Distributed Geospatial Processing Services

Distributed Geospatial Processing Services

Carlos Granell (Universitat Jaume I, Spain), Laura Díaz (Universitat Jaume I, Spain) and Michael Gould (Universitat Jaume I, Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-026-4.ch188
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The development of geographic information systems (GISs) has been highly influenced by the overall progress of information technology (IT). These systems evolved from monolithic systems to become personal desktop GISs, with all or most data held locally, and then evolved to the Internet GIS paradigm in the form of Web services (Peng & Tsou, 2001). The highly distributed Web services model is such that geospatial data are loosely coupled with the underlying systems used to create and handle them, and geospatial processing functionalities are made available as remote, interoperable, discoverable geospatial services. In recent years the software industry has moved from tightly coupled application architectures such as CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture?Vinoski, 1997) toward service-oriented architectures (SOAs) based on a network of interoperable, well-described services accessible via Web protocols. This has led to de facto standards for delivery of services such as Web Service Description Language (WSDL) to describe the functionality of a service, Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) to encapsulate Web service messages, and Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) to register and provide access to service offerings. Adoption of this Web services technology as an option to monolithic GISs is an emerging trend to provide distributed geospatial access, visualization, and processing. The GIS approach to SOA-based applications is perhaps best represented by the spatial data infrastructure (SDI) paradigm, in which standardized interfaces are the key to allowing geographic services to communicate with each other in an interoperable manner. This article focuses on standard interfaces and also on current implementations of geospatial data processing over the Web, commonly used in SDI environments. We also mention several challenges yet to be met, such as those concerned with semantics, discovery, and chaining of geospatial processing services and also with the extension of geospatial processing capabilities to the SOA world.
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Service-Oriented Architecture

A Web service is an executable program available on the Internet. Services are the basic units for creating distributed applications in the context of SOAs. As Papazoglou (2008) stated, SOA is an architectural style to design service-centric applications relying on published and discoverable interfaces. Web services are, by definition, loosely coupled (independent units) and are well described (interface description contains functional properties), thereby promoting one of the goals of SOA: enabling interoperability or the ability of software components to interact with minimal knowledge of the underlying structure of other components (Sheth, 1999). Interoperability is achieved by using standard interfaces (SOA does not focus on the concrete implementations of components) and also by decomposing an application’s functionality into modular and flexible services. Such building-block services can be published, discovered, aggregated, reused, and invoked using standard protocols and specifications, independently of the specific technology used to create each component. Essentially SOA introduces a new philosophy for building a pyramid of distributed applications where Web services can be published, discovered, and bound together to create more complex value-added services (Alameh, 2003; Lemmens et al., 2006).

Figure 1 illustrates some of the roles and operations in SOA-based applications. There are three different main SOA roles: service provider, service requestor, and service broker. Each SOA role interacts with others utilizing three basic operations: publication, search, and binding. The service provider publishes service descriptions to the service broker. The service requester searches the required services by querying the service broker and then consumes (binds to) them. Note that often the role of service requester is assigned both to end users (and client applications) and to other services. The latter makes use of two key mechanisms in SOA: service reuse and service chaining to create new, complex, value-added services from simpler, discoverable services. In this sense, services can play the role of service requestor and service provider.

Figure 1.

Roles and operations in SOA

Key Terms in this Chapter

ISO/TC211: ISO Technical Committee 211 in Geographic Information/Geomatics is in charge of establishing a set of standards for digital geographic information concerning objects or phenomena that are directly or indirectly associated with a location relative to the earth.

Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC): An international industry consortium participating in a consensus process to develop publicly available interface specifications. OGC members include government agencies, commercial companies, and university research groups.

Geography Markup language (GML): An XML grammar defined by OGC to express geographical features. To help users and developers to structure and facilitate the creation of GML-based application, GML provides GML profiles that are XML schemas that extend the very GML specification in a modular fashion. A GML profile is a GML subset for a concrete context or application, but without the need for the full GML grammar, simplifying thus the adoption of GML and facilitating its rapid usage. Some common examples of GML profiles that have been published are Point Profile , for applications with point geometric data, and GML Simple Features Profile , supporting vector feature requests and responses, as in the case of a WFS.

Service Metadata: Metadata describing the operations and geographic information available at a particular instance of a service (paraphrased from ISO 19119).

Service Provider: Provides software applications as Web services, creating functional descriptions and making them available in public registries.

Service Requestor: Requires certain requirements and needs that are fulfilled by one or more Web services available over the Internet.

Geospatial Processing Service: Similar to operations in a software library in the sense that these services are preexisting software components that deliver any geospatial processing functionality over the Internet.

Service Broker: Publishes service descriptions and is queried by the service requestor in order to discover suitable services that meet requestor needs.

Service: Functionality provided by a service provider through interfaces (paraphrased from ISO 19119).

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Axel Schmetzke
After 20 years of digitization efforts, hardly a single type of library information resource remains that has not shifted, at least to some extent... Sample PDF
Accessibility of Online Library Information for People with Disabilities
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Longbing Cao
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Actionable Knowledge Discovery
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Josipa Kern, Kristina Fister, Ozren Polasek
The healing process can be viewed as a partnership between doctors and patients, nurses and physicians or, more generally, a partnership of health... Sample PDF
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Arthur Tatnall
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Actor-Network Theory Applied to Information Systems Research
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Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah
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Adaptive Mobile Applications
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Stefano Ferretti, Marco Roccetti, Claudio E. Palazzi
Audio communication over IP-based networks represents one of the most interesting research areas in the field of distributed multimedia systems.... Sample PDF
Adaptive Playout Buffering Schemes for IP Voice Communication
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John M. Artz
The central problem in cyber ethics is not, as many might think, how to address the problems of protecting individual privacy, or preventing... Sample PDF
Addressing the Central Problem in Cyber Ethics through Stories
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Arthur Tatnall, Stephen Burgess
Just because e-commerce technologies seem like useful tools that may assist a small to medium enterprise (SME) do its business better, it does not... Sample PDF
Adoption of E-Commerce in SMEs
Chapter 9
Serena Cubico, Giuseppe Favretto
The role played by small business in economic growth and development in the world is officially recognized, in both the economic literature and in... Sample PDF
Adoption of Electronic Commerce by Small Businesses
Chapter 10
Chad Lin, Yu-An Huang
Information systems/information technology (IS/IT) represents substantial financial investment for many organizations (Lin, Huang, & Tseng, 2007;... Sample PDF
The Adoption of IS/IT Evaluation Methodologies in Australian Public Sector Organizations
Chapter 11
Yu-Jin Zhang
Along with the progress of imaging modality and the wide utility of digital images (including video) in various fields, many potential content... Sample PDF
Advanced Techniques for Object-Based Image Retrieval
Chapter 12
Niki Aifanti, Angel D. Sappa, Nikos Grammalidis, Sotiris Grammalidis Malassiotis
Tracking and recognition of human motion has become an important research area in computer vision. In real world conditions it constitutes a... Sample PDF
Advances in Tracking and Recognition of Human Motion
Chapter 13
Bruce MacLennan
It is commonly supposed that software engineering is—and should be—focused on technical and scientific issues, such as correctness, efficiency... Sample PDF
Aesthetics in Software Engineering
Chapter 14
Lynette Kvasny, Fay Cobb Payton
The Internet has become an integral part of America’s entertainment, communication, and information culture. Since the mid 1990s, the Internet has... Sample PDF
African-Americans and the Digital Divide
Chapter 15
Agent Technology  (pages 83-87)
J.J. Ch. Meyer
Agent technology is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of computer science on the borderline of artificial intelligence and software engineering that... Sample PDF
Agent Technology
Chapter 16
V.K. Murthy, E.V. Krishnamurthy
This article describes in brief the design of agent-based negotiation system in e-marketing. Such a negotiation scheme requires the construction of... Sample PDF
Agent-Based Negotiation in E-Marketing
Chapter 17
Kuldar Taveter, Leon Sterling
Over the past decade, the target environment for software development has complexified dramatically. Software systems must now operate robustly in a... Sample PDF
Agent-Oriented Software Engineering
Chapter 18
Sheng-Uei Guan
An emerging outcome of the popularization of the Internet are electronic commerce and payment systems, which present great opportunities for... Sample PDF
Agents and Payment Systems in E-Commerce
Chapter 19
Nancy Alexopoulou, Panagiotis Kanellis, Drakoulis Martakos
Operating in highly turbulent environments, organizations today are faced with the need to continually adjust their infrastructure and strategies in... Sample PDF
Agile Information Technology Infrastructures
Chapter 20
Meira Levy, Orit Hazzan
This article is based on the assumption that Knowledge Management (KM) is a vital part of any project. Based on this working assumption, the purpose... Sample PDF
Agile Knowledge Management
Chapter 21
John McAvoy, David Sammon
Discussions on agile software development methodologies have a tendency to develop into an argument between proponents of agile methods and... Sample PDF
Agile Methodology Adoption
Chapter 22
El-Sayed Aboud Zeid
The role of knowledge as a crucial asset for and enterprise’s survival and advancement has been recognized by several researchers (e.g., von Krogh... Sample PDF
Alignment of Businses and Knowledge Management Strategy
Chapter 23
AC Leonard
International data corportation surveyed 283 top executives across three vertical industries: finance, manufacturing, and retail/wholesale. They... Sample PDF
Alignment with Sound Relationships and SLA Support
Chapter 24
Caroline Byrne, Michael O’Grady, Gregory O’Hare
Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a relatively new and distinct interpretation of the mobile computing paradigm. However, its recognition that embedded... Sample PDF
Ambient Intelligence in Perspective
Chapter 25
Masoud Mohammadian
Computational intelligence techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, and evolutionary algorithms have been applied successfully in the place... Sample PDF
Analysis and Modelling of Hierarchical Fuzzy Logical Systems
Chapter 26
Marga Nácher, Carlos Tavares Calafate, Juan-Carlos Cano, Pietro Manzoni
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Anonymous Communications in Computer Networks
Chapter 27
Alex A. Freitas, Rafael S. Parpinelli, Heitor S. Lopes
Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a relatively new computational intelligence paradigm inspired by the behavior of natural ants (Dorigo & Stutzle... Sample PDF
Ant Colony Algorithms for Data Classification
Chapter 28
Catherine M. Ridings, David Gefen
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Antecedents of Trust in Online Communities
Chapter 29
Mikael Wiberg
Just a couple of years ago several mobile phone operators and others (e.g., Helal, 1999; Galambos, 2002; Ilderem, 2005) pushed forward “anytime... Sample PDF
Anytime, Anywhere Mobility
Chapter 30
Ali Reza Montazemi, Akbar Esfahanipour
to capture perceived relationships of attributes related to ill-structured decision problems that decision makers have to face. This article... Sample PDF
Application of Cognitive Map in Knowledge Management
Chapter 31
Mary Jane Lenard, Pervaiz Alam
In light of recent reporting of the failures of some of the major publicly-held companies in the U.S. (e.g., Enron & WorldCom), it has become... Sample PDF
Application of Fuzzy Logic to Fraud Detection
Chapter 32
Matthew W. Guah, Wendy L. Currie
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Application Service Provision for Intelligent Enterprises
Chapter 33
Natalie Clewley, Sherry Y. Chen, Xiaohui Liu
With the explosion in the amount of data produced in commercial environments, organizations are faced with the challenge of how to collect, analyze... Sample PDF
Applications for Data Mining Techniques in Customer Relationship Management
Chapter 34
Nidia J. Moncallo, Pilar Herrero, Luis Joyanes
The evolution of ICT and the influence over educational areas has been very significant in recent years, changing conception of learning... Sample PDF
Applying a Teaching Strategy to Create a Collaborative Educational Mode
Chapter 35
David Dwayne Williams
As indicated by the wide range of topics addressed by this Encyclopedia, the fields of information science and technology have grown exponentially.... Sample PDF
Applying Evaluation to Information Science and Technology
Chapter 36
Dávid Tegze, Mihály Orosz, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
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An Approach to Optimize Multicast Transport Protocols
Chapter 37
José Aurelio Medina-Garrido, María José Crisóstomo-Acevedo
Information technologies have become essential for most businesses, including those in the healthcare industry (Chau & Hu, 2004; Rodger &... Sample PDF
Approaches to Telemedicine
Chapter 38
Tony C. Shan, Winnie W. Hua
The e-business models in today’s globalized business world demand ever-increasing flexibility, responsiveness, and agility of information technology... Sample PDF
Architecture Methods and Frameworks Overview
Chapter 39
Matthias Häsel
Many researchers regard multiplayer online games as the future of the interactive entertainment industry (Brun, Safaei, & Boustead, 2006; El Rhalibi... Sample PDF
Architectures for Rich Internet Real-Time Games
Chapter 40
Mark Kieler, Michael J. West
The authors define “intellectual creations” as human expressions embodied in text, music, or other forms of art. Increasingly, we encode these... Sample PDF
Archival Issues Related to Digital Creations
Chapter 41
Roy Rada
The techniques of artificial intelligence include knowledgebased, machine learning, and natural language processing techniques. The discipline of... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence and Investing
Chapter 42
Carey Goh, Henry M.K. Mok, Rob Law
The tourism industry has become one of the fastest growing industries in the world, with international tourism flows in year 2006 more than doubled... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence Applications in Tourism
Chapter 43
Leopoldo Colmenares
An enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is an integrated set of programs that provides support for core organizational activities. ERP is a... Sample PDF
Assessing Critical Success Factors of ERP Implementation
Chapter 44
Joseph Bradley
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems claim to meet the information needs of organizations. These off-the-shelf software packages replace hard... Sample PDF
Assessing ERP Risks and Rewards
Chapter 45
Ioannis N. Kouris, Christos Makris, Evangelos Theodoridis, Athanasios Tsakalidis
In recent years, we have witnessed an explosive growth in the amount of data generated and stored from practically all possible fields (e.g.... Sample PDF
Association Rules Mining for Retail Organizations
Chapter 46
Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan
Attribute grammars are a framework for defining semantics of programming languages in a syntax-directed fashion. In this chapter, we define... Sample PDF
Attribute Grammars and Their Applications
Chapter 47
Olga De Troyer
In the last years, Web systems have evolved from a simple collection of hypertext pages toward applications supporting complex (business)... Sample PDF
Audience-Drive Design Approach for Web Systems
Chapter 48
Simon Dixon
The last decade has seen a revolution in the use of digital audio: The CD, which one decade earlier had taken over the home audio market, is... Sample PDF
Audio Analysis Applications for Music
Chapter 49
Zippy Erlich, Moshe Zviran
With the rapid growth of networked systems and applications such as e-commerce, the demand for effective computer security is increasing. Most... Sample PDF
Authentication Methods for Computer Systems Security
Chapter 50
Autognomic Intellisite  (pages 294-299)
Jon Ray Hamann
The 20th century saw the beginning of the evolution of learning machines from the growth of Boolean computers into Bayesian inference machines... Sample PDF
Autognomic Intellisite
Chapter 51
J. William Holland
Criminal Justice has been one of the public sectors in the forefront of the move toward automation and digital government. The effect of... Sample PDF
Automation of American Criminal Justice
Chapter 52
El-Sayed Abou-Zeid
In the last decade a new generation of information systems (ISs), such as Web-based information systems and knowledge management support systems... Sample PDF
Autopoietic Approach for Information System and Knowledge Management System Development
Chapter 53
Y. Goletsis, C. Papaloukas, Th. Exarhos, C.D. Katsis
Bankruptcy prediction or corporate failure is considered a classic issue in both, academic and business communities. Bankruptcy risk is one of the... Sample PDF
Bankruptcy Prediction through Artificial Intelligence
Chapter 54
Alexander Richter, Volker Derballa
Knowledge and Knowledge Management (KM) are gaining more and more attention in theory and practice. This development can be observed by an... Sample PDF
Barriers to Successful Knowledge Management
Chapter 55
Neil F. Doherty, Malcolm King
Information technology is now a ubiquitous and increasingly critical part of the fabric of the modern organization, supporting its day-to-day... Sample PDF
Benefits Realization through the Treatment of Organizational Issues
Chapter 56
Debra A. Major, Valerie L. Morganson
Researchers over the last decade have generated a body of literature which is informed by management research and theory and tailored to the unique... Sample PDF
Best Practices for IS&T Supervisors
Chapter 57
Frédéric Adam, Jean-Charles Pomerol
After more than 30 years of research on how the work of managers can be supported by computers, the observation that developing computer systems... Sample PDF
Better Executive Information with the Dashboard Approach
Chapter 58
Scott Nicholson, Jeffrey Stanton
Most people think of a library as the little brick building in the heart of their community or the big brick building in the center of a campus.... Sample PDF
Bibliomining for Library Decision-Making
Chapter 59
Biometric Authentication  (pages 346-354)
Julien Mahier, Marc Pasquet, Christophe Rosenberger, Félix Cuozzo
For ages, humans recognized themselves according to different characteristics (appearance, behavior…). Biometrics is a well known technique to... Sample PDF
Biometric Authentication
Chapter 60
Hunny Mehrotra, Pratyush Mishra, Phalguni Gupta
In today’s high-speed world, millions of transactions occur every minute. For these transactions, data need to be readily available for the genuine... Sample PDF
Biometric Identification Techniques
Chapter 61
Cota Navin Gupta, Ramaswamy Palaniappan
Recognizing humans based upon one’s intrinsic physical or behavioral traits has been gaining acceptance and is termed as biometrics. It involves... Sample PDF
Biometric Paradigm Using Visual Evoked Potential
Chapter 62
Biometric Technologies  (pages 369-374)
Yingzi ("Eliza") Du
Biometrics is an emerging technology for automatic human identification and verification using unique biological traits (Woodward, Orlans, &... Sample PDF
Biometric Technologies
Chapter 63
Blended Learning Models  (pages 375-382)
Charles R. Graham
Technological advances and widespread access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) have facilitated the rapid growth of blended... Sample PDF
Blended Learning Models
Chapter 64
Bonded Design  (pages 383-388)
Andrew Large, Valerie Nesset
It is hardly controversial to argue for user involvement in the technology design process: the issue rather is the extent of that involvement and... Sample PDF
Bonded Design
Chapter 65
Anna Malina
Perceptions of the different meanings and issues surrounding the term digital divide have set the scene for policy development in various countries.... Sample PDF
Bridging the Digital Divide in Scotland
Chapter 66
Brian Whitworth
The term sociotechnical was introduced by the Tavistock Institute in the 1950’s for manufacturing cases where the needs of technology confronted... Sample PDF
A Brief Introduction to Sociotechnical Systems
Chapter 67
István Mezgár
Thanks to rapidly developing information and communication technologies, the complexity of networked organizations has become very high, so the... Sample PDF
Building and Management of Trust in Networked Information Systems
Chapter 68
John M. Carroll
Educational technology provides many examples of how efficient software development and deployment is not enough. Teachers work in a complex and... Sample PDF
Building Educational Technology Partnerships through Participatory Design
Chapter 69
Helen Thompson
Information communications technology (ICT) has been identified as a key enabler in the achievement of regional and rural success, particularly in... Sample PDF
Building Local Capacity via Scaleable Web-Based Services
Chapter 70
Susan A. Baim
Over the past two decades, police departments around the globe have been involved in a slow, but steady transition from call-based policing to... Sample PDF
Building Police/Community Relations through Virtual Communities
Chapter 71
Bo Chen, Wenbing Zhao
Online gaming has become a multibillion-dollar industry. The security and dependability of such games are critical for both the game providers and... Sample PDF
Building Secure and Dependable Online Gaming Applications
Chapter 72
Building Wireless Grids  (pages 433-437)
Marlyn Kemper Littman
The accelerating implementation and remarkable popularity of sophisticated mobile devices, including notebook computers, cellular phones, sensors... Sample PDF
Building Wireless Grids
Chapter 73
Ronaldo Zwicker
IT diffusion is central to the new economy and is reflected in a process of informatization of society and businesses. Although initially coined to... Sample PDF
Business Informatization Level
Chapter 74
Calin Gurau
The traditional channels of marketing are gradually being transformed by, or assimilated into, the global network represented by the Internet and... Sample PDF
Business IT Systems Implementation
Chapter 75
Daniel Brandon Jr.
The UML (Unified Modeling Language) has become a standard in design of object oriented computer systems (Schach, 2004). UML provides for the use of... Sample PDF
Business Model Application of UML Stereotypes
Chapter 76
Christos Bouras, Apostolos Gkamas, George Theophilopoulos, Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos
This article examines the most effective business model for the optimal exploitation of the currently developing broadband metropolitan area... Sample PDF
Business Models for Municipal Broadband Networks
Chapter 77
Vincent Yen
In large organizations, typical systems portfolios consist of a mix of legacy systems, proprietary applications, databases, off-the-shelf packages... Sample PDF
Business Process and Workflow Modeling in Web Services
Chapter 78
John S. Edwards
Knowledge has been a subject of interest and inquiry for thousands of years since at least the time of the ancient Greeks, and no doubt even before... Sample PDF
Business Processes and Knowledge Management
Chapter 79
Fang Zhao
In today’s e-business, context, technology, customers, competitors, and partners can change rapidly. Technology can become obsolete in the blink of... Sample PDF
Business Relationships and Organizational Structures in E-Business
Chapter 80
Subrata Chakrabarty
Firms pursue various strategies to exploit resources and capabilities and gain a competitive advantage (Porter, 1996). Interfirm relationships are... Sample PDF
Business Strategies for Outsourcing Information Technology Work
Chapter 81
Janet Toland, Robert Klepper
Electronic commerce describes the process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks... Sample PDF
Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce in Developing Countries
Chapter 82
Christophe Cruz, Christophe Nicolle
Decisions taken during the conception phases in huge architectural projects influence a lot the cost and the schedule of the building construction.... Sample PDF
CAD Software and Interoperability
Chapter 83
Fatemeh Hosseinkhah, Hassan Ashktorab, Ranjit Veen, M. Mehdi Owrang O.
Modern electronic health records are designed to capture and render vast quantities of clinical data during the health care process. Technological... Sample PDF
Challenges in Data Mining on Medical Databases
Chapter 84
Barbara Flügge, Alexander Schmidt
True e-enabled collaboration has been assessed for many years. With the growing reach of companies’ business and cross-border trade, the entire... Sample PDF
Challenges of Interoperability in an Ecosystem
Chapter 85
M. Minhat, X.W. Xu
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) systems are the “backbones” of modern manufacturing industry for over the last 50 years and the machine tools have... Sample PDF
Characteristics and Technologies of Advanced CNC Systems
Chapter 86
Chief Knowledge Officers  (pages 527-531)
Richard T. Herschel
Knowledge management (KM) refers to a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse... Sample PDF
Chief Knowledge Officers
Chapter 87
Joseph Wood, Hui-Lien Tung, James Grayson, Christian Poppeliers, W.F. Lawless
After this article introduction, we review the prevailing theory of organizations, and what it means to organizational science and the new... Sample PDF
A Classical Uncertainty Principle for Organizations
Chapter 88
Jane E. Klobas, Stefano Renzi
The World Wide Web has become a mature platform for the support of learning at universities. Several patterns have emerged, both in the nature of... Sample PDF
A Classification of Approaches to Web-Enhanced Learning
Chapter 89
Rui G. Pereira, Mário M. Freire
Semantic Web is the name of the next generation World Wide Web, that has been recently proposed by Tim Berners-Lee and the World Wide Web Consortium... Sample PDF
Classification of Semantic Web Technologies
Chapter 90
O.K.B Barima
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Client Expectations in Virtual Construction Concepts
Chapter 91
Kevin E. Voges
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Cluster Analysis Using Rough Clustering and k-Means Clustering
Chapter 92
Christos Makris, Nikos Tsirakis
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Clustering Algorithms for Data Streams
Chapter 93
Felix B. Tan, M. Gordon Hunter
The existence and significance of cognition in organizations and its influence on patterns of behaviour in organizations and organizational outcomes... Sample PDF
Cognitive Research in Information Systems
Chapter 94
Eshaa M. Alkhalifa
Multimedia systems waltzed into the lives of students and educators without allowing anyone the time required for the development of suitable... Sample PDF
A Cognitively-Based Framework for Evaluating Multimedia Systems
Chapter 95
Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos, Andreas Konstantinidis
Computer supported collaboration is one of the most promising innovations to improve teaching, learning, and collaborating with the help of modern... Sample PDF
Collaborative Virtual Environments
Chapter 96
Chi Kin Chan
The traditional approach to forecasting involves choosing the forecasting method judged most appropriate of the available methods and applying it to... Sample PDF
Combination of Forecasts in Data Mining
Chapter 97
Hannu Salmela, Juha Pärnistö
Since the 1990s, services characterized by a considerable geographical distance between the service person and the customer have become increasingly... Sample PDF
Combining Local and Global Expertise in Services
Chapter 98
Pankaj Kamthan
In software engineering, separating problem and solutionlevel concerns and analyzing each of them in an abstract manner are established principles... Sample PDF
Communicability of Natural Language in Software Representations
Chapter 99
O.K.B. Barima
In recent times the use of the virtual and allied concepts in the delivery of tasks in the construction industry has received attention in... Sample PDF
Communication Integration in Virtual Construction
Chapter 100
Terry Halpin
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) was adopted by the Object Management Group (OMG) in 1997 as a language for object-oriented (OO) analysis and... Sample PDF
A Comparison of Data Modeling in UML and ORM
Chapter 101
Jorge H. Doorn, Marcela Ridao
The difficulties that software developers must face to understand and elicit clients’ and users’ necessities are widely known. The more complex the... Sample PDF
Completeness Concerns in Requirements Engineering
Chapter 102
Leoni Warne, Helen Hasan, Henry Linger
In modern organizations, information, and particularly knowledge, is known to be the most strategically important resource. The defining... Sample PDF
Complex Organizations and Information Systems
Chapter 103
Juha Kettunen, Ari Putkonen, Ursula Hyrkkänen
Working environments are changing from the traditional model. An increasing amount of work takes place in networked and virtual environments which... Sample PDF
Complexity Factors in Networked and Virtual Working Environments
Chapter 104
Computational Biology  (pages 641-646)
Andrew LaBrunda, Michelle LaBrunda
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Computational Biology
Chapter 105
Pieter Blignaut, Andries Burger, Theo McDonald, Janse Tolmie
Computers in the workplace are a given. Although the advantages of computers are well-known and proven, many people still try to avoid using them.... Sample PDF
Computer Attitude and Anxiety
Chapter 106
Dionysios Politis, Ioannis Stamelos, Dimitrios Margounakis
One of the most intriguing fields of human-computer interaction (HCI) involves the communication aspects of computer music interfaces. Music is a... Sample PDF
Computer Music Interface Evaluation
Chapter 107
Markos G. Tsipouras, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Lambros K. Michalis
In this chapter, the field of computer-aided diagnosis of cardiacdiac arrhythmias is reviewed, methodologies are presented, and current trends are... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Cardiac Arrhythmias
Chapter 108
Anthony Scime
Information technology (IT) is an umbrella term that encompasses disciplines dealing with the computer and its functions. These disciplines... Sample PDF
Computing Curriculum Analysis and Development
Chapter 109
Alexandr Savinov
In the concept-oriented programming (CoP) (Savinov, 2005, 2007), the main idea is common to many other approaches and consists in raising the... Sample PDF
Concept-Oriented Programming
Chapter 110
Dohoon Kim
The enterprise intelligence through e-transformation is one of the cornerstones of the next-generation e-business era where the Internet constitutes... Sample PDF
Concepts and Dynamics of the Application Service Provider Industry
Chapter 111
Haim Kilov, Ira Sack
The proverbial communication gap between business and IT experts is mostly due to the fact that what is considered obvious to some business experts... Sample PDF
Conceptual Commonalities in Modeling of Business and IT Artifacts
Chapter 112
Luciano Caroprese, Cristian Molinaro, Irina Trubitsyna, Ester Zumpano
Integrating data from different sources consists of two main steps, the first in which the various relations are merged together, and the second in... Sample PDF
Consistent Queries over Databases with Integrity Constraints
Chapter 113
Isabel Ramos, João Álvaro Carvalho
Scientific or organizational knowledge creation has been addressed from different perspectives along the history of science and, in particular, of... Sample PDF
Constructionist Organizational Data Mining
Chapter 114
Kathaleen Reid-Martinez, Linda D. Grooms, Mihai C. Bocarnea
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Constructivism in Online Distance Education
Chapter 115
Alessio Gaspar, Sarah Langevin, Naomi Boyer
Computer programming involves more than thinking of a design and typing the code to implement it. While coding, professional programmers are... Sample PDF
Constructivist Apprenticeship through Antagonistic Programming Activities
Chapter 116
Marc Pasquet, Delphine Vacquez, Joan Reynaud, Félix Cuozzo
The radio frequency identification (RFID) reading technology enables the transfer, by radio, of information from electronic circuit to a reader... Sample PDF
Contactless Payment with RFID and NFC
Chapter 117
Yasmin Ibrahim
The social issue of the “digital divide” has courted much political and scholarly attention in the last decade. There is, however, less consensus... Sample PDF
Contemporary Concerns of Digital Divide in an Information Society
Chapter 118
Robert S. Owen, Bosede Aworuwa
This article discusses the principles of two qualitatively different and somewhat competing instructional designs from the 1950s and 1960s, linear... Sample PDF
Contemporary Instructional Design
Chapter 119
Jerry P. Galloway
To speak of contemporary issues in instructional technology is like counting wave crests in a stormy ocean: they are changing quickly all the time.... Sample PDF
Contemporary Issues in Teaching and Learning with Technology
Chapter 120
Herbert Kotzab
Retailing can be defined in two ways, either as a set of functions that adds value to products/services that are sold to end users (functional... Sample PDF
Contemporary IT-Assisted Retail Management
Chapter 121
Alan Wee-Chung Liew, Ngai-Fong Law
With the rapid growth of Internet and multimedia systems, the use of visual information has increased enormously, such that indexing and retrieval... Sample PDF
Content-Based Image Retrieval
Chapter 122
Yung-Kuan Chan, Chin-Chen Chang
Because of the demand for efficient management in images, much attention has been paid to image retrieval over the past few years. The text-based... Sample PDF
Content-Based Retrieval Concept
Chapter 123
Gábor Richly, Gábor Hosszú, Ferenc Kovács
The article presents a novel approach to search in shared audio file storages such as P2P-based systems. The proposed method enables the recognition... Sample PDF
A Content-Sensitive Approach to Search in Shared File Storages
Chapter 124
Farhad Daneshgar
Like many existing ERP models (e.g., Podolsky, 1998; Van Stijn & Wensley, 2001), the OOAB framework is also based on a widely accepted assumption... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Framework for ERP
Chapter 125
John R. Durrett, Lisa Burnell, John W. Priest
In this article, we investigate the potential of using a synthesis of organizational research, traditional systems analysis techniques, and... Sample PDF
Contingency Theory, Agent-Based Systems, and a Virtual Advisor
Chapter 126
R. Gelbard, J. Kantor, L. Edelist
“According to the Standish Group CHAOS Report 2003, each year in the USA there are approximately 175,000 projects in IT application development that... Sample PDF
Contributions of Information Technology Tools to Project's Accounting and Financing
Chapter 127
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Rajeev K. Bali
Recently, the world has witnessed several large scale natural disasters: the Tsunami that devastated many of the countries around the rim of the... Sample PDF
Creating Order from Chaos: Application of the Intelligence Continuum for Emergency and Disaster Scenarios
Chapter 128
Graciela D.S. Hadad, Jorge H. Doorn
Requirements engineering (RE) is the area of software engineering responsible for the elicitation and definition of the software system... Sample PDF
Creating Software System Context Glossaries
Chapter 129
Nilmini Wickramasinghe
The information age has made information communication technology (ICT) a necessity for conducting business. This in turn has led to the exponential... Sample PDF
Creating Superior Knowledge Discovery Solutions
Chapter 130
André Carlos Ponce de Leon Ferreira de Carvalho, João Manuel Portela Gama, Teresa Bernarda Ludermir
The widespread use of databases and the fast increase of the volume of data they store are creating a problem and a new opportunity for credit... Sample PDF
Credit Risk Assessment and Data Mining
Chapter 131
Philip J. Dobson
Many recent articles from within the information systems (IS) arena present an old-fashioned view of realism. For example, Iivari, Hirschheim, and... Sample PDF
Critical Realism as an Underlying Philosophy for IS Research
Chapter 132
Sven A. Carlsson
The information systems (IS) field is dominated by positivistic research approaches and theories (Chen & Hirschheim, 2004). IS scholars have pointed... Sample PDF
Critical Realist Information Systems Research
Chapter 133
Ben Martz, Venkat Reddy
Distance education is playing an ever-growing role in the education industry. As such, it is prudent to explore and understand driving conditions... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors for Distance Education Programs
Chapter 134
Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Jonathan L. Schaffer
Within the umbrella of e-commerce, one area, e-health, has yet to reach its full potential in many developed countries, let alone developing... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors for E-Health
Chapter 135
John H. Nugent, David Gordon
As in all industries, in order to win in a market and set an appropriate strategy, it is important to know as much as possible about that market and... Sample PDF
Critical Trends, Tools, and Issues in Telecommunications
Chapter 136
Wai K. Law
Western organizations have led the globalization of business operations, especially in the deployment of multi-domestic strategy. The decentralized... Sample PDF
Cross-Cultural Challenges for Information Resources Management
Chapter 137
Elena Karahanna, Roberto Evaristo, Mark Srite
“Globalization of business highlights the need to understand the management of organizations that span different nations and cultures” (Srite et... Sample PDF
Cross-Cultural Research in MIS
Chapter 138
Yingqin Zhong, John Lim
Globalization makes cultural diversity a pertinent factor in e-learning, as distributed learning teams with mixed cultural backgrounds become... Sample PDF
Cultural Diversity in Collaborative Learning Systems
Chapter 139
Lucas Walsh
This article discusses ongoing cultural challenges faced by distance education providers seeking to deliver programs of study transnationally.... Sample PDF
Cultural Issues in the Globalisation of Distance Education
Chapter 140
Manuel J. Sanchez-Franco, Francisco José Martínez López
In view of academic and theoretical perspective, the effects of culture on IS acceptance have been studied by researchers mostly based on Hofstede’s... Sample PDF
Cultural Motives in Information Systems Acceptance and Use
Chapter 141
Moez Limayem, Adel Hendaoui
Managers spend a considerable part of their work time in meetings participating in group decision making. Group support systems (GSSs) are adopted... Sample PDF
Culture and Anonymity in GSS Meetings
Chapter 142
Göran Pulkkis, Kaj Grahn, Peik Åström
Network security is defined as “a set of procedures, practices and technologies for protecting network servers, network users and their surrounding... Sample PDF
Current Network Security Technology
Chapter 143
Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Chanan S. Syan, Raveendran Paramesran
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the electrical activity of the brain recorded by electrodes placed on the scalp. EEG signals are generally... Sample PDF
Current Practices in Electroencephalogram- Based Brain-Computer Interfaces
Chapter 144
Jounghae Bang, Nikhilesh Dholakiam, Lutz Hamel, Seung-Kyoon Shin
Customer relationships are increasingly central to business success (Kotler, 1997; Reichheld & Sasser, 1990). Acquiring new customers is five to... Sample PDF
Customer Relationship Management and Knowledge Discovery in Database
Chapter 145
Michael W. Dixon, Johan M. Karlsson, Tanya J. McGill
Information and communications technology (ICT) has increasingly influenced higher education. Computer-based packages and other learning objects... Sample PDF
Data Communications and E-Learning
Chapter 146
Agustinus Borgy Waluyo, Bala Srinivasan, David Taniar
The development of wireless technology has led to mobile computing, a new era in data communication and processing (Barbara, 1999; Myers & Beigl... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination in Mobile Databases
Chapter 147
Data Mining  (pages 921-926)
Sherry Y. Chen, Xiaohui Liu
There is an explosion in the amount of data that organizations generate, collect, and store. Organizations are gradually relying more on new... Sample PDF
Data Mining
Chapter 148
Ye-Sho Chen, Grace Hua, Bob Justis
Franchising has been a popular approach given the high rate of business failures (Justis & Judd, 2002; Thomas & Seid, 2000). Its popularity... Sample PDF
Data Mining in Franchising
Chapter 149
Data Mining in Tourism  (pages 936-940)
Indranil Bose
Everyday, millions of people travel around the globe for business, vacations, sightseeing, or other reasons. An astronomical amount of money is... Sample PDF
Data Mining in Tourism
Chapter 150
Damianos Chatziantoniou, George Doukidis
Traditional decision support systems (DSS) and executive information systems (EIS) gather and present information from several sources for business... Sample PDF
Data Streams as an Element of Modern Decision Support
Chapter 151
Database Benchmarks  (pages 950-954)
Jérôme Darmont
Performance measurement tools are very important, both for designers and users of Database Management Systems (DBMSs). Performance evaluation is... Sample PDF
Database Benchmarks
Chapter 152
Emmanuel Udoh
The capability of the Web to link information over the Internet has popularized computer science to the public. But it is the grid that will enable... Sample PDF
Database Integration in the Grid Infrastructure
Chapter 153
Hendrik Decker, Davide Martinenghi
Integrity constraints (or simply “constraints”) are formal representations of invariant conditions for the semantic correctness of database records.... Sample PDF
Database Integrity Checking
Chapter 154
Hong Va Leong
M-commerce (mobile commerce) applications have evolved out of e-commerce (electronic commerce) applications, riding on recent advancement in... Sample PDF
Database Support for M-Commerce and L-Commerce
Chapter 155
Yanqing Duan, Mark Xu
Decision support systems (DSSs) are widely used in many organisations (Arslan et al., 2004; Belecheanu et al., 2003; Dey, 2001; Gopalakrishnan et... Sample PDF
Decision Support Systems in Small Businesses
Chapter 156
Guisseppi Forgionne, Manuel Mora, Jatinder N.D. Gupta, Ovsei Gelman
Decision-making support systems (DMSS) are computerbased information systems designed to support some or all phases of the decision-making process... Sample PDF
Decision-Making Support Systems
Chapter 157
Kathryn A. Marold
A decade of hindsight allows us to examine the phenomenon of Web-based course delivery and evaluate its successes and failures. When Web-delivered... Sample PDF
Delivering Web-Based Education
Chapter 158
Democratic E-Governance  (pages 990-995)
Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko
The changing role of the state and a managerialist view of the operations of public sector organizations gave rise to the idea of new public... Sample PDF
Democratic E-Governance
Chapter 159
Janice C. Sipior
This article discusses the expert system (ES) project champion by examining the experiences of Ciba-Geigy Corporation with an ES project, impeded by... Sample PDF
Departure of the Expert Systems Project Champion
Chapter 160
Juan-Carlos Cano, Carlos Tavares Calafate, Jose Cano, Pietro Manzoni
Communication technologies are currently addressing our daily lives. Internet, fixed-line networks, wireless networks, and sensor technologies are... Sample PDF
Deploying Pervasive Technologies
Chapter 161
María Virginia Mauco, María Carmen Leonardi, Daniel Riesco
Formal methods have come into use for the construction of real systems as they help to increase software quality and reliability, and even though... Sample PDF
Deriving Formal Specifications from Natural Language Requirements
Chapter 162
Gordana Jovanovic Dolecek
Digital signal processing (DSP) is an area of engineering that “has seen explosive growth during the past three decades” (Mitra, 2005). Its rapid... Sample PDF
Design and Applications of Digital Filters
Chapter 163
Zakaria Maamar
In the field of Web services (Benatallah, Sheng, & Dumas, 2003; Bentahar, Maamar, Benslimane, & Thiran, 2007; Medjahed & Bouguettaya, 2005), a... Sample PDF
Design and Development of Communities of Web Services
Chapter 164
M. Daud Ahmed, David Sundaram
Scenarios have been defined in many ways, for example, a management tool for identifying a plausible future (Porter, 1985; Schwartz, 1991; Ringland... Sample PDF
Design and Implementation of Scenario Management Systems
Chapter 165
Judith V. Boettcher
The importance of design for instructional programs — whether on campus or online or at a distance — increases with the possible combinations of... Sample PDF
Design Levels for Distance and Online Learning
Chapter 166
Jing Dong, Tu Peng, Yongtao Sun, Longji Tang, Yajing Zhao
Design patterns (Gamma, Helm, Johnson, & Vlissides, 1995) extract good solutions to standard problems in a particular context. Modern software... Sample PDF
Design Patterns from Theory to Practice
Chapter 167
Jana Polgar
Agents are viewed as the next significant software abstraction, and it is expected they will become as ubiquitous as graphical user interfaces are... Sample PDF
Designing Agents with Negotiation Capabilities
Chapter 168
Sandro Scielzo, Stephen M. Fiore, Haydee M. Cuevas
The ubiquitous use of information technology (IT) promotes a fast-paced and dynamic training environment with enormous potential for performance... Sample PDF
Designing Learner-Centered Multimedia Technology
Chapter 169
Stu Westin
For over a decade the term digital divide has been used to refer to discrepancies between various population segments in terms of access to... Sample PDF
Designing Web Systems for Adaptive Technology
Chapter 170
Yangil Park, Jeng-Chung Chen
Web Service (WS) is an open standard software component that uses Extensible Markup Language (XML) functions to access and exchange data via... Sample PDF
Developing a Web Service Security Framework
Chapter 171
Martha Henckell, Michelle Kilburn, David Starrett
As with any new program, the chance of failure runs high and distance education, in comparison with the longevity of traditional education, is... Sample PDF
Developing an Effective Online Evaluation System
Chapter 172
Brian H. Cameron
Enterprise systems design, implementation, and integration are focal points for business and information technology. Businesses must change... Sample PDF
Developing the Enterprise Architect Perspective
Chapter 173
Niki Panteli
During the last few years, there has been an increasing acknowledgment of the importance of trust in business interactions within the management and... Sample PDF
Developing Trust in Virtual Teams
Chapter 174
Petek Askar, Ugur Halici
Most of the discussions related to education are about technological innovations. Indeed as Rogers (1995) stated, we often use the word “innovation”... Sample PDF
Diffusion of E-Learning as an Educational Innovation
Chapter 175
Virginia Ilie, Craig Van Slyke, Hao Lou, John Day
Some information and communication technologies (ICT) that support groups have become tightly engrained in the fabric of organizational life, but... Sample PDF
A Diffusion-Based Investigation into the Use of Lotus Domino Discussion Databases
Chapter 176
Ramesh Subramanian
“DAM. Looks like something you might say if you couldn’t find a photograph you needed for a front-page story. But DAM—digital asset management—is... Sample PDF
Digital Asset Management Concepts
Chapter 177
Francesco Amoretti, Clementina Casula
Concerns about inequalities deriving from the penetration of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) have only recently become a... Sample PDF
From Digital Divides to Digital Inequalities
Chapter 178
Sauman Chu
Since the 1970s, computer games have become more and more a part of our culture. For the past 20-30 years, some studies have shown that certain... Sample PDF
Digital Game-Based Learning in Higher Education
Chapter 179
Kumbesan Sandrasegaran, Xiaoan Huang
The daily activities of humans and business are increasingly depending on the usage of (digital) identity for interaction with other parties and for... Sample PDF
Digital Identity in Current Networks
Chapter 180
Ioannis Tarnanas, Vassilios Kikis
That portion of the Internet known as the World Wide Web has been riding an exponential growth curve since 1994 (Network Wizards, 1999; Rutkowski... Sample PDF
Digital Knowledge Management Artifacts and the Growing Digital Divide: A New Research Agenda
Chapter 181
Steven Utsi, Joost Lowyck
As an educational setting, the traditional classroom fails to meet the learner’s need for suitable skills to learn with educational software. The... Sample PDF
Digital Literacy and the Position of the End-User
Chapter 182
Georgios Gardikis, Harilaos Koumaras, Anastasios Kourtis
Following the success and wide adoption of the European Digital Video Broadcasting for Terrestrial (DVB-T) standard for digital terrestrial... Sample PDF
Digital Video Broadcasting Applications for Handhelds
Chapter 183
Hsien-Chu Wu, Hei-Chuan Lin
In recent years, services on the Internet have greatly improved and are more reliable than before. However, the easy downloads and duplications on... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Techniques
Chapter 184
José Juan Pazos-Arias, Martín López-Nores
Developed countries have long been interested in distance education. This interest is growing due to the advance toward a global economy, because... Sample PDF
Distance Education Initiatives Apart from the PC
Chapter 185
Andreas Wiesner-Steiner, Heike Wiesner, Petra Luck
The cultural and technical history of e-learning scenarios can be traced back to traditional forms of distance studies, CD-Rom learning programmes... Sample PDF
Distance Education Teaching Methods in Childcare Management
Chapter 186
Distance Learning Overview  (pages 1174-1180)
Linda D. Grooms
The knowledge explosion, the increased complexity of human life, and the ubiquitous nature of technology coupled with the globalization of the... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Overview
Chapter 187
Panayiotis Zaphiris, Andrew Laghos, Giorgos Zacharia
This article presents an empirical study of an online learning community that collaborates with the course design team under the Participatory... Sample PDF
Distributed Construction through Participatory Design
Chapter 188
Carlos Granell, Laura Díaz, Michael Gould
The development of geographic information systems (GISs) has been highly influenced by the overall progress of information technology (IT). These... Sample PDF
Distributed Geospatial Processing Services
Chapter 189
Míriam Antón-Rodríguez, José-Fernando Díez-Higuera, Francisco-Javier Díaz-Pernas
The Internet has meant a social revolution, changing forever the way we communicate and how we access to the information. The growing expansion of... Sample PDF
Distributed Systems for Virtual Museums
Chapter 190
Yung-Kuan Chan, Yu-An Ho, Hsien-Chu Wu, Yen-Ping Chu
An optical character recognition (OCR) system enables a user to feed an article directly into an electronic computer file and translate the... Sample PDF
A Duplicate Chinese Document Image Retrieval System
Chapter 191
Giovanni M. Sacco
End-user interactive access to complex information is a key requirement in most applications, from knowledge management, to e-commerce, to portals.... Sample PDF
Dynamic Taxonomies for Intelligent Information Access
Chapter 192
Linda C. Wilkins, Elsie S.K. Chan
The shift towards electronically mediated texts entails major structural issues for libraries and the publishers and aggregators who supply them.... Sample PDF
E-Book Technology in Libraries
Chapter 193
Denis Trcek
Security as we perceive it today became a topic of research with the introduction of networked information systems, or networked ISs, in the early... Sample PDF
E-Business Systems Security in Intelligent Organizations
Chapter 194
Deborah S. Carstens, Stephanie M. Rockfield
Organizations are shedding conventional work team structures in favor of virtual team structures that are increasing in popularity (Lee-Kelley... Sample PDF
E-Collaboration in Organizations
Chapter 195
Yukiko Inoue
Twenty First Century Government is enabled by technology— policy is inspired by it, business change is delivered by it, customer and corporate... Sample PDF
Electronic Government and Integrated Library Systems
Chapter 196
E-Commerce Taxation Issues  (pages 1232-1236)
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Dan S. Petty
This article is designed to give the reader a balanced perspective on some of the issues surrounding the current discussions related to state and... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Taxation Issues
Chapter 197
E-Contracting Challenges  (pages 1237-1243)
Lai Xu, Paul de Vrieze
A decade ago, IT — through its innovations in business process reengineering — led the way in breaking down the inefficiencies within companies.... Sample PDF
E-Contracting Challenges
Chapter 198
Aberdeen Leila Borders, Wesley J. Johnston, Brett W. Young, Johnathan Yehuda Morpurgo
This article examines the issue of electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) in a manufacturing context. ECRM has been described as the... Sample PDF
eCRM Marketing Intelligence in a Manufacturing Environment
Chapter 199
Vicki L. Gregory
Libraries and information centers today are very different places from those that existed at the beginning of the 20th century, and very different... Sample PDF
Education for Library and Information Science Professionals
Chapter 200
A.C. Leonard
End users have expectations regarding services and support, and the quality thereof, provided by the supplier. They compare their expectations to... Sample PDF
The Effect of Sound Relationships on SLA's
Chapter 201
David Tuffley
Geographically dispersed project teams collaborating in virtual environments face a range of challenges in the successful completion of IT... Sample PDF
Effective Leadership of Virtual Teams
Chapter 202
Bishwajit Choudhary
For several years, researchers have argued that too much closeness or distance among the team members inhibits intellectual debate and lowers the... Sample PDF
Effective Learning Through Optimum Distance Among Team Members
Chapter 203
Effective Virtual Teams  (pages 1272-1278)
D. Sandy Staples, Ian K. Wong, Ann-Frances Cameron
Virtual teams are now being used by many organizations to enhance the productivity of their employees and to bring together a diversity of skills... Sample PDF
Effective Virtual Teams
Chapter 204
Kamel Karoui, Fakher Ben Ftima
With the development of the Internet, the number of people buying, selling, and performing transactions is expected to increase at a phenomenal... Sample PDF
Effectiveness of Web Services: Mobile Agents Approach in E-Commerce System
Chapter 205
Gee Woo Bock, Chen Way Siew, Youn Jung Kang
In the field of motivation, incentives are seen as a means of motivating people. Incentives are usually applied in the form of a scheme, such as... Sample PDF
Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Knowledge Sharing Initiatives
Chapter 206
Ljiljana D. Milic
A multirate filter can be defined as a digital filter in which the input data rate is changed in one or more intermediate points. With the efficient... Sample PDF
Efficient Multirate Filtering
Chapter 207
Nicolae Costake
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the definition of the still emerging strategic concept of e-societal management (e-SM) as a key... Sample PDF
From E-Governance Towards E-Societal Management
Chapter 208
Udo Richard Averweg
The transition of the global economy from an industrial focus to one based on knowledge and information presents numerous opportunities and... Sample PDF
E-Government and Digital Divide in Developing Countries
Chapter 209
Birgit Jaeger
The development of electronic or digital government (egovernment) has varied throughout the world. Although we give it the same name, we know from... Sample PDF
E-Government and E-Democracy in the Making
Chapter 210
Karim A. Remtulla
The global, knowledge-based economy is causing rapid change when it comes to workforce composition and the nature and character of work itself. At... Sample PDF
E-Learning Adaptability and Social Responsibility
Chapter 211
Norm Archer
Information systems that link businesses for the purpose of inter-organizational transfer of business transaction information (inter-organizational... Sample PDF
Electronic Marketplace Support for B2B Business Transactions
Chapter 212
Electronic Payment  (pages 1341-1348)
Marc Pasquet, Sylvain Vernois, Wilfried Aubry
Money has two main forms nowadays: the fiduciary money (coins, banknotes…) and the scriptural one (electronic or virtual). To pay goods, both are... Sample PDF
Electronic Payment
Chapter 213
Merilyn Burke
With the explosion of distance learning, academic libraries have had to change to meet the needs of their faculty, staff, and students. The ACRL... Sample PDF
E-Libraries and Distance Learning
Chapter 214
Kim Hassall
By 1998, arguably some four years after the Internet’s general user beginnings, many commentators did not doubt that Internet based home shopping... Sample PDF
E-Logistics: The Slowly Evolving Platform Undrepinning E-Business
Chapter 215
Sagarmay Deb
Images are generated everywhere from various sources. It could be satellite pictures, biomedical, scientific, entertainment, sports and many more... Sample PDF
Emergence Index in Image Databases
Chapter 216
Qile He, Yanqing Duan
Due to the rapid growth of e-commerce, the physical boundaries between parties in business transaction have been eliminated by the fast and... Sample PDF
Emerging Online E-Payment and Issues of Adoption
Chapter 217
Zhen Wang, John Lim, Elizabeth Koh
In this fast moving global working environment, negotiators are benefiting from the pervasive application of computers and networks in the... Sample PDF
E-Negotiation Support Systems Overview
Chapter 218
G. Manimaran
Real-time systems have undergone an evolution in the last several years in terms of their number and variety of applications, as well as in... Sample PDF
Energy Management in Wireless Networked Embedded Systems
Chapter 219
Jo Ann Oravec
Organizations have become more permeable— integrating more influences from the outside world— as participants engage in such online diversions as... Sample PDF
Enhancing Workplaces with Constructive Online Recreation
Chapter 220
Celeste See-pui Ng
A typical packaged software lifecycle, from the client-organization perspective, is packaged software selection followed by implementation... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Maintenance Metrics for Management
Chapter 221
Karl Kurbel
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a state-of-the-art approach to running organizations with the help of comprehensive information systems... Sample PDF
Enterprise Resource Planning and Integration
Chapter 222
Christian Serarols-Tarrés
The increasing development of information technologies (IT) has significantly affected both firms and markets. IT is currently changing the world in... Sample PDF
Entrepreneurship in the Internet
Chapter 223
Silvina Santana, Vítor Amorim
Data, information and knowledge are the heart of the insurance business. Each policy is composed of a set of data that can vary substantially. Risk... Sample PDF
Envisaging Business Integration in the Insurance Sector
Chapter 224
Joseph Bradley
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are off-theshelf software systems that claim to meet the information needs of organizations. These... Sample PDF
ERP and the Best-of-Breed Alternative
Chapter 225
Cesar Alexandre de Souza, Ronaldo Zwicker
The 1990’s witnessed an impressive growth of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems in the market of corporate IT solutions, and now they are an... Sample PDF
ERP Systems' Life Cycle: An Extended Version
Chapter 226
Pankaj Kamthan
In recent years, there has been a steady shift in the nature of Web applications. The vehicle of this transition of Web applications is us, the... Sample PDF
Establishing the Credibility of Social Web Applications
Chapter 227
Edward J. Szewczak
The collection of personal information by electronic technology (e-technology) and the possibility of misuse of that information are primary reasons... Sample PDF
E-Technology Challenges to Information Privacy
Chapter 228
Lynne D. Roberts, Leigh M. Pollock Smith
The rapid growth of the Internet has been accompanied by a growth in the number and types of virtual environments supporting computer-mediated... Sample PDF
Ethical Issues in Conducting Online Research
Chapter 229
Ethics of New Technologies  (pages 1450-1453)
Joe Gilbert
Information processing has been done through telling stories, drawing on cave walls, writing on parchment, printing books, talking on telephones... Sample PDF
Ethics of New Technologies
Chapter 230
John B. Nash, Christoph Richter, Heidrun Allert
The call for the integration of program evaluation into the development of computer-supported learning environments is ever increasing. Pushed not... Sample PDF
Evaluating Computer-Supported Learning Initiatives
Chapter 231
John Krogstie
According to Booch, Rumbaugh, and Jacobson (2005), developing a model for an industrial strength software system before its construction is... Sample PDF
Evaluating UML Using a Generic Quality Framework
Chapter 232
Dennis Guster, David Robinson, Richard Sundheim
The past decade could be classified as the “decade of connectivity”; in fact, it is commonplace for computers to be connected to an LAN, which in... Sample PDF
Evaluating Computer Network Packet Inter-Arrival Distributions
Chapter 233
Iwona Miliszewska
Distance education is an increasingly common educational alternative, as well as a key contributor to the newly competitive landscape in higher... Sample PDF
Evolution of Post-Secondary Distance Education
Chapter 234
Valerie Baker, Tim Coltman
One of the main strategic challenges for organizations today is to effectively manage change and stay competitive in the future. Change appears to... Sample PDF
Executive Judgement in E-Business Strategy
Chapter 235
Iris Reychav, Jacob Weisberg
The question of whether or not it is “worthwhile” for employees to share their knowledge has received a great deal of attention in the literature... Sample PDF
Explicit and Tacit Knowledge: To Share or Not to Share
Chapter 236
Benou Poulcheria
Pervasive computing is nowadays becoming a reality, exploiting the capabilities offered by both computing infrastructure and communication... Sample PDF
Exploiting Context in Mobile Applications
Chapter 237
Chandra S. Amaravadi
Data mining is a new and exciting technology to emerge in the last decade. It uses techniques from artificial intelligence and statistics to detect... Sample PDF
Exploiting the Strategic Potential of Data Mining
Chapter 238
Daniel Riesco, Marcela Daniele, Daniel Romero, German Montejano
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) allows to visualize, to specify, to build and to document the devices of a system that involves a great quantity... Sample PDF
Extensions to UML Using Stereotypes
Chapter 239
Pankaj Kamthan
The engineering environment of Web Applications is in a constant state of technological and social flux. These applications face challenges posed by... Sample PDF
Extreme Programming for Web Applications
Chapter 240
Ni Chang
A discussion of roles that an instructor plays in the traditional classroom does not seem to be an innovative focus in the educational field. Yet... Sample PDF
Facilitating Roles an E-Instructor Undertakes
Chapter 241
Ravi Nath, Vasudeva N.R. Murthy
There is overwhelming evidence that the use of the Internetenabled applications and solutions provide unprecedented economic growth opportunities.... Sample PDF
Factors for Global Diffusion of the Internet
Chapter 242
Kim E. Dooley, Theresa Pesl Murphrey, James R. Lindner, Timothy H. Murphy
In 2001, Michele Bunn offered her readers timeless and timely issues in distance education. There were predictions that virtual universities would... Sample PDF
Faculty Competencies and Incentives for Teaching in E-Learning Environments
Chapter 243
Bruce Vanstone, Gavin Finnie
Soft computing represents that area of computing adapted from the physical sciences. Artificial intelligence techniques within this realm attempt to... Sample PDF
Financial Trading Systems Using Artificial Neural Networks
Chapter 244
Ala M. Abu-Samaha, Lana S. Al-Salem
The requirements phase of the system/application development process typically involves the activities of requirements elicitation, analysis... Sample PDF
Focused Requirements Engineering Method for Web Application Development
Chapter 245
Manuel Mora, Ovsei Gelman, Francisco Cervantes, Guisseppi Forgionne
Since its conceptualization in the 1960s (Adam & Fitzgerald, 2000), information systems (IS) has undertaken a hard effort to be recognized as a... Sample PDF
A Formal Definition of Information Systems
Chapter 246
P. Kefalas, M. Holcombe, G. Eleftherakis, M. Gheorghe
Recent advances in both the testing and verification of software based on formal specifications have reached a point where the ideas can be applied... Sample PDF
Formal Development of Reactive Agent-Based Systems
Chapter 247
Aristides Dasso, Ana Funes
Nowadays, software engineering (SE) is considered more frequently an engineering discipline. Several definitions have been proposed by different... Sample PDF
Formalization Process in Software Development
Chapter 248
Liliana María Favre, Claudia Teresa Pereira, Liliana Inés Martinez
The model driven architecture (MDA) is an initiative proposed by the object management group (OMG), which is emerging as a technical framework to... Sample PDF
Foundations for MDA Case Tools
Chapter 249
Pankaj Kamthan
The role of communication is central to any software development. The documentation forms the message carrier within the communication... Sample PDF
A Framework for Communicability of Software Documentation
Chapter 250
Matthew W. Wilson
The World Wide Web, as a collection of Web sites, Web services, and Web-enabled technologies, is a space of expression and contestation—a social... Sample PDF
Framing Political, Personal Expression on the Web
Chapter 251
Mohammad AlMarzouq, Guang Rong, Varun Grover
Free and open source software (F/OSS) is emerging as a promising alternative to proprietary software. The interest in F/OSS solutions is growing as... Sample PDF
Free and Open Source Software
Chapter 252
Peretz Shoval, Judith Kabeli
The chapter provides an overview of FOOM–Functional and Object-oriented Methodology–for analysis and design of information systems. FOOM integrates... Sample PDF
Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology for Analysis and Design
Chapter 253
Gordana Jovanovic Dolecek
Digital signal processing (DSP) is an area of science and engineering that has been rapidly developed over the past years. This rapid development is... Sample PDF
Fundamentals of Multirate Systems
Chapter 254
Tru H. Cao
For modeling real-world problems and constructing intelligent systems, integration of different methodologies and techniques has been the quest and... Sample PDF
Fuzzy and Probabilistic Object-Oriented Databases
Chapter 255
Gender and Computer Anxiety  (pages 1612-1620)
Sue E. Kase, Frank E. Ritter
Because of their ability to enhance productivity, computers have become ubiquitous in the workplace. By the early 1990s the use of computers in the... Sample PDF
Gender and Computer Anxiety
Chapter 256
Marcos Gestal, Julián Dorado
Genetic algorithms (GAs) (Holland, 1975; Goldberg, 1989) try to find the solution for a problem using an initial group of individuals?the... Sample PDF
Genetic Algorithms in Multimodal Search Space
Chapter 257
Martin D. Crossland
Geographic information systems (GISs) as a technology have been studied and reported extensively and, not unexpectedly, in the field of geography.... Sample PDF
Geographic Information Systems as Decision Tools
Chapter 258
Geography and Public Health  (pages 1634-1645)
Robert Lipton, D. M. Gorman, William F. Wieczorek, Aniruddha Banerjee, Paul Gruenewald
From John Snow’s pioneering work on cholera in the 19th century until the present day, placing illness and disease within the context of a... Sample PDF
Geography and Public Health
Chapter 259
Donald R. Morris-Jones, Dedric A. Carter
Organizations and teams are becoming increasingly more distributed as groups work to expand their global presence while rationalizing team members... Sample PDF
Geospatial Information Systems and Enterprise Collaboration
Chapter 260
Geospatial Interoperability  (pages 1652-1658)
Manoj Paul, S.K. Ghosh
Spatial information is an essential component in almost all decision support system due to the capability it provides for analyzing anything that... Sample PDF
Geospatial Interoperability
Chapter 261
X. Mara Chen
The existence, well-being, and sustainable development of the global economy hinges upon the state of the earth’s environment. Effective... Sample PDF
GIS and Remote Sensing in Environmental Risk Assessment
Chapter 262
Global Digital Divide  (pages 1664-1670)
Nir Kshetri, Nikhilesh Dholakia
Despite rapidly falling costs of hardware, software and telecommunications services, a wide gap persists between rich and poor nations in terms of... Sample PDF
Global Digital Divide
Chapter 263
Kim Man Lui, Keith C.C. Chan
Given that the number of qualified programmers cannot be increased drastically and rapidly, software managers in most parts of the world will likely... Sample PDF
Global Software Team and Inexperienced Software Team
Chapter 264
Daniel Brandon Jr.
This article reviews globalization aspects of “business to consumer” (B2C) electronic commerce. According to Computerworld, “Globalization is the... Sample PDF
Globalization of Consumer E-Commerce
Chapter 265
Reima Suomi
The pressures for the health care industry are well known and very similar in all developed countries (i.e., altering population, shortage of... Sample PDF
Governance Structures for IT in the Health Care Industry
Chapter 266
Ada Scupola
Innovation and technological change has been considered an important factor for economic development. Information technology has been among the... Sample PDF
Government Intervention in SMEs E-Commerce Adoption
Chapter 267
Yangjun Chen
Composite objects represented as directed graphs are an important data structure that require efficient support Web and document databases... Sample PDF
Graph Encoding and Transitive Closure Representation
Chapter 268
Wen-Chen Hu, Yanjun Zuo, Chyuan-Huei Thomas Yang, Yapin Zhong
Mobile commerce is defined as the exchange or buying and selling of commodities, services, or information on the Internet through the use of mobile... Sample PDF
Handheld Programming Languages and Environments
Chapter 269
Gladys N. Kaplan, Jorge H. Doorn
The key of the success or failure of a software project depends on solving the right problem (Rumbaugh, 1994; Sawyer, 2005). Thus, software... Sample PDF
Handling Extemporaneous Information in Requirements Engineering
Chapter 270
Susan E. George
Deriving—or discovering—information from data has come to be known as data mining. Within health care, the knowledge from medical mining has been... Sample PDF
Heuristics in Medical Data Mining
Chapter 271
Ian K. Wong, D. Sandy Staples
In the past several decades, we have seen tremendous advancements in the development of communication technology. Since the invention of the... Sample PDF
High-Performance Virtual Teams
Chapter 272
Wenbing Zhao
In the Internet age, real-time Web-based services are becoming more pervasive every day. They span virtually all business and government sectors... Sample PDF
Highly Available Database Management Systems
Chapter 273
Shamik Sural, A. Vadivel, A.K. Majumdar
Digital image databases have seen an enormous growth over the last few years. However, since many image collections are poorly indexed or annotated... Sample PDF
Histogram Generation from the HSV Color Space
Chapter 274
Alfredo Cuzzocrea
Histograms have been extensively studied and applied in the context of Selectivity Estimation (Kooi, 1980; Muralikrishna & DeWitt, 1998;... Sample PDF
Histogram-Based Compression of Databases and Data Cubes
Chapter 275
Udo Richard Averweg
During the late 1970s the term “decision support systems” was first coined by P. G. W. Keen, a British Academic then working in the United States of... Sample PDF
Historical Overview of Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Chapter 276
Attila Benko, Cecília Sik Lányi
George Boole was the first to describe a formal language for logic reasoning in 1847. The next milestone in artificial intelligence history was in... Sample PDF
History of Artificial Intelligence
Chapter 277
Bruce MacLennan
The history of artificial intelligence (AI) is commonly supposed to begin with Turing’s (1950) discussions of machine intelligence, and to have been... Sample PDF
History of Artificial Intelligence Before Computers
Chapter 278
History of Simulation  (pages 1769-1776)
Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Jeihan M.O. Abu-Tayeh, Hussam Al Abdallat
The great philosopher Aristotle said, “If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development.” Therefore, understanding... Sample PDF
History of Simulation
Chapter 279
Patricia L. Rogers
“I’ve learned how to use the [insert new instructional technology here], so now how do I use it in class?” From filmstrips and mimeographs, to... Sample PDF
How Teachers Use Instructional Design in Real Classrooms
Chapter 280
Human-Centric E-Business  (pages 1782-1788)
H.D. Richards, Harris Charalampos Makatsoris, Yoon Seok Chang
This article studies the transformation processes occurring in industry and business at large. It deals with the social and economic challenges, and... Sample PDF
Human-Centric E-Business
Chapter 281
ICT and E-Democracy  (pages 1789-1793)
Robert A. Cropf
The virtual public sphere does not exist and operate the same everywhere. Every virtual public sphere is different because each country’s economic... Sample PDF
ICT and E-Democracy
Chapter 282