Direction of Arrival Estimation with Compact Array Antennas: A Reactance Switching Approach

Direction of Arrival Estimation with Compact Array Antennas: A Reactance Switching Approach

Eddy Taillefer (Doshisha University Miyakodani 1-3, Japan), Jun Cheng (Doshisha University Miyakodani 1-3, Japan) and Takashi Ohira (Toyohashi University of Technology Toyohashi, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-988-5.ch010
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Abstract

This chapter presents direction of arrival (DoA) estimation with a compact array antenna using methods based on reactance switching. The compact array is the single-port electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (Espar) antenna. The antenna beam pattern is controlled though parasitic elements loaded with reactances. DoA estimation using an Espar antenna is proposed with the power pattern cross correlation (PPCC), reactance-domain (RD) multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and, RD estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithms. The three methods exploit the reactance diversity provided by an Espar antenna to correlate different antenna output signals measured at different times and for different reactance values. The authors hope that this chapter allows the researchers to appreciate the issues that may be encountered in the implementation of direction-finding application with a single-port compact array like the Espar antenna.
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Introduction

The efficient use of direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation techniques with smart antennas is an important research topic in wireless systems like ad hoc networks (Alexiou, 2004) or for the design of a DoA finder.

As a kind of smart antenna, switched parasitic antennas were proposed for cellular communications (Vaughan, 1999; Scott, 1999; Almhdie, 2000; Svantesson, 2002; Thiel, 2002). Compared to a conventional array antenna, which needs as many active radio receivers as antenna elements, a switched parasitic array antenna needs only a single active radio receiver. Therefore, the use of a switched parasitic antenna at the user side is an interesting alternative, since it can provide a small size, low cost and low power consumption for the receiver part. The switched parasitic antenna forms beams by using passive antenna elements that serve as reflectors when shorted to ground. Thus, a fixed number of directional patterns can be achieved by switching the short-circuits of the passive elements using p.i.n. diodes (Thiel, 2002). Switched parasitic antennas are known to improve the communication capacity in wireless communication systems (Almhdie, 2000), to perform high-resolution DoA estimation (Svantesson, 2002), such as that for personal locating services, and to provide antenna diversity (Vaughan, 1999; Scott, 1999) for adaptive communication systems.

The electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (Espar antenna), a kind of reactively controlled antenna (Harrington, 1978), was first proposed for low-cost user terminal applications (Ohira, 2000). Compared with simple switched parasitic antennas, the Espar antenna exhibits greater steerability control by means of its electronically controllable reactances and a more complex system for controlling the reactances (Thiel, 2004). Indeed, the parasitic element is connected to the ground by means of a reactance made with a reverse-bias varactor diode that can be controlled through loaded voltage. Thus, as a function of the reactance value, the parasitic element can variably act as a reflector or a radiator (Ohira, 2004, pp. 184-204). The continuous variability of the loaded reactance of the Espar antenna makes it more flexible than switched parasitic antennas because the number of possible directional patterns becomes greater (Thiel, 2004). Such a feature could be successfully employed, for example, in adaptive control processes involving beam and null forming, where the radiation pattern of an Espar antenna with a beampointing direction in the desired signal direction and nulls in the interference directions is obtained by optimizing the loaded reactances (Sun, 2004).

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Jack H. Winters
Acknowledgment
Chen Sun, Jun Cheng, Takashi Ohira
Chapter 1
Constantin Siriteanu, Steven D. Blostein
This chapter unifies the principles and analyses of conventional signal processing algorithms for receive-side smart antennas, and compares their... Sample PDF
Eigencombining: A Unified Approach to Antenna Array Signal Processing
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Chapter 2
Zhu Liang Yu, Meng Hwa Er, Wee Ser, Chen Huawei
In this chapter, we first review the background, basic principle and structure of adaptive beamformers. Since there are many robust adaptive... Sample PDF
Robust Adaptive Beamforming
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Chapter 3
Sheng Chen
Adaptive beamforming is capable of separating user signals transmitted on the same carrier frequency, and thus provides a practical means of... Sample PDF
Adaptive Beamforming Assisted ReceiverAdaptive Beamforming
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Chapter 4
Thomas Hunziker
Many common adaptive beamforming methods are based on a sample matrix inversion (SMI). The schemes can be applied in two ways. The sample covariance... Sample PDF
On the Employment of SMI Beamforming for Cochannel Interference Mitigation in Digital Radio
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Chapter 5
Hideki Ochiai, Patrick Mitran, H. Vincent Poor, Vahid Tarokh
In wireless sensor networks, the sensor nodes are often randomly situated, and each node is likely to be equipped with a single antenna. If these... Sample PDF
Random Array Theory and Collaborative Beamforming
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Chapter 6
W. H. Chin, C. Yuen
Space-time block coding is a way of introducing multiplexing and diversity gain in wireless systems equipped with multiple antennas. There are... Sample PDF
Advanced Space-Time Block Codes and Low Complexity Near Optimal Detection for Future Wireless Networks
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Chapter 7
Xiang-Gen Xia, Genyuan Wang, Pingyi Fan
Modulated codes (MC) are error correction codes (ECC) defined on the complex field and therefore can be naturally combined with an intersymbol... Sample PDF
Space-Time Modulated Codes for MIMO Channels with Memory
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Chapter 8
Javier Vía, Ignacio Santamaría, Jesús Ibáñez
This chapter analyzes the problem of blind channel estimation under Space-Time Block Coded transmissions. In particular, a new blind channel... Sample PDF
Blind Channel Estimation in Space-Time Block Coded Systems
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Chapter 9
Chen Sun, Takashi Ohira, Makoto Taromaru, Nemai Chandra Karmakar, Akifumi Hirata
In this chapter, we describe a compact array antenna. Beamforming is achieved by tuning the load reactances at parasitic elements surrounding the... Sample PDF
Fast Beamforming of Compact Array Antenna
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Chapter 10
Eddy Taillefer, Jun Cheng, Takashi Ohira
This chapter presents direction of arrival (DoA) estimation with a compact array antenna using methods based on reactance switching. The compact... Sample PDF
Direction of Arrival Estimation with Compact Array Antennas: A Reactance Switching Approach
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Chapter 11
Santana Burintramart, Nuri Yilmazer, Tapan K. Sarkar, Magdalena Salazar-Palma
This chapter presents a concern regarding the nature of wireless communications using multiple antennas. Multi-antenna systems are mainly developed... Sample PDF
Physics of Multi-Antenna Communication Systems
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Chapter 12
MIMO Beamforming  (pages 240-263)
Qinghua Li, Xintian Eddie Lin, Jianzhong ("Charlie") Zhang
Transmit beamforming improves the performance of multiple-input multiple-output antenna system (MIMO) by exploiting channel state information (CSI)... Sample PDF
MIMO Beamforming
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Chapter 13
Biljana Badic, Jinho Choi
This chapter introduces joint beamforming (or precoding) and space-time coding for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels. First, we explain... Sample PDF
Joint Beamforming and Space-Time Coding for MIMO Channels
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Chapter 14
Zhendong Zhou, Branka Vucetic
This chapter introduces the adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) as a practical means of approaching the high spectral efficiency theoretically... Sample PDF
Adaptive MIMO Systems with High Spectral Efficiency
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Chapter 15
Joakim Jaldén, Björn Ottersten
This chapter takes a closer look at a class of MIMO detention methods, collectively referred to as relaxation detectors. These detectors provide... Sample PDF
Detection Based on Relaxation in MIMO Systems
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Chapter 16
Wolfgang Utschick, Pedro Tejera, Christian Guthy, Gerhard Bauch
This chapter discusses four different optimization problems of practical importance for transmission in point to multipoint networks with a multiple... Sample PDF
Transmission in MIMO OFDM Point to Multipoint Networks
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Chapter 17
Salman Durrani, Marek E. Bialkowski
This chapter discusses the use of smart antennas in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. First, we give a brief overview of smart antenna... Sample PDF
Smart Antennas for Code Division Multiple Access Systems
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Chapter 18
Aimin Sang, Guosen Yue, Xiaodong Wang, Mohammad Madihian
In this chapter, we consider a cellular downlink packet data system employing the space-time block coded (STBC) multiple- input-multiple-output... Sample PDF
Cross-Layer Performance of Scheduling and Power Control Schemes in Space-Time Block Coded Downlink Packet Systems
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Chapter 19
Yimin Zhang, Xin Li, Moeness G. Amin
This chapter introduces the concept of multi-beam antenna (MBA) in mobile ad hoc networks and the recent advances in the research relevant to this... Sample PDF
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Exploiting Multi-Beam Antennas
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Chapter 20
Toru Hashimoto, Tomoyuki Aono
The technology of generating and sharing the key as the representative application of smart antennas is introduced. This scheme is based on the... Sample PDF
Key Generation System Using Smart Antenna
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Chapter 21
Nemai Chandra Karmakar
Various smart antennas developed for automatic radio frequency identification (RFID) readers are presented. The main smart antennas types of RFID... Sample PDF
Smart Antennas for Automatic Radio Frequency Identification Readers
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Chapter 22
Konstanty Bialkowski, Adam Postula, Amin Abbosh, Marek Bialkowski
This chapter introduces the concept of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communication system and the necessity to use a testbed to... Sample PDF
Field Programmable Gate Array Based Testbed for Investigating Multiple Input Multiple Output Signal Transmission in Indoor Environments
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Chapter 23
Masahiro Watanabe, Sadao Obana, Takashi Watanabe
Recent studies on directional media access protocols (MACs) using smart antennas for wireless ad hoc networks have shown that directional MACs... Sample PDF
Ad Hoc Networks Testbed Using a Practice Smart Antenna with IEEE802.15.4 Wireless Modules
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Chapter 24
Monthippa Uthansakul, Marek E. Bialkowski
This chapter introduces the alternative approach for wideband smart antenna in which the use of tapped-delay lines and frequency filters are... Sample PDF
Wideband Smart Antenna Avoiding Tapped-Delay Lines and Filters
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Chapter 25
Jun Cheng, Eddy Taillefer, Takashi Ohira
Three working modes, omni-, sector and adaptive modes, for a compact array antenna are introduced. The compact array antenna is an electronically... Sample PDF
Omni-, Sector, and Adaptive Modes of Compact Array Antenna
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