A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example

A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example

Scott Bingley (Victoria University, Australia) and Stephen Burgess (Victoria University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-406-4.ch013
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Sport plays a major part in the Australian psyche with millions of people participating every year. However organised sport at the local or social level in Australia relies on volunteers to support the needs of associations and their participating clubs. There is evidence that Internet applications are being adopted within associations and clubs for administration purposes (such as committee members using email to communicate with each other, or use of the Internet to record match results and calculate player performance statistics online). However, how are these being adopted, what are they being used for and what is the effect of the adoption on the associations and their volunteers? Using the Rogers’ (2005) innovation-decision process as a basis, this chapter describes the development of a framework that traces the adoption of an Internet application from initial knowledge of the application, through the decision to adopt and eventual confirmation of the usefulness of the application by continuance or discontinuance of its use. As local sporting clubs and associations are part of a larger group known as community based organisations and are predominantly run by volunteers, literature related to Internet application use by these groups is used to inform the framework. Lastly, an actual example of the adoption of an online statistics program in a local sporting association is mapped onto the framework, to show it may be applied in a practical situation.
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Setting The Scene: Issues And Problems

Sport plays a major part of the Australian psyche. It provides benefits for the community and individuals, such as improved health, social networking, and self esteem improvement. Local sporting clubs play an important role in Australia. For instance, in the 2005/6 season, from a population of around 20 million people, there were almost 550,000 participants playing cricket in Australia (Cricket Australia, 2006). Even a less high-profile sport, such as field hockey, had nearly 140,000 participants (Hockey Australia, 2006). Sport plays a significant role amongst Australian youth, with 10% of boys (aged 5-14 years) participating in the game of cricket, behind outdoor soccer (20%), swimming (13%), and Australian Rules football (13%) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003). Belonging to such a group can bring a sense of community, which is “a feeling the members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and the group and a shared faith that members’ needs will be met through their commitment together” (McMillan & Chavis, 1986, p. 9). Pretty, Andrewes and Collett (1994) suggest that there is a link between sense of community and individual well-being. In many countries around the world, the introduction of sporting programs, activities and events to the community is largely reliant on volunteers to invest their time and energy (Cuskelly, 1995).

Local sporting clubs are part of the larger group known as community based organisations (CBOs). CBOs as a sector rely heavily on volunteers to support their activities. In the case of local sporting clubs, this reliance is usually on their members (both playing and non-playing), who typically perform a number of administrative and other support activities on a volunteer basis to ensure their clubs remain operational.

With their involvement in local sporting clubs over a number of years, the authors have observed the introduction of Internet technologies into many member activities. These activities range from the use of email to improve communications between committee members, to the introduction of online systems to handle match scores and statistics related to player performance – the latter eliminating repeated data entry and saving countless labour hours. The adoption of these different applications of Internet technologies are sometimes driven from the ‘top’ (that is, from the club or even cricket association level) and imposed upon members in the clubs. However, in some instances the adoption may have been driven from the ‘bottom’, via ‘technology savvy’ members keen to apply the technology as part of their duties.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Graham Cuskelly
Nigel Pope, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, John J.H. Forster
Chapter 1
John J.H. Forster
One of the major forces shaping modern sport is the application of digital technology. This is transforming the mass consumption, distribution... Sample PDF
Digital Technologies and the Intensification of Economic and Organisational Mechanisms in Commercial Sport
Chapter 2
Sean Reilly, Peter Barron, Vinny Cahill, Kieran Moran, Mads Haahr
The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of... Sample PDF
A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems
Chapter 3
Veljko Potkonjak, Miomir Vukobratovic, Kalman Babkovic, Branislav Borovac
This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a... Sample PDF
Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports
Chapter 4
Brendan Burkett
Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of... Sample PDF
Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition
Chapter 5
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Through the advancement of electronics technologies, human motion analysis applications span many domains. Existing commercially available magnetic... Sample PDF
Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
Chapter 6
Amin Ahmadi, David D. Rowlands, Daniel A. James
Tennis is a popular game played and viewed by millions of people around the world. There is a large impetus for players to improve their game and... Sample PDF
Technology to Monitor and Enhance the Performance of a Tennis Player
Chapter 7
Daniel A. James, Andrew Busch, Yuji Ohgi
The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has... Sample PDF
Quantitative Assessment of Physical Activity Using Inertial Sensors
Chapter 8
Volker Wulf, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Eckehard F. Moritz, Gunnar Stevens, Martin R. Gibbs
Augmenting existing sports experiences with computing technology is increasingly gaining attention due to its potential for performance enhancement.... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: An Emerging Paradigm
Chapter 9
Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
Recent advances in computing technology have contributed to a new trend that merges digital gaming with physical sports activities and combines the... Sample PDF
Digital Sport: Merging Gaming with Sports to Enhance Physical Activities Such as Jogging
Chapter 10
Lauren Silberman
Just at the moment when gaming has achieved broad cultural acceptance, a new way of using commercial sport video games is emerging, which adds a new... Sample PDF
Double Play: How Video Games Mediate Physical Performance for Elite Athletes
Chapter 11
Donald P. Roy, Benjamin D. Goss
The explosion of fantasy sports and the dearth of research about it create a need for investigation in this relatively new form of sport... Sample PDF
A League of Our Own: Empowerment of Sport Consumers Through Fantasy Sports Participation
Chapter 12
Jean-Pierre Dussault, Michael Greenspan, Jean-François Landry, Will Leckie, Marc Godard, Joseph Lam
We introduce pool and its variants, and describe the challenges of computationally simulating the game to create a robot capable of selecting and... Sample PDF
Computational and Robotic Pool
Chapter 13
Scott Bingley, Stephen Burgess
Sport plays a major part in the Australian psyche with millions of people participating every year. However organised sport at the local or social... Sample PDF
A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example
Chapter 14
Anthony K. Kerr
Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those... Sample PDF
Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom
Chapter 15
Gaoqi He, Zhigeng Pan, Weimin Pan, Jianfeng Liu
Virtual reality and the Olympic Games Museum are used to create a virtual digital Olympic museum (VDOM). This is available solely through the medium... Sample PDF
Virtual Digital Olympic Museum
Chapter 16
Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn
A multi-billion dollar industry, electronic games have been experiencing strong and rapid growth in recent times. The world of games is not only... Sample PDF
The Market Structure and Characteristics of Electronic Games
Chapter 17
Beth A. Cianfrone, James J. Zhang
This chapter introduces the new and unique sport promotional format of sport video game sponsorships and in-game advertising. Information on the... Sample PDF
Sport Video Game Sponsorships and In-Game Advertising
Chapter 18
Mark Lee, Rajendra Mulye, Constantino Stavros
This chapter reports a recent research study involving a sports video game which sought to provide an overview on the use of in-game advertising... Sample PDF
In-Game Advertising: Effectiveness and Consumer Attitudes
Chapter 19
Monica D. Hernandez, Sindy Chapa
The authors’ study examined factors affecting Mexican adolescent’s memory of brand placements contained in advergames. Specifically, two concerns... Sample PDF
The Effect of Arousal on Adolescent's Short-Term Memory of Brand Placements in Sports Advergames
Chapter 20
Ellen L. Bloxsome, Nigel K. Ll. Pope
This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with... Sample PDF
Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code
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