Course management systems will unquestionably become one of the most critical enterprise systems in higher education. This is because these systems are more closely aligned with the core mission of teaching and learning than any others. Although these systems have already undergone extraordinary transformation in just a few short years, we are at only the very beginning of the evolutionary process. It is critical that CMS vendors look to the students, educators, and administrators that interact with these systems to identify what new tools and features they need. Consequently, the next stage of innovation in course management systems should therefore focus more on features specifically related to promoting better and more efficient processes for teaching and learning online. More flexible administration options should make these systems easier to maintain. Emerging standards will continue to simplify communications and data exchange with other systems. Finally, the infusion of sound principles of instructional design and learning theory into the tools themselves promises to transform today’s course management systems into tomorrow’s expert systems for teaching and learning.