwen Yu, Daqing Zhang
The vision of pervasive computing is floating into the domain of the household and aims to assist inhabitants (users) to live more conveniently and... Sample PDF
Enhancing User Experience with Context-Dependent Tasks in Smart Home
$37.50
Chapter 43
Pavol Podhradský, Eugen Mikóczy, Matejka Juraj, Ondrej Lábaj, Róbert Tomek
This chapter presents results of practical experience with NGN and mainly its application layer. The presented university laboratory based mainly on... Sample PDF
Practical Experience with New Services and Applications Supported by NGN
$37.50
Chapter 44
Jong-Woon Yoo
This chapter presents an intelligent interface system, including a new gesture-based wearable input device called iThrow as a main user interface... Sample PDF
A Gesture-Based Intuitive Interaction System and its Target Selection Algorithm
$37.50
Chapter 45
Diego Liberati
This chapter is about the effects on perception of joint sensory stimulation. It shows that by combining various simultaneous stimuli, it is... Sample PDF
Attention Facilitation via Multimedia Stimulation
$37.50
Chapter 46
Mercedes Paulini
Mobile computing provides a new dimension in communication and access to data resources that is transforming the way people use information and... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Urban Exploration: A Paradigm for Non-Directed Exploration in Mobile Computing
$37.50
Chapter 47
Robert Schmohl, Uwe Baumgarten, Lars Köthner
Recent advances in mobile computing have spawned a very heterogeneous environment of mobile devices, which is reflected by the presence of the... Sample PDF
Content Adaptation for Heterogeneous Mobile Devices
$37.50
Chapter 48
Roman Y. Shtykh, Qun Jin, Shunichi Nakadate, Norihiro Kandou, Takeshi Hayata, Jianhua Ma
Mobile social networking services (MoSNS) are a yet unexplored environment for human networked socialization. By introducing the concept of... Sample PDF
Mobile SNS from the Perspective of Human Self-Extension
$37.50
Chapter 49
Stephan Reiff-Marganiec, Yi Hong, Hong Qing Yu, Schahram Dustdar, Christoph Dorn, Daniel Schall
Collaborative Work Environments are software systems that allow teams, which are nowadays often distributed in location and organization to which... Sample PDF
Context Aware Collaborative Working Environments
$37.50
Chapter 50
Baud Haryo Prananto
Lifelog media system stores and manages users’ everyday experiences in the form of multimedia data. To build such a system, we require an integrated... Sample PDF
Design and Implementation of a Mobile and Portable Lifelog Media System
$37.50
Chapter 51
Diego Moreira Alves
The main objective of this chapter is to present a solution to the development of speech synthesis and speech recognition systems through mobile... Sample PDF
Speech Synthesis and Recognition Based on Mobile Computing Application
$37.50
Chapter 52
Dietmar G. Wiedemann
This chapter introduces the concept of mobile viral marketing as an innovative marketing tool. The outcome of the chapter is a description model... Sample PDF
Creating Successful Mobile Viral Marketing Strategies
$37.50
Chapter 53
Henrik Stormer
In the last years, mobile devices have become more and more popular. To further enhance the success of mobile devices, companies in the mobile... Sample PDF
Customizable Viewlets: A Generic Approach for the Mobile Web
$37.50
Chapter 54
Mahieddine Djoudi, Saad Harous
Support for the Semitic language on mobile devices, while not yet universal, is becoming more ubiquitous. Many items and data contents written in... Sample PDF
Text Entry System for Semitic Languages on Mobile Devices
$37.50
Chapter 55
Patrícia Dockhorn Costa, Luís Ferreira Pires, Marten van Sinderen
Context-awareness has been investigated for almost a decade and is considered as a convenient and desirable feature in distributed mobile systems... Sample PDF
Concepts and Architectures for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
$37.50
Chapter 56
Frédéric Lassabe, Philippe Canalda, Damien Charlet, Pascal Chatonnay, François Spies
Advances in technology have enabled a proliferation of mobile devices and a broad spectrum of novel and outbreaking solutions for new applications... Sample PDF
Mobility within Rich Multimedia Services
$37.50
Chapter 57
Anastasis A. Sofokleous, Marios C. Angelides, Christos N. Schizas
Mobile communications and computing has changed forever the way people communicate and interact and it has made “any information, any device, any... Sample PDF
Mobile Computing: Technology Challenges, Constraints, and Standards
$37.50
Chapter 58
Say Ying Lim
In this chapter, we present an extensive study of database operations on mobile devices which provides an understanding and direction for processing... Sample PDF
A Taxonomy of Database Operations on Mobile Devices
$37.50
Chapter 59
Spatial Data on the Move  (pages 850-864)
Wee Hyong Tok, Stéphane Bressan, Panagiotis Kalnis, Baihua Zheng
The pervasiveness of mobile computing devices and wide-availability of wireless networking infrastructure have empowered users with applications... Sample PDF
Spatial Data on the Move
$37.50
Chapter 60
Ioannis Priggouris, Evangelos Zervas, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades
The vision that wireless technology in the near future will provide mobile users with at least similar multimedia services as those available to the... Sample PDF
Location-Based Network Resource Management
$37.50
Chapter 61
Ghita Kouadri Mostéfaoui
The abstract should be changed to this new abstract: Research on mobile multimedia mainly focuses on improving wireless protocols in order to... Sample PDF
Software Engineering for Mobile Multimedia: A Roadmap
$37.50
Chapter 62
Yuping Yang
One current vision of future communication systems lies in a universal system that can deliver information and communications at any time and place... Sample PDF
Personalized Redirection of Communication and Data
$37.50
Chapter 63
Florian Ledermann
In this chapter, a domain independent taxonomy of sign functions rooted in an analysis of physical signs found in public space is presented. This... Sample PDF
Towards a Taxonomy of Display Styles for Ubiquitous Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 64
Do Van Thanh, Ivar Jørstad, Schahram Dustdar
Mobile communication and Web technologies have paved the way for mobile multimedia collaborative services that allows people, team and organisation... Sample PDF
Mobile Multimedia Collaborative Services
$37.50
Chapter 65
Mohamed Ali Feki
This chapter will describe our experience concerning a model-based method for environment design in the field of smart homes dedicated to people... Sample PDF
Context Awareness for Pervasive Assistive Environment
$37.50
Chapter 66
Damien Charlet, Frédéric Lassabe, Philippe Canalda, Pascal Chatonnay, François Spies
Advances in technology have enabled a proliferation of mobile devices and a broad spectrum of novel and out breaking solutions for new applications... Sample PDF
Mobility Prediction for Multimedia Services
$37.50
Chapter 67
Roland Wagner, Franz Gruber, Werner Hartmann
After the enormous success of the internet and mobile networks, the next upcoming boost for information technology will be the combination of both.... Sample PDF
Distribution Patterns for Mobile Internet Applications
$37.50
About the Contributors