Digital Video Authentication

Digital Video Authentication

Pradeep K. Atrey (University of Winnipeg, Canada), Abdulmotaleb El Saddik (University of Ottawa, Canada) and Mohan Kankanhalli (National University of Singapore, Singapore)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch016
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to the process of determining that the video taken is original and has not been tampered with. This chapter aims to provide an overview of digital video authentication systems and a universal review of the associated methods. The chapter not only establishes the importance of authenticating a video in various application scenarios; it also identifies key properties and design issues that should be considered while designing a video authentication system. The benign and tampering operations that characterize the security and robustness aspects of a typical video authentication system are described. The past works related to video authentication, based on digital signature and digital watermarking, have been described; and the emerging trends in this area of research have also been identified.
Chapter Preview
Top

1. Introduction

The last decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the use of digital video in various applications such as electronic media, surveillance, advertising and the entertainment industry. Digital video has many advantages over its counterpart, analog video, such as better picture quality, sharper images, better color reproduction, and better immunity to signal problems in recording. In digital form, a video can be easily transported over the Internet and it facilitates easy editing and copying. On the other hand, the ease of modifying a digital video is sometimes considered as a disadvantage since a video in digital form is so vulnerable that it can be easily tampered with. Moreover, detecting manipulations in a video is often found difficult. This concern has generated significant interest among the multimedia research community to focus on investigating techniques for authenticating a digital video.

By definition, authentication is a process that provides some means to guarantee that the entities are who they claim to be (i.e. entity authentication), or that the information has not been manipulated by unauthorized parties (i.e. data authentication) (Menezes, 1997). In the context of multimedia, video authentication refers to a process that ascertains the integrity of a given digital video and detects if it has been tampered with in any way. In other words, a video authentication system ensures the integrity of digital video, and verifies that the video taken into use has not been corrupted.

The need for authenticating a digital video is further argued by providing the following examples:

  • a)

    In the recent years, several cases have been reported where a video recording of a political leader receiving a bribe was made public. However, in the absence of a foolproof method to authenticate the video, it is hard to trust such reports. On the other hand, criminals get away from being punished because the video showing their crime can not be proved conclusively in the court of law.

  • b)

    In surveillance camera systems, the video captured by the cameras are often used as evidence in the post-incident investigation process. In such scenarios, it is hard to ascertain that the digital video produced as evidence is the one that was actually shot by the camera.

  • c)

    In a sensitive scenario where a video is produced as a witness in the court of law, even a small alteration may not be acceptable. However, there are some scenarios where some editing also may be allowed while keeping in tact the authenticity of the video. For example, a journalist, after shooting a video, may need to perform some editing before broadcasting it on a news channel. In such a case, a video-authentication system should be able to allow editing on the video up to a certain level ensuring the authenticity of the video.

  • d)

    A video viewer (or a consumer) who receives video through a communication channel cannot ensure that the video being viewed is really the one that was transmitted (by a producer). There may be eavesdroppers who can alter the video content intentionally to harm the interest of both the producer and consumer.

  • e)

    Video authentication is also important in an advertisement monitoring scenario where a commercial company or an individual can automatically identify, in real time, whether or not a specified TV channel is playing their video advertisement for the stipulated time. A TV channel may cut a few frames to gain more time and money.

The above examples establish that there is a compelling need that videos, wherever they are and in whatever form, should be made authenticable before use.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Benign Operations: Tasks that are allowed to be performed on a digital content.

Digital Signature: Cryptographic means to determine the integrity of a digital content.

Digital Watermark: A message which is embedded into digital content that can be detected or extracted later.

Visual Hash Function: A cryptographic transformation method that takes digital content as an input and returns a fixed-size string and that is robust to some benign operations.

Video Authentication: A process that ascertains the integrity of a given digital video and detects if it has been tampered.

Spatial Tampering: Spatial attacks such as region tampering.

Temporal Tampering: The process of performing inter-frame alterations such as frame adding, replacement, dropping, and reordering.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Borko Furht
Preface
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Acknowledgment
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
$37.50
Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
$37.50
Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
$37.50
Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
$37.50
Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
$37.50
Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
$37.50
Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
$37.50
Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
$37.50
Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
$37.50
Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
$37.50
Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
$37.50
Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
$37.50
Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
$37.50
Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
$37.50
Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
$37.50
Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
$37.50
Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
$37.50
Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
$37.50
Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
$37.50
Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
$37.50
Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
$37.50
Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
$37.50
Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
$37.50
Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
$37.50
Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
$37.50
Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
$37.50
Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
$37.50
About the Contributors