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Count Models for Software Quality Estimation

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-010-3.ch055
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MLA

Gao, Kehan and Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar. "Count Models for Software Quality Estimation." Encyclopedia of Data Warehousing and Mining, Second Edition. IGI Global, 2009. 346-352. Web. 18 Sep. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-010-3.ch055

APA

Gao, K., & Khoshgoftaar, T. M. (2009). Count Models for Software Quality Estimation. In J. Wang (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Data Warehousing and Mining, Second Edition (pp. 346-352). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-010-3.ch055

Chicago

Gao, Kehan and Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar. "Count Models for Software Quality Estimation." In Encyclopedia of Data Warehousing and Mining, Second Edition, ed. John Wang, 346-352 (2009), accessed September 18, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-010-3.ch055

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Abstract

Timely and accurate prediction of the quality of software modules in the early stages of the software development life cycle is very important in the field of software reliability engineering. With such predictions, a software quality assurance team can assign the limited quality improvement resources to the needed areas and prevent problems from occurring during system operation. Software metrics-based quality estimation models are tools that can achieve such predictions. They are generally of two types: a classification model that predicts the class membership of modules into two or more quality-based classes (Khoshgoftaar et al., 2005b), and a quantitative prediction model that estimates the number of faults (or some other quality factor) that are likely to occur in software modules (Ohlsson et al., 1998). In recent years, a variety of techniques have been developed for software quality estimation (Briand et al., 2002; Khoshgoftaar et al., 2002; Ohlsson et al., 1998; Ping et al., 2002), most of which are suited for either prediction or classification, but not for both. For example, logistic regression (Khoshgoftaar & Allen, 1999) can only be used for classification, whereas multiple linear regression (Ohlsson et al., 1998) can only be used for prediction. Some software quality estimation techniques, such as case-based reasoning (Khoshgoftaar & Seliya, 2003), can be used to calibrate both prediction and classification models, however, they require distinct modeling approaches for both types of models. In contrast to such software quality estimation methods, count models such as the Poisson regression model (PRM) and the zero-inflated Poisson (ziP) regression model (Khoshgoftaar et al., 2001) can be applied to yield both with just one modeling approach. Moreover, count models are capable of providing the probability that a module has a given number of faults. Despite the attractiveness of calibrating software quality estimation models with count modeling techniques, we feel that their application in software reliability engineering has been very limited (Khoshgoftaar et al., 2001). This study can be used as a basis for assessing the usefulness of count models for predicting the number of faults and quality-based class of software modules.
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Background

Software Metrics and Software Quality Modeling

Software product and process metrics are essential in the software development process. With metrics, the software development team is able to evaluate, understand, monitor and control a software product or its development process from original specifications all the way up to implementation and customer usage.

In the software reliability engineering literature, the relationship between software complexity metrics and the occurrence of faults in program modules has been used by various metrics-based software quality estimation models, such as case-based reasoning (Khoshgoftaar & Seliya, 2003), regression trees (Khoshgoftaar et al., 2002), fuzzy logic (Xu et al., 2000), genetic programming (Liu & Khoshgoftaar, 2001) and multiple linear regression (Ohlsson et al., 1998). Typically, a software quality model for a given software system is calibrated using the software metrics and fault data collected from a previous system release or similar project. The trained model can then be applied to predict the software quality of a currently under-development release or comparable project. Subsequently, the resources allocated for software quality improvement initiatives can then be targeted toward program modules that are of low quality or are likely to have many faults.

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Chang-Chia Liu, W. Art Chaovalitwongse, Panos M. Pardalos, Basim M. Uthman
Neurologists typically study the brain activity through acquired biomarker signals such as Electroencephalograms (EEGs) which have been widely used... Sample PDF
Dynamical Feature Extraction from Brain Activity Time Series
$37.50
Chapter 114
Efficient Graph Matching  (pages 736-743)
Diego Reforgiato Recupero
Application domains such as bioinformatics and web technology represent complex objects as graphs where nodes represent basic objects (i.e. atoms... Sample PDF
Efficient Graph Matching
$37.50
Chapter 115
Xunkai Wei
As known to us, the cognition process is the instinct learning ability of the human being. This process is perhaps one of the most complex human... Sample PDF
Enclosing Machine Learning
$37.50
Chapter 116
Daniel Crabtree
Web search engines help users find relevant web pages by returning a result set containing the pages that best match the user’s query. When the... Sample PDF
Enhancing Web Search through Query Expansion
$37.50
Chapter 117
Ji-Rong Wen
Web query log is a type of file keeping track of the activities of the users who are utilizing a search engine. Compared to traditional information... Sample PDF
Enhancing Web Search through Query Log Mining
$37.50
Chapter 118
Ji-Rong Wen
The Web is an open and free environment for people to publish and get information. Everyone on the Web can be either an author, a reader, or both.... Sample PDF
Enhancing Web Search through Web Structure Mining
$37.50
Chapter 119
Nikunj C. Oza
Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple... Sample PDF
Ensemble Data Mining Methods
$37.50
Chapter 120
Niall Rooney
The concept of ensemble learning has its origins in research from the late 1980s/early 1990s into combining a number of artificial neural networks... Sample PDF
Ensemble Learning for Regression
$37.50
Chapter 121
Ethics of Data Mining  (pages 783-788)
Jack Cook
Decision makers thirst for answers to questions. As more data is gathered, more questions are posed: Which customers are most likely to respond... Sample PDF
Ethics of Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 122
Paolo Giudici
Several classes of computational and statistical methods for data mining are available. Each class can be parameterised so that models within the... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Data Mining Methods
$37.50
Chapter 123
Ivan Bruha
A ‘traditional’ learning algorithm that can induce a set of decision rules usually represents a robust and comprehensive system that discovers a... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Decision Rules by Qualities for Decision-Making Systems
$37.50
Chapter 124
Caitlin Kelly Maurie
Geospatial data and the technologies that drive them have altered the landscape of our understanding of the world around us. The data, software and... Sample PDF
The Evolution of SDI Geospatial Data Clearinghouses
$37.50
Chapter 125
Amit Saxena, Megha Kothari, Navneet Pandey
Excess of data due to different voluminous storage and online devices has become a bottleneck to seek meaningful information therein and we are... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Approach to Dimensionality Reduction
$37.50
Chapter 126
William H. Hsu
A genetic algorithm (GA) is a method used to find approximate solutions to difficult search, optimization, and machine learning problems (Goldberg... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Computation and Genetic Algorithms
$37.50
Chapter 127
Laetitia Jourdan
Knowledge discovery from genomic data has become an important research area for biologists. Nowadays, a lot of data is available on the web, but the... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Data Mining for Genomics
$37.50
Chapter 128
Daniel Rivero
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are learning systems from the Artificial Intelligence (AI) world that have been used for solving complex problems... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Development of ANNs for Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 129
Jorge Muruzábal
Ensemble rule based classification methods have been popular for a while in the machine-learning literature (Hand, 1997). Given the advent of... Sample PDF
Evolutionary Mining of Rule Ensembles
$37.50
Chapter 130
Yiyu Yao
The objective of data mining is to discover new and useful knowledge, in order to gain a better understanding of nature. This in fact is the goal of... Sample PDF
On Explanation-Oriented Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 131
Elzbieta Malinowski, Esteban Zimányi
Data warehouses keep large amounts of historical data in order to help users at different management levels to make more effective decisions.... Sample PDF
Extending a Conceptual Multidimensional Model for Representing Spatial Data
$37.50
Chapter 132
Facial Recognition  (pages 857-862)
Rory A. Lewis, Zbigniew W. Ras
Over the past decade Facial Recognition has become more cohesive and reliable than ever before. We begin with an analysis explaining why certain... Sample PDF
Facial Recognition
$37.50
Chapter 133
Seoung Bum Kim
Development of advanced sensing technology has multiplied the volume of spectral data, which is one of the most common types of data encountered in... Sample PDF
Feature Extraction/Selection in High-Dimensional Spectral Data
$37.50
Chapter 134
Shouxian Cheng, Frank Y. Shih
The Support Vector Machine (SVM) (Cortes and Vapnik, 1995; Vapnik, 1995; Burges, 1998) is intended to generate an optimal separating hyperplane by... Sample PDF
Feature Reduction for Support Vector Machines
$37.50
Chapter 135
Feature Selection  (pages 878-882)
Damien François
In many applications, like function approximation, pattern recognition, time series prediction, and data mining, one has to build a model relating... Sample PDF
Feature Selection
$37.50
Chapter 136
Indranil Bose
Movement of stocks in the financial market is a typical example of financial time series data. It is generally believed that past performance of a... Sample PDF
Financial Time Series Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 137
Hong Shen
The discovery of association rules showing conditions of data co-occurrence has attracted the most attention in data mining. An example of an... Sample PDF
Flexible Mining of Association Rules
$37.50
Chapter 138
Jamil M. Saquer
Formal concept analysis (FCA) is a branch of applied mathematics with roots in lattice theory (Wille, 1982; Ganter & Wille, 1999). It deals with the... Sample PDF
Formal Concept Analysis Based Clustering
$37.50
Chapter 139
Xuan Hong Dang, Wee-Keong Ng, Kok-Leong Ong, Vincent Lee
In recent years, data streams have emerged as a new data type that has attracted much attention from the data mining community. They arise naturally... Sample PDF
Frequent Sets Mining in Data Stream Environments
$37.50
Chapter 140
Eyke Hüllermeier
Tools and techniques that have been developed during the last 40 years in the field of fuzzy set theory (FST) have been applied quite successfully... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Methods in Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 141
Michel Schneider
Basically, the schema of a data warehouse lies on two kinds of elements: facts and dimensions. Facts are used to memorize measures about situations... Sample PDF
A General Model for Data Warehouses
$37.50
Chapter 142
Ladjel Bellatreche
Decision support applications require complex queries, e.g., multi way joins defining on huge warehouses usually modelled using star schemas, i.e.... Sample PDF
A Genetic Algorithm for Selecting Horizontal Fragments
$37.50
Chapter 143
Genetic Programming  (pages 926-931)
William H. Hsu
Genetic programming (GP) is a sub-area of evolutionary computation first explored by John Koza (1992) and independently developed by Nichael Lynn... Sample PDF
Genetic Programming
$37.50
Chapter 144
Alex A. Freitas, Gisele L. Pappa
At present there is a wide range of data mining algorithms available to researchers and practitioners (Witten & Frank, 2005; Tan et al., 2006).... Sample PDF
Genetic Programming for Automatically Constructing Data Mining Algorithms
$37.50
Chapter 145
Marek Kretowski, Marek Grzes
Decision trees are, besides decision rules, one of the most popular forms of knowledge representation in Knowledge Discovery in Databases process... Sample PDF
Global Induction of Decision Trees
$37.50
Chapter 146
Graph-Based Data Mining  (pages 943-949)
Lawrence B. Holder
Graph-based data mining represents a collection of techniques for mining the relational aspects of data represented as a graph. Two major approaches... Sample PDF
Graph-Based Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 147
Graphical Data Mining  (pages 950-956)
Carol J. Romanowski
Data mining has grown to include many more data types than the “traditional” flat files with numeric or categorical attributes. Images, text, video... Sample PDF
Graphical Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 148
Liang Xiong
When we are faced with data, one common task is to learn the correspondence relationship between different data sets. More concretely, by learning... Sample PDF
Guide Manifold Alignment by Relative Comparisons
$37.50
Chapter 149
Guided Sequence Alignment  (pages 964-969)
Abdullah N. Arslan
Sequence alignment is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Ordinarily, the problem aims to align symbols of given... Sample PDF
Guided Sequence Alignment
$37.50
Chapter 150
Benjamin C.M. Fung, Ke Wang, Martin Ester
Document clustering is an automatic grouping of text documents into clusters so that documents within a cluster have high similarity in comparison... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Document Clustering
$37.50
Chapter 151
Francesco Buccafurri
Histograms are an important tool for data reduction both in the field of data-stream querying and in OLAP, since they allow us to represent large... Sample PDF
Histograms for OLAP and Data-Stream Queries
$37.50
Chapter 152
Bhavani Thuraisingham
Data mining is the process of posing queries to large quantities of data and extracting information often previously unknown using mathematical... Sample PDF
Homeland Security Data Mining and Link Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 153
Janet Delve
Data Warehousing is now a well-established part of the business and scientific worlds. However, up until recently, data warehouses were restricted... Sample PDF
Humanities Data Warehousing
$37.50
Chapter 154
Sancho Salcedo-Sanz, Gustavo Camps-Valls, Carlos Bousoño-Calzón
Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of problem solving techniques which have been successfully applied to a wide variety of hard problems... Sample PDF
Hybrid Genetic Algorithms in Data Mining Applications
$37.50
Chapter 155
Marvin L. Brown, John F. Kros
Missing or inconsistent data has been a pervasive problem in data analysis since the origin of data collection. The management of missing data in... Sample PDF
Imprecise Data and the Data Mining Process
$37.50
Chapter 156
Incremental Learning  (pages 1006-1012)
Abdelhamid Bouchachia
Data mining and knowledge discovery is about creating a comprehensible model of the data. Such a model may take different forms going from simple... Sample PDF
Incremental Learning
$37.50
Chapter 157
Seokkyung Chung
With the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, Internet users are now experiencing overwhelming quantities of online information. Since manually... Sample PDF
Incremental Mining from News Streams
$37.50
Chapter 158
Honghua Dai
Inexact fielding learning (IFL) (Ciesieski & Dai, 1994; Dai & Ciesieski, 1994a, 1994b, 1995, 2004; Dai & Li, 2001) is a rough-set, theory-based... Sample PDF
Inexact Field Learning Approach for Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 159
Gary G. Yen
Scientific literatures can be organized to serve as a roadmap for researchers by pointing where and when the scientific community has been and is... Sample PDF
Information Fusion for Scientific Literature Classification
$37.50
Chapter 160
Benjamin Griffiths
Rough Set Theory (RST), since its introduction in Pawlak (1982), continues to develop as an effective tool in data mining. Within a set theoretical... Sample PDF
Information Veins and Resampling with Rough Set Theory
$37.50
Chapter 161
Instance Selection  (pages 1041-1045)
Huan Liu
The amounts of data become increasingly large in recent years as the capacity of digital data storage worldwide has significantly increased. As the... Sample PDF
Instance Selection
$37.50
Chapter 162
Stephan Meisel
Basically, Data Mining (DM) and Operations Research (OR) are two paradigms independent of each other. OR aims at optimal solutions of decision... Sample PDF
Integration of Data Mining and Operations Research
$37.50
Chapter 163
Andreas Koeller
Integration of data sources refers to the task of developing a common schema as well as data transformation solutions for a number of data sources... Sample PDF
Integration of Data Sources through Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 164
Sai Moturu
As John Muir noted, “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe” (Muir, 1911). In tune with... Sample PDF
Integrative Data Analysis for Biological Discovery
$37.50
Chapter 165
P. Punitha, D.S. Guru
‘A visual idea is more powerful than verbal idea’, ‘A picture is worth more than ten thousand words’, ‘No words can convey what a picture speaks’... Sample PDF
Intelligent Image Archival and Retrieval System
$37.50
Chapter 166
Intelligent Query Answering  (pages 1073-1078)
Zbigniew W. Ras, Agnieszka Dardzinska
One way to make Query Answering System (QAS) intelligent is to assume a hierarchical structure of its attributes. Such systems have been... Sample PDF
Intelligent Query Answering
$37.50
Chapter 167
Zheng Zhao
The high dimensionality of data poses a challenge to learning tasks such as classification. In the presence of many irrelevant features... Sample PDF
On Interacting Features in Subset Selection
$37.50
Chapter 168
On Interactive Data Mining  (pages 1085-1090)
Yan Zhao
Exploring and extracting knowledge from data is one of the fundamental problems in science. Data mining consists of important tasks, such as... Sample PDF
On Interactive Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 169
Interest Pixel Mining  (pages 1091-1096)
Qi Li, Jieping Ye, Chandra Kambhamettu
Visual media data such as an image is the raw data representation for many important applications, such as image retrieval (Mikolajczyk & Schmid... Sample PDF
Interest Pixel Mining
$37.50
Chapter 170
Gustavo Camps-Valls, Manel Martínez-Ramón, José Luis Rojo-Álvarez
Machine learning has experienced a great advance in the eighties and nineties due to the active research in artificial neural networks and adaptive... Sample PDF
An Introduction to Kernel Methods
$37.50
Chapter 171
Malcolm J. Beynon
The essence of data mining is to investigate for pertinent information that may exist in data (often large data sets). The immeasurably large amount... Sample PDF
The Issue of Missing Values in Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 172
Doina Caragea, Vasant Honavar
Recent advances in sensors, digital storage, computing and communications technologies have led to a proliferation of autonomously operated... Sample PDF
Knowledge Acquisition from Semantically Heterogeneous Data
$37.50
Chapter 173
QingXiang Wu, Martin McGinnity, Girijesh Prasad, David Bell
Data mining and knowledge discovery aim at finding useful information from typically massive collections of data, and then extracting useful... Sample PDF
Knowledge Discovery in Databases with Diversity of Data Types
$37.50
Chapter 174
Learning Bayesian Networks  (pages 1124-1128)
Marco F. Ramoni, Paola Sebastiani
Born at the intersection of artificial intelligence, statistics, and probability, Bayesian networks (Pearl, 1988) are a representation formalism at... Sample PDF
Learning Bayesian Networks
$37.50
Chapter 175
Rallou Thomopoulos
This chapter deals with the problem of the cooperation of heterogeneous knowledge for the construction of a domain expertise, and more specifically... Sample PDF
Learning Exceptions to Refine a Domain Expertise
$37.50
Chapter 176
Learning from Data Streams  (pages 1137-1141)
João Gama, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues
In the last two decades, machine learning research and practice has focused on batch learning usually with small datasets. In batch learning, the... Sample PDF
Learning from Data Streams
$37.50
Chapter 177
Bojun Yan
As a recent emerging technique, semi-supervised clustering has attracted significant research interest. Compared to traditional clustering... Sample PDF
Learning Kernels for Semi-Supervised Clustering
$37.50
Chapter 178
Feng Pan
As an essential dimension of our information space, time plays a very important role in every aspect of our lives. Temporal information is... Sample PDF
Learning Temporal Information from Text
$37.50
Chapter 179
Abdelhamid Bouchachia
Recently the field of machine learning, pattern recognition, and data mining has witnessed a new research stream that is learning with partial... Sample PDF
Learning with Partial Supervision
$37.50
Chapter 180
Kirsten Wahlstrom, John F. Roddick, Rick Sarre, Vladimir Estivill-Castro, Denise de Vries
To paraphrase Winograd (1992), we bring to our communities a tacit comprehension of right and wrong that makes social responsibility an intrinsic... Sample PDF
Legal and Technical Issues of Privacy Preservation in Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 181
Yinghui Yang, Balaji Padmanabhan
Classification is a form of data analysis that can be used to extract models to predict categorical class labels (Han & Kamber, 2001). Data... Sample PDF
Leveraging Unlabeled Data for Classification
$37.50
Chapter 182
Carlotta Domeniconi, Dimitrios Gunopulos
Pattern classification is a very general concept with numerous applications ranging from science, engineering, target marketing, medical diagnosis... Sample PDF
Locally Adaptive Techniques for Pattern Classification
$37.50
Chapter 183
Xiang Zhang, Seza Orcun, Mourad Ouzzani, Cheolhwan Oh
Systems biology aims to understand biological systems on a comprehensive scale, such that the components that make up the whole are connected to one... Sample PDF
Mass Informatics in Differential Proteomics
$37.50
Chapter 184
Dimitri Theodoratos, Wugang Xu, Alkis Simitsis
A Data Warehouse (DW) is a repository of information retrieved from multiple, possibly heterogeneous, autonomous, distributed databases and other... Sample PDF
Materialized View Selection for Data Warehouse Design
$37.50
Chapter 185
Jun Zhang, Jie Wang, Shuting Xu
Data mining technologies have now been used in commercial, industrial, and governmental businesses, for various purposes, ranging from increasing... Sample PDF
Matrix Decomposition Techniques for Data Privacy
$37.50
Chapter 186
Raymond K. Pon, Alfonso F. Cardenas, David J. Buttler
An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A... Sample PDF
Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles
$37.50
Chapter 187
Miguel García Torres
The Metaheuristics are general strategies for designing heuristic procedures with high performance. The term metaheuristic, which appeared in 1986... Sample PDF
Metaheuristics in Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 188
Meta-Learning  (pages 1207-1215)
Christophe Giraud-Carrier, Pavel Brazdil, Carlos Soares, Ricardo Vilalta
The application of Machine Learning (ML) and Data Mining (DM) tools to classification and regression tasks has become a standard, not only in... Sample PDF
Meta-Learning
$37.50
Chapter 189
Xinghua Fan
Entity and relation recognition, i.e. assigning semantic classes (e.g., person, organization and location) to entities in a given sentence and... Sample PDF
A Method of Recognizing Entity and Relation
$37.50
Chapter 190
Microarray Data Mining  (pages 1224-1230)
Li-Min Fu
Based on the concept of simultaneously studying the expression of a large number of genes, a DNA microarray is a chip on which numerous probes are... Sample PDF
Microarray Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 191
Diego Liberati
In everyday life, it often turns out that one has to face a huge amount of data, often not completely homogeneous, often without an immediate grasp... Sample PDF
Minimum Description Length Adaptive Bayesian Mining
$37.50
Chapter 192
Li Shen, Fillia Makedon
Recent technological advances in 3D digitizing, noninvasive scanning, and interactive authoring have resulted in an explosive growth of 3D models in... Sample PDF
Mining 3D Shape Data for Morphometric Pattern Discovery
$37.50
Chapter 193
Mining Chat Discussions  (pages 1243-1247)
Stanley Loh Daniel Licthnow, Thyago Borges Tiago Primo
According to Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995), the majority of the organizational knowledge comes from interactions between people. People tend to reuse... Sample PDF
Mining Chat Discussions
$37.50
Chapter 194
Mining Data Streams  (pages 1248-1256)
Tamraparni Dasu, Gary Weiss
When a space shuttle takes off, tiny sensors measure thousands of data points every fraction of a second, pertaining to a variety of attributes like... Sample PDF
Mining Data Streams
$37.50
Chapter 195
Gabriele Kern-Isberner
Knowledge discovery refers to the process of extracting new, interesting, and useful knowledge from data and presenting it in an intelligible way to... Sample PDF
Mining Data with Group Theoretical Means
$37.50
Chapter 196
Mining Email Data  (pages 1262-1267)
Steffen Bickel
E-mail has become one of the most important communication media for business and private purposes. Large amounts of past e-mail records reside on... Sample PDF
Mining Email Data
$37.50
Chapter 197
Wen-Yang Lin, Ming-Cheng Tseng
The mining of Generalized Association Rules (GARs) from a large transactional database in the presence of item taxonomy has been recognized as an... Sample PDF
Mining Generalized Association Rules in an Evolving Environment
$37.50
Chapter 198
Doru Tanasa
Web Usage Mining (WUM) includes all the Data Mining techniques used to analyze the behavior of a Web site‘s users (Cooley, Mobasher & Srivastava... Sample PDF
Mining Generalized Web Data for Discovering Usage Patterns
$37.50
Chapter 199
Mining Group Differences  (pages 1282-1286)
Shane M. Butler
Finding differences among two or more groups is an important data-mining task. For example, a retailer might want to know what the different is in... Sample PDF
Mining Group Differences
$37.50
Chapter 200
Junsong Yuan
One of the focused themes in data mining research is to discover frequent and repetitive patterns from the data. The success of frequent pattern... Sample PDF
Mining Repetitive Patterns in Multimedia Data
$37.50
Chapter 201
Bruno Agard
In large urban areas, smooth running public transit networks are key to viable development. Currently, economic and environmental issues are fueling... Sample PDF
Mining Smart Card Data from an Urban Transit Network
$37.50
Chapter 202
David Lo
Software is a ubiquitous component in our daily life. It ranges from large software systems like operating systems to small embedded systems like... Sample PDF
Mining Software Specifications
$37.50
Chapter 203
Ramon F. Brena, Ana Maguitman
The Internet has made available a big number of information services, such as file sharing, electronic mail, online chat, telephony and file... Sample PDF
Mining the Internet for Concepts
$37.50
Chapter 204
Lutz Hamel
Classification models and in particular binary classification models are ubiquitous in many branches of science and business. Consider, for example... Sample PDF
Model Assessment with ROC Curves
$37.50
Chapter 205
Modeling Quantiles  (pages 1324-1329)
Claudia Perlich, Saharon Rosset, Bianca Zadrozny
One standard Data Mining setting is defines by a set of n observations on a variable of interest Y and a set of p explanatory variables, or... Sample PDF
Modeling Quantiles
$37.50
Chapter 206
Modeling Score Distributions  (pages 1330-1336)
Anca Doloc-Mihu
The goal of a web-based retrieval system is to find data items that meet a user’s request as fast and accurately as possible. Such a search engine... Sample PDF
Modeling Score Distributions
$37.50
Chapter 207
Modeling the KDD Process  (pages 1337-1345)
Vasudha Bhatnagar, S. K. Gupta
Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) is classically defined as the “nontrivial process of identifying valid, novel, potentially useful, and... Sample PDF
Modeling the KDD Process
$37.50
Chapter 208
Pasquale De Meo, Giovanni Quattrone, Giorgio Terracina, Domenico Ursino
An Electronic-Service (E-Service) can be defined as a collection of network-resident software programs that collaborate for supporting users in both... Sample PDF
A Multi-Agent System for Handling Adaptive E-Services
$37.50
Chapter 209
Chia Huey Ooi
Molecular classification involves the classification of samples into groups of biological phenotypes. Studies on molecular classification generally... Sample PDF
Multiclass Molecular Classification
$37.50
Chapter 210
Omar Boussaid, Doulkifli Boukraa
While the classical databases aimed in data managing within enterprises, data warehouses help them to analyze data in order to drive their... Sample PDF
Multidimensional Modeling of Complex Data
$37.50
Chapter 211
Fadime Üney Yüksektepe
Data classification is a supervised learning strategy that analyzes the organization and categorization of data in distinct classes. Generally, a... Sample PDF
Multi-Group Data Classification via MILP
$37.50
Chapter 212
Amelia Zafra
The multiple-instance problem is a difficult machine learning problem that appears in cases where knowledge about training examples is incomplete.... Sample PDF
Multi-Instance Learning with MultiObjective Genetic Programming
$37.50
Chapter 213
Multilingual Text Mining  (pages 1380-1385)
Peter A. Chew
The principles of text mining are fundamental to technology in everyday use. The world wide web (WWW) has in many senses driven research in text... Sample PDF
Multilingual Text Mining
$37.50
Chapter 214
Gang Kou, Yi Peng, Yong Shi
Multiple criteria optimization seeks to simultaneously optimize two or more objective functions under a set of constraints. It has a great variety... Sample PDF
Multiple Criteria Optimization in Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 215
Sach Mukherjee
A number of important problems in data mining can be usefully addressed within the framework of statistical hypothesis testing. However, while the... Sample PDF
Multiple Hypothesis Testing for Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 216
Music Information Retrieval  (pages 1396-1402)
Alicja A. Wieczorkowska
Music information retrieval (MIR) is a multi-disciplinary research on retrieving information from music, see Fig. 1. This research involves... Sample PDF
Music Information Retrieval
$37.50
Chapter 217
Ingrid Fischer
As the beginning of the area of artificial neural networks the introduction of the artificial neuron by McCulloch and Pitts is considered. They were... Sample PDF
Neural Networks and Graph Transformations
$37.50
Chapter 218
Victor S.Y. Lo
Data mining has been widely applied in many areas over the past two decades. In marketing, many firms collect large amount of customer data to... Sample PDF
New Opportunities in Marketing Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 219
Dilip Kumar Pratihar
Most of the complex real-world systems involve more than three dimensions and it may be difficult to model these higher dimensional data related to... Sample PDF
Non-Linear Dimensionality Reduction Techniques
$37.50
Chapter 220
Ioannis N. Kouris
Research in association rules mining has initially concentrated in solving the obvious problem of finding positive association rules; that is rules... Sample PDF
A Novel Approach on Negative Association Rules
$37.50
Chapter 221
Indrani Chakravarty
The most commonly used protection mechanisms today are based on either what a person possesses (e.g. an ID card) or what the person remembers (like... Sample PDF
Offline Signature Recognition
$37.50
Chapter 222
Alfredo Cuzzocrea, Svetlana Mansmann
The problem of efficiently visualizing multidimensional data sets produced by scientific and statistical tasks/ processes is becoming increasingly... Sample PDF
OLAP Visualization: Models, Issues, and Techniques
$37.50
Chapter 223
Rebecca Boon-Noi Tan
Since its origin in the 1970’s research and development into databases systems has evolved from simple file storage and processing systems to... Sample PDF
Online Analytical Processing Systems
$37.50
Chapter 224
Online Signature Recognition  (pages 1456-1462)
Indrani Chakravarty
Security is one of the major issues in today’s world and most of us have to deal with some sort of passwords in our daily lives; but, these... Sample PDF
Online Signature Recognition
$37.50
Chapter 225
James Geller
The term “Ontology” was popularized in Computer Science by Thomas Gruber at the Stanford Knowledge Systems Lab (KSL). Gruber’s highly influential... Sample PDF
Ontologies and Medical Terminologies
$37.50
Chapter 226
Order Preserving Data Mining  (pages 1470-1475)
Ioannis N. Kouris
Data mining has emerged over the last decade as probably the most important application in databases. To reproduce one of the most popular but... Sample PDF
Order Preserving Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 227
Outlier Detection  (pages 1476-1482)
Sharanjit Kaur
Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) is a nontrivial process of detecting valid, novel, potentially useful and ultimately understandable patterns... Sample PDF
Outlier Detection
$37.50
Chapter 228
Fabrizio Angiulli
Data mining techniques can be grouped in four main categories: clustering, classification, dependency detection, and outlier detection. Clustering... Sample PDF
Outlier Detection Techniques for Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 229
Jorge Cardoso, W.M.P. van der Aalst
Business process management systems (Smith and Fingar 2003) provide a fundamental infrastructure to define and manage business processes and... Sample PDF
Path Mining and Process Mining for Workflow Management Systems
$37.50
Chapter 230
Andrew K.C. Wong, Yang Wang, Gary C.L. Li
A basic task of machine learning and data mining is to automatically uncover patterns that reflect regularities in a data set. When dealing with a... Sample PDF
Pattern Discovery as Event Association
$37.50
Chapter 231
Hui Xiong, Michael Steinbach, Pang-Ning Tan, Vipin Kumar, Wenjun Zhou
Clustering and association analysis are important techniques for analyzing data. Cluster analysis (Jain & Dubes, 1988) provides insight into the... Sample PDF
Pattern Preserving Clustering
$37.50
Chapter 232
P. Viswanath, Narasimha M. Murty, Bhatnagar Shalabh
Parametric methods first choose the form of the model or hypotheses and estimates the necessary parameters from the given dataset. The form, which... Sample PDF
Pattern Synthesis for Nonparametric Pattern Recognition
$37.50
Chapter 233
C. Radha
An important problem in pattern recognition is that of pattern classification. The objective of classification is to determine a discriminant... Sample PDF
Pattern Synthesis in SVM Based Classifier
$37.50
Chapter 234
Clifton Phua, Vincent Lee, Kate Smith-Miles
Almost every person has a life-long personal name which is officially recognised and has only one correct version in their language. Each personal... Sample PDF
The Personal Name Problem and a Data Mining Solution
$37.50
Chapter 235
Konstantinos Kotis
Current keyword-based Web search engines (e.g. Googlea) provide access to thousands of people for billions of indexed Web pages. Although the amount... Sample PDF
Perspectives and Key Technologies of Semantic Web Search
$37.50
Chapter 236
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Rajeev K. Bali
Today’s economy is increasingly based on knowledge and information (Davenport, & Grover 2001). Knowledge is now recognized as the driver of... Sample PDF
A Philosophical Perspective on Knowledge Creation
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Chapter 237
Ladjel Bellatreche, Mukesh Mohania
Recently, organizations have increasingly emphasized applications in which current and historical data are analyzed and explored comprehensively... Sample PDF
Physical Data Warehousing Design
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Chapter 238
Xiao-Li Li
In traditional supervised learning, a large number of labeled positive and negative examples are typically required to learn an accurate classifier.... Sample PDF
Positive Unlabelled Learning for Document Classification
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Chapter 239
D. R. Mani, Andrew L. Betz, James H. Drew
A structural conflict exists in businesses which sell services whose production costs are discontinuous and whose consumption is continuous but... Sample PDF
Predicting Resource Usage for Capital Efficient Marketing
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Chapter 240
Seung-won Hwang
As near-infinite amount of data are becoming accessible on the Web, it becomes more important to support intelligent personalized retrieval... Sample PDF
Preference Modeling and Mining for Personalization
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Chapter 241
Alfredo Cuzzocrea, Vincenzo Russo
The problem of ensuring the privacy and security of OLAP data cubes (Gray et al., 1997) arises in several fields ranging from advanced Data... Sample PDF
Privacy Preserving OLAP and OLAP Security
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Chapter 242
Stanley R.M. Oliveira
Despite its benefits in various areas (e.g., business, medical analysis, scientific data analysis, etc), the use of data mining techniques can also... Sample PDF
Privacy-Preserving Data Mining
$37.50
Chapter 243
Laura Maruster
As the on-line services and Web-based information systems proliferate in many domains of activities, it has become increasingly important to model... Sample PDF
Process Mining to Analyze the Behaviour of Specific Users
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Chapter 244
Profit Mining  (pages 1598-1602)
Senqiang Zhou
A major obstacle in data mining applications is the gap between the statistic-based pattern extraction and the value-based decision-making. “Profit... Sample PDF
Profit Mining
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Chapter 245
Ioannis N. Kouris
Software development has various stages, that can be conceptually grouped into two phases namely development and production (Figure 1). The... Sample PDF
Program Comprehension through Data Mining
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Chapter 246
Minh Ngoc Ngo
Due to the need to reengineer and migrating aging software and legacy systems, reverse engineering has started to receive some attention. It has now... Sample PDF
Program Mining Augmented with Empirical Properties
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Chapter 247
Ping Deng, Qingkai Ma, Weili Wu
Clustering can be considered as the most important unsupervised learning problem. It has been discussed thoroughly by both statistics and database... Sample PDF
Projected Clustering for Biological Data Analysis
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Chapter 248
Imad Khoury, Godfried Toussaint, Antonio Ciampi, Isadora Antoniano
Clustering is considered the most important aspect of unsupervised learning in data mining. It deals with finding structure in a collection of... Sample PDF
Proximity-Graph-Based Tools for DNA Clustering
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Chapter 249
Yang Xiang
Graphical models such as Bayesian networks (BNs) (Pearl, 1988; Jensen & Nielsen, 2007) and decomposable Markov networks (DMNs) (Xiang, Wong., &... Sample PDF
Pseudo-Independent Models and Decision Theoretic Knowledge Discovery
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Chapter 250
Wen-Chi Hou
Mining market basket data (Agrawal et al. 1993, Agrawal et al. 1994) has received a great deal of attention in the recent past, partly due to its... Sample PDF
Quality of Association Rules by Chi-Squared Test
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Chapter 251
Andrew Hamilton-Wright, Daniel W. Stashuk
A great deal of interesting real-world data is encountered through the analysis of continuous variables, however many of the robust tools for rule... Sample PDF
Quantization of Continuous Data for Pattern Based Rule Extraction
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Chapter 252
Colin Cooper, Michele Zito
The association rule mining (ARM) problem is a wellestablished topic in the field of knowledge discovery in databases. The problem addressed by ARM... Sample PDF
Realistic Data for Testing Rule Mining Algorithms
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Chapter 253
Brian C. Lovell, Shaokang Chen, Ting Shan
Data mining is widely used in various areas such as finance, marketing, communication, web service, surveillance and security. The continuing growth... Sample PDF
Real-Time Face Detection and Classification for ICCTV
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Chapter 254
Marzena Kryszkiewicz
Discovering of frequent patterns in large databases is an important data mining problem. The problem was introduced in (Agrawal, Imielinski & Swami... Sample PDF
Reasoning about Frequent Patterns with Negation
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Chapter 255
Nicolas Lachiche
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves) have been used for years in decision making from signals, such as radar or radiology. Basically they... Sample PDF
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis
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Chapter 256
Juha Kontio
Reporting is one of the basic processes in all organizations. Reports should offer relevant information for guiding the decision-making. Reporting... Sample PDF
Reflecting Reporting Problems and Data Warehousing
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Chapter 257
Brian C. Lovell, Shaokang Chen, Ting Shan
While the technology for mining text documents in large databases could be said to be relatively mature, the same cannot be said for mining other... Sample PDF
Robust Face Recognition for Data Mining
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Chapter 258
Rough Sets and Data Mining  (pages 1696-1701)
Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse, Wojciech Ziarko
Discovering useful models capturing regularities of natural phenomena or complex systems until recently was almost entirely limited to finding... Sample PDF
Rough Sets and Data Mining
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Chapter 259
Gautam Das
In recent years, advances in data collection and management technologies have led to a proliferation of very large databases. These large data... Sample PDF
Sampling Methods in Approximate Query Answering Systems
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Chapter 260
V. Suresh Babu, P. Viswanath, Narasimha M. Murty
Non-parametric methods like the nearest neighbor classifier (NNC) and the Parzen-Window based density estimation (Duda, Hart & Stork, 2000) are more... Sample PDF
Scalable Non-Parametric Methods for Large Data Sets
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Chapter 261
Scientific Web Intelligence  (pages 1714-1719)
Mike Thelwall
Scientific Web Intelligence (SWI) is a research field that combines techniques from data mining, web intelligence and scientometrics to extract... Sample PDF
Scientific Web Intelligence
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Chapter 262
Päivikki Parpola
Some parts of this text, namely “Co-operative Building, Adaptation, and Evolution of Abstract Models of a KB” and most subsections in “Performing... Sample PDF
Seamless Structured Knowledge Acquisition
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Chapter 263
Hadrian Peter
Over the past ten years or so data warehousing has emerged as a new technology in the database environment. “A data warehouse is a global repository... Sample PDF
Search Engines and their Impact on Data Warehouses
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Chapter 264
Nils Pharo
Several studies of Web information searching (Agosto, 2002, Pharo & Järvelin, 2006, Prabha et al. 2007) have pointed out that searchers tend to... Sample PDF
Search Situations and Transitions
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Chapter 265
Shuguo Han
Rapid advances in automated data collection tools and data storage technology have led to the wide availability of huge amount of data. Data mining... Sample PDF
Secure Building Blocks for Data Privacy
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Chapter 266
Yehuda Lindell
The increasing use of data mining tools in both the public and private sectors raises concerns regarding the potentially sensitive nature of much of... Sample PDF
Secure Computation for Privacy Preserving Data Mining
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Chapter 267
Parvathi Chundi, Daniel J. Rosenkrantz
Time series data is usually generated by measuring and monitoring applications, and accounts for a large fraction of the data available for analysis... Sample PDF
Segmentation of Time Series Data
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Chapter 268
Yawei Wang
The graying of America is one of the most significant demographic changes to the present and future of the United States (Moisey & Bichis, 1999). As... Sample PDF
Segmenting the Mature Travel Market with Data Mining Tools
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Chapter 269
Semantic Data Mining  (pages 1765-1770)
Protima Banerjee
Over the past few decades, data mining has emerged as a field of research critical to understanding and assimilating the large stores of data... Sample PDF
Semantic Data Mining
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Chapter 270
Chrisa Tsinaraki
Several consumer electronic devices that allow capturing digital multimedia content (like mp3 recorders, digital cameras, DVD camcorders, smart... Sample PDF
Semantic Multimedia Content Retrieval and Filtering
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Chapter 271
Ludovic Denoyer
Document classification developed over the last ten years, using techniques originating from the pattern recognition and machine learning... Sample PDF
Semi-Structured Document Classification
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Chapter 272
Semi-Supervised Learning  (pages 1787-1793)
Tobias Scheffer
For many classification problems, unlabeled training data are inexpensive and readily available, whereas labeling training data imposes costs.... Sample PDF
Semi-Supervised Learning
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Chapter 273
Cane W.K. Leung
Sentiment analysis is a kind of text classification that classifies texts based on the sentimental orientation (SO) of opinions they contain.... Sample PDF
Sentiment Analysis of Product Reviews
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Chapter 274
Sequential Pattern Mining  (pages 1800-1805)
Florent Masseglia, Maguelonne Teisseire, Pascal Poncelet
Sequential pattern mining deals with data represented as sequences (a sequence contains sorted sets of items). Compared to the association rule... Sample PDF
Sequential Pattern Mining
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Chapter 275
K. G. Srinivasa, K. R. Venugopal, L. M. Patnaik
Efficient tools and algorithms for knowledge discovery in large data sets have been devised during the recent years. These methods exploit the... Sample PDF
Soft Computing for XML Data Mining
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Chapter 276
Liping Jing, Michael K. Ng, Joshua Zhexue Huang
High dimensional data is a phenomenon in real-world data mining applications. Text data is a typical example. In text mining, a text document is... Sample PDF
Soft Subspace Clustering for High-Dimensional Data
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Chapter 277
Seoung Bum Kim, Chivalai Temiyasathit, Sun-Kyoung Park, Victoria C.P. Chen
Vast amounts of data are being generated to extract implicit patterns of ambient air pollution. Because air pollution data are generally collected... Sample PDF
Spatio-Temporal Data Mining for Air Pollution Problems
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Chapter 278
Wenyuan Li
With the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the capacity of digital data storage, tremendous amount of data are generated daily from business... Sample PDF
Spectral Methods for Data Clustering
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Chapter 279
Christophe Giraud-Carrier
With the growth and wide availability of the Internet, most retailers have successfully added the Web to their other, more traditional distribution... Sample PDF
Stages of Knowledge Discovery in E-Commerce Sites
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Chapter 280
Statistical Data Editing  (pages 1835-1840)
Claudio Conversano, Roberta Siciliano
Statistical Data Editing (SDE) is the process of checking and correcting data for errors. Winkler (1999) defines it the set of methods used to edit... Sample PDF
Statistical Data Editing
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Chapter 281
Maria Vardaki
The term metadata is frequently used in many different sciences. Statistical metadata generally used to denote “every piece of information required... Sample PDF
Statistical Metadata Modeling and Transformations
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Chapter 282
Concetto Elvio Bonafede
A statistical model is a possible representation (not necessarily complex) of a situation of the real world. Models are useful to give a good... Sample PDF
Statistical Models for Operational Risk
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Chapter 283
Jun Zhu, Zaiqing Nie, Bo Zhang
The World Wide Web is a vast and rapidly growing repository of information. There are various kinds of objects, such as products, people... Sample PDF
Statistical Web Object Extraction
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Chapter 284
Alexander Thomasian
Data storage requirements have consistently increased over time. According to the latest WinterCorp survey (http://www/WinterCorp.com), “The size of... Sample PDF
Storage Systems for Data Warehousing
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Chapter 285
Subgraph Mining  (pages 1865-1870)
Ingrid Fischer
The amount of available data is increasing very fast. With this data, the desire for data mining is also growing. More and larger databases have to... Sample PDF
Subgraph Mining
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Chapter 286
Jason Chen
Clustering analysis is a tool used widely in the Data Mining community and beyond (Everitt et al. 2001). In essence, the method allows us to... Sample PDF
Subsequence Time Series Clustering
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Chapter 287
Mohammad Al Hasan
The research on mining interesting patterns from transactions or scientific datasets has matured over the last two decades. At present, numerous... Sample PDF
Summarization in Pattern Mining
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Chapter 288
Ullas Nambiar
A query against incomplete or imprecise data in a database1, or a query whose search conditions are imprecise can both result in answers that do not... Sample PDF
Supporting Imprecision in Database Systems
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Chapter 289
Barak Chizi, Lior Rokach, Oded Maimon
Dimensionality (i.e., the number of data set attributes or groups of attributes) constitutes a serious obstacle to the efficiency of most data...