A major reason for the failure of rational models (cognitive science, game theory) of organizations is the use of static concepts of interdependence to predict dynamic behavior. In contrast, a quantum model of organizations transforms the traditional model into a model of dynamic interdependence of uncertainty. In this study, we explore Galois lattices as a potential quantum model of networked and virtual organizations (NVOs) based on field and laboratory data.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Dynamic Interdependence: An effect that changes over time as two or more agents interact. Agents perceive change as continuous although it acts discretely; for example, eye saccades and blinks in humans mostly occur too quickly to disrupt the awareness of interaction continuity. Dynamic interdependence affects uncertainty in two bi-sided factors (i.e., in an organization, plans, and execution; or resources and time), causing a loss of information when any one factor is measured; for example, when Agent-1 is asked to self-report on its status, it shifts to a self-observation mode, losing action information.
Organization: An aggregation of agents dedicated to a project that cannot be solved by isolated agents. Roles for organizational agents form its structure based on prior decisions. An organization as the traditional sum of its agent preferences has been largely discredited. Alternatively, an organization is a relatively low energy configuration that makes decisions in a dynamic interdependent environment to defend its territory and expand its influence among other organizations. During decisions, negation among two or more agents serves as nonlinear drivers across the landscape of potential solutions until a consensus is found among its neutral agents (e.g., potential clients). For example, as the entropy of a new decision is reduced to a strong consensus (?K low), the more likely there will be sufficient resources (?R high) to enact the decision (?v high) in the shortest time (?t low).
Agent: An organism (e.g., human), artificial agent (robot), or computational virtual object capable of interacting socially with other agents to solve problems that cannot be addressed in isolation (e.g., manufacturing).
Quantum: In a social context, a series of discrete, nonlinear changes from the dynamic interdependence between action and observation occurring inside of social-psychological barriers expressed in humans as emotions. Quantum mathematics combines static information (observation) and dynamic information (action).
Galois Lattice: A logic structure that connects the vector of negations commonly observed in arguments between human or artificial agents in a traditional group, organization, or networked and virtual organization (NVO).
Networked and Virtual Organizations (NVOs): A new organizational paradigm of dynamic, reconfigurable, networked, and virtual structures that affords an opportunity to extract metadata about their degree of internal integration and technology penetration.
Measurement Paradox: Rational decision making may be a fiction, but measuring organizations produces only classical information, creating a paradox. A metric must be able to resolve this paradox.